US 3119398 A
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Jan 28, 1964 E D. BENNETT ETA 3 119 HAIR STRUCTURE, PROCESS OF MAKING SIME AND METHOD FOR IMPLANTING HAIR IN SCALP Filed sept. 24, 1962 irma/sy United States Patent BAER STRUCTURE, PRUCESS F MAKING SAME SND METi-HD FOR MPLAN'HNG HAlR IN CALI Ernestine Dimm Bennett, 3523 Columbia St., and Adolph F. Graf von Soden, 1827 Titus St., both of San Diego, Calif.; said Graf von Soden assigner of one-fourth to Patricia L. Hartlmd, Coronado, Calif.
Filed Sept. 24, 1962, Ser. No. 225,801 6 Claims. (Cl. 132-5) This invention relates to a hair structure, an artificial hair strand or natural in type or the like, and means for processing said hair strand for inserting and embedding same into the follicle of the skin, and thereby securing a natural appearance of said hair when in use.
More particularly this invention relates to the method of preparing and processing a hair like element, such as a strand of natural hair, horse hair, yak hair, a nylon or T efion strand or filament element, for providing same with a nearly natural root structure resembling a human hair root type, also, for securing said hair root structure with a suitable anchoring means for holding and anchoring same within a follicle sac and for maintaining same infused and bonded in place and also for preventing same from becoming loose, detached or disengaged from its position.
Therefore an object of the invention is to provide said hair like structure with a plurality of layer means which are disposed at the mounting end thereof, for forming a root bulb thereon having a multiplicity of cavities therein adapted for interlocking one and another in the process and for securing an anchoring means therefor when iuserted in a follicle sac.
Another object of the invention is to provide said plurality of layer means disposed at the end of said hair like structure with a suitable binding element, which is prepared, processed and suitably aerated for securing said multiplicity of exteriorly positioned cavities and interstices thereon and thereby assuring the anchoring means therefor.
A further object of the invention is to provide a suitable method of processing the embedding end of said hair like structure with a chemical compound having proprietary elements and formula resembling the chemical structure of the natural hair including the chemical structure of natural residue deposited in the follicle sac, for securing an organic assimilation of the relative substances and thereby anchoring and holding said hair end in place.
Another object of the invention is to provide the inserting end of the hair like structure with a plurality of aerated layers, said aerated mass for said layers being produced by processing the chemical compound applicable therefor and which in combined form causes the exposed globular apertures of one layer to interlock with another layer, and also said aerated mass forming a tear-drop bulb at the extreme end thereof which is employed for guiding, embedding and anchoring said exposed globular apertures of said tear-drop bulb of said hair like structure within the walls and the sac of the follicle.
The invention also has for its objects to provide such means that are positive in operation, convenient in use, easily installed in a position, economical in manufacture, relatively simple, and of general superiority and serviceability.
The invention also comprises novel details of construction and novel combinations and arrangements of parts, which will more fully appear in the course of the following description.
Reference is now had to the accompanying drawings, in which the similar reference characters denote the same parts.
3,119,393 Patented Jan. 28, 1964 ICC In the drawings;
FIG. 1 shows a vertical, sectional View of the follicle in the human skin of the scalp region, showing the connecting membrane associated therewith.
FIG. 2 shows another vertical sectional view of the follicle and showing the artificial hair embedded and anchored within the follicle sac.
FIG. 3 shows a vertical, elevational View of the end of hair like member before being subjected to a chemical action and processing.
FIG. 4 shows the elevational and sectional view of the hair end, showing the first step of application of the anchoring and binding aerated mass thereon.
FIG. 5 shows another elevational and sectional view of the hair end, showing the second step of application of the binding and superimposing the aerated mass thereon for securing a base for the tear-drop bulb at the end thereof.
FIG. 6 shows the elevational and sectional view of the hair end, showing the subsequent application of the anchoring, binding and the bulb producing aerated mass when applied to the end of said hair like member.
FiG. 7 shows a fragmentary sectional view of the hair end with the tear-drop bulb formed thereon, showing same slightly enlarged and taken on lines 7-7 of the FIG. 2.
FIG. 8 shows the elevational view of the hair end, slightly enlarged and disclosing the anchoring globules and interstices at the surface thereof.
FIG. 9 shows a fragmentary and sectional View of the hair end disclosing in enlarged form the layers and interlocks therein.
FIG. l0 shows an elevational View of the hair end, showing the bulb structure at its end in a modified form.
FIG. l1 shows a diagrammatical View of the process used in preparing the chemical compounds for securing the aerated compound mass that is used for binding and anchoring the hair like end in the follicle sac.
Since the purpose of the discovery and invention herein related and the application thereof is of microscopic nature, which is to provide means for replacing the hair follicle of the human scalp with an artificial or processed hair strand, and embedding same into position so that said hair strand so replaced, will remain in the follicle for a considerable length of time, therefore, and in order to fully appreciate the foregoing discovery and invention, the structure of the human skin and its follicles, particularly of the scalp region is herein exploited, so that a full understanding of the sub-microscopic intricacies of the subject matter in question may be had.
In this respect, the skin 2 of the human scalp consists of layers, the surface epidermis and the subjacent dense layer named derma 4, beneath of which is a looser connective layer a subcutaneous stratum 6 connecting the subcutaneous facia which together form the hypodermis.
The structural pattern of its fundamental plan is always the same but undergoes numerous .individual variations, so that it is different in very person, and although the boundary between the epidermis 8 and the connective tissue portion is well pronounced, nevertheless it is difficult to define a sharp histologic boundary between the derma 4 and the subcutaneous stratum 6 because the fibers of one layer comrniny e *and pass lbeneath and directly over into the other layers.
The epidermis stratus 8 consists of layers, one of 'which is the derma 4 also called Malpighi (or stratum germinativurn), also having the granular layer (stratum granulosum), the clear layer (stratum ilucidum) the horny layer (stratum corneum) and the desquamated layer (stratum disjunction) and wherein the homogeneous mass which fills all free spaces particularly of the horny layer cells is keratin (or para-eleidin).
In the dema 4 and the subcutaneous strata 6 is located the papill-ary layer with its papilla and the connective tissues thereof having collagenous foundation wherein the derma 4 contains its elastic fibers, forming an abundant, thick networks and condensing about the longitudinally cylindrical sac which forms the follicle 12, the wall section of which connects with the sweat yglands 14 and the sebaceous glands 16, While .at the papilla region and the lowermost end of said follicle 12 the blood vessels 1-3 and the nerve endings are iocated.
The hair arising ffrom the epidenmis 8 comprises a hair thread or shaft 22 and a hair root 26 which entends to and reolines within the bottom sac of said follicle f12 and interblends with said hair papilla 10;
Said sac of said follicle 12 forming a cylindrical sheath 28 is made of transversely arranged broblasts and thus forming the internal root sheath 30 which terminates at the keratogenous zone or region 32 and wherein the connective tissues of papilla 10` connect with capillaries (not shown).
The interior surface of the papilla 10, the bottom and the mid-section of said follicle 12 and the surface directly reaching the stratum which terminates at the aper-ture 40 of said follicle, is covered with a continuous epithelial mass, the cells of which appear to be separated by thin longitudinal sli-ts Iwith intercellular bridges, and the deeper layer of said cylindrical interior surface form is fused into continuous syncytial mass, of which the nuclei are often in mitosis and forming yan undifferentiated epithelium or matrix, which consists of trichohyalin or keratohyalin .distinguished from each other by several staining reactions, and which may be disintegrated by concentrated sulxphuric acid.
rPhe external root sheath 34 of said follicle connects at `said denrna stratum 4 to an arrector pili muscle 36 and wherein one or several subcutaneous glands .6 connect the sheath of said follicle 12 reaching nearly two thirds of ,the section thereof, while said epidermis .S extends in- .teriorly of said follicle and the discharge opening of the eXcretory duct 38 connecting said sebaceous gland 16 and whereabove -said aperture or opening 49' of 'said follicle 12 is positioned.
The layers of said internal root sheath 39 of said follicle 112 split into their constituent elements and blend at the Vouter edge of said opening 4i) with the surface of said skin 2.
lIt may be noted that the para-eleidin or keratin predominates in the chemical structure of the skin stratum, therefore :suitable chemical compounds and the combinations thereof are used herein in the preparation and processing of the hair strands, natural hair, substitutions `thereof or imitations in form of filaments or the like, so 'that the rnost natural reaction of the chemicals involved and used in said process including the chemical structure of the skin membrane and the follicle may be secured.
Accordingly fa hair strand end 46 of said hair 22 is treated and processed, whereby the implantation of said -hair end may be secured easily and to remain in said follicle 12 lastingly and for as long a period as it may be possible, and also, for preventing the infection of said skin or the stratum thereunder, not only during the time oa; processing said implantation but .also at anytime thereter.
In order to provide means for holding said hair end in place a suitable anchoring means is provided, which is generally indicated by numeral 4S, said hair end 46 is Jfirst subjected to a dipping operation which is for the purpose of securing a clean and a rough sui-'face upon said hair end, said Vdipping is .performed in a suitable tank containing sulphuric acid, having specific gravity of 1.1211, the distilled water content @being 83% and the sulphuric acid lbeing 17 percent Baume.
The dipping of said Ihair end 46 is carried out covering a surface of 2.1/2 to 3 mrn. in length 'and then air dried.
There being sevenal dipping operations for securing more than one or several layers, therefore, the second operation consists of providing a base layer S0- whichis accomplished by inserting said hair end 46 into an aerated compound of keratin and `covering `a surface of 3 to 31/2 nim. in length and then allowing same to dry.
The third dipping process of said previously keratin coated surface of said hair end 46 provides a mid-layer S2 which is secured by dipping said hair end into an. aerated compound of 40-60 percent of hyaluronic acid, a polyrner of mueopol-ysaccharide group, 4for covering a surface of 2 to 21/2 min. in length thereon and then drying at ambient temperature.
The fourth operations covers the dipping of the hair end previously coated into an aerated keratin compound of the same consistency as .provided in the lsecond operation, and covering a surface of 11/2 to 2 mm. in lengt-h for for-ming an over-layer 54 and then holding said dipped hair end downwardly so that when said coating is allowed to dry then the concentrated compound will form a tear shaped gobule 56, 4as shown in FIGS. 7, 8 and 9, said hair end is then fallowed to dry and iirmly set.
Said hair end coated with said base layer 50 when dry is sufficiently rigid in form for preventing saine from sideward deiiection, so that said hair end together with said anchor 4S may be easily inserted into the aperture 40 of said follicle 12 by pressing and urging same endwardly into the bottom sac thereof and allowing same to rest within said papilla stratum 10, as shown in FIG. 2.
Since the compound substance of said follicle `wall including the sac thereof predominates in keratin compound elements in various degrees and the base layer 50 including said overlayer 54 and said golbule 56 contains a combination of kenatin element with a soluble mass, therefore said combination of compounds when brought together in a manner herein provided will form a closely consolidated and homogeneous structure within said follicle 12 for holding said hair end 46 together with said globule 56 in place.
It Imay also be noted that said layers of compounds sccured upon said hair end 46 will cause salme to conge/al and become rigid in an ambient temperature, which will vsoften and become ldiluted and inter-blend with the surrounding follicle sheath 28 at body temperature and the temperature of the skin 2.
Further, that in the process Vof insertion of said hair end 46 into said follicle -12 and momentarily stretching and enlarging the aperture 49 thereof, said muscle 36 will become `agitated Iand stimulated and will cause said follicle sheath 28 to become constricted when said globule V56 is in place, thus compressing said hair shaft 22 directly above said hair end 46- when same is in its lower- 4most position, and which is due to the natural muscle action and the nerve system associated therewith.
'Said keratin and hyaluronic acids are mixed individually with a soluble substance in 1 to 301 percent by volume, which are then subjected to aeration for form- Aing air globules of not more than 1/10 mm., as shown in FIG. 8, and when said aerated mass is deposited in a thin layer upon the surface of said hair end and al-y lowed to dry, -then the exposed surface to the air will form a multiplicity of depressions or cavities 60 and thereby providing exposed surfaces lying one beside the other yfor interfusing and permeating same and to Vbecome congealed.
The subsequent immersion of the -coated layers causes the iluidic and foamed mass to flow and enter said hardcned cavities or depressions 60, covering same fully or partially and filling said exposed surfaces provided therein, which .in combination with more than one coating layer said foamed mass provides and forms a bond therebetween, as shown in FllG. A8.
The last immersion and formation of said tear like globule 56 forming said anchor 48 also provides a multi- `plicity of exposed apertures or cavities 6i) upon its surface, so that when said hair end is inserted `into said follicle 12, said tear Ilike globule 56 provides a guide and an anchor for said hair shaft end 46 of said hair 22.
In the process of operation and preparation of said hair end 45, said end is rst sized and the hair shaft 22 is sterilized in an autoclave disposed within a suitable enclosure 64, and then said hair end 46 is treated in sulphuric acid solution lwithin an enclosure 66, and whereupon said hair in suitable quantity is allowed to dry and also removing the moisture therefrom in an ambient temperature.
The coating compound of the chemicals is rst mixed in a suitable tank 63 and then aerated in enclosure 70, then said hair ends 46 are dipped in said aerated and foamy preparation forming a coating using the tank 72 therefor, and then, the second dipping process is accomplished within a receptacle 74, while the third immersion of said coated hair end is secured in a tank 76, from which said hairs are taken out and allowed to dry in an enclosure 7S which is dust proof and for causing the formation of said tear-like globule 48 thereon.
Said hairs in volume may then be removed and inspected for a moisture retaining condition and then wrapped and sealed in moisture proof containers or receptacles on table 80.
It may also be noted, that said hair end 46 may, if so desired, be provided with a globule shaped anchor 34, which may be secured after the second dipping operation within said foamy chemical substance and for providing a tear-like shape as shown in FIG. 10i, and thereby reducing the time of processing said hairs for packaging and having same in readiness for insertation into said follicles 12 of said skin 2.
The operation of imbedding artificial hair of the type herein disclosed `is accomplished by preparing the skin 2 Of the human scalp so that the best results may be attained.
To that end, said skin of the scalp is rst cleaned of all foreign matter by using a cleansing and non irritating solution such as warm soapy water and when dry applying an olein compound to the surface of said skin and removing the surplus deposits therefrom, and then applying a hot water compress for stimulating the reaction of glands, and -nally applying emollient substance thereon for soothing and for softening said follicles i2 and for enlarging the apertures 40, and then drying said skin with absorptive cotton for removing excess moisture therefrom.
When the insertion and imbedding of the hair end 46 is complete then the surface of said skin 2 surrounding said aperture 46 is covered with an astringent compound and then lightly massaged over said aperture 40 for securing a contraction of said skin 2 including the tissue stratum thereunder.
While this invention is described herein with great particularity, it will be clear that the same may be modified throughout a wide range.
Accordingly, it is not proposed that this invention be llimited to the exact details of construction and process of operation herein shown on the drawings and described in the specification, and therefore, reservations of the rights in practice are made, to the end that necessary changes and modications may be had, which may come within the scope of the appended claims.
We claim as our invention:
1. -In a hair structure of the class described adapted for insertion of the end thereof in the skin of the scalp comprising, a hair shaft of suitable length, a scabrous and serrated surface at one end of said hair shaft covering a distance of at least 3 mm. in length, a plurality of layer means absorptively covering said scabrous and 6 serrated surface of said hair end, and a layer means covering said last mentioned plurality of layer means for securing coadunation of said combined layer means, said last mentioned layer means being in the form of a tearlike globule at the extreme end thereof.
2. In an artificial hair structure of the class described adapted for insertion of the end thereof in the skin follicle of the scalp comprising, a hair shaft of suitable length, a scabrous and serrated surface end of lsaid hair shaft covering at least 3 mm. of the length end thereof, a plurality of aerated and foamy layer means in gradually decreasing lengths absorptively covering said scabrous and serrated end of said hair shaft, and a foamy layer means absorptively covering said last aerated and foamy layers for securing coadunation of said combined layer means, said last mentioned layer means being in the form of a tear-like globule extending from and at the extreme end thereof.
3. In a method of preparing lan artificial or naturally appearing hair for insertion in the skin follicles of the sca-lp, comprising; first in dipping the end of said hair shaft in a sulphuric solution for securing scabrous surface thereon and covering 21/2 mm. length thereof and `drying same; second, in dipping said scabrous end of said hair in an aerated and foamy compound more than once for securing a plurality of layers and for providing multiplicity of cavities and interstices upon the surface thereof for interlocking said cavities and `drying same; third, in dipping said coated `layers in an aerated and foamy compound for interlocking said cavities and permeating said interstices of the last layer therein and for forming a tear-like globule extending from and positioned at the extreme end thereof, said tear-like globule having a multiplicity of cavities and interstices upon the exposed surface thereof; fourth, in drying said hair end for securing a substantially hardened mass and inexible hair end coating.
4. In a method of preparing an artificial or naturally appearing hair for insertion in the skin follicle of the scalp as defined in claim 3, sterilizing said hair shaft for removing foreign matter therefrom and before subjecting `said hair end into said dipping operations recited therein.
5. In a method of preparing an articial or naturally appearing hair for insertion in the skin follicle of the scalp as defined in claim 3, inspecting said hair shaft and the end thereof for moisture content including the surface structure of said layers and said tear-like globule thereon, and nally wrapping and sealing said hair shafts in water proof containers.
6. A method of inserting and implanting artificial, naturally appearing hair in the skin follicles of the scalp consisting of; treating the scalp with olein compound and hot water for opening the apertures of said follicles; inserting into said aperture of said follicle a hair end having aerated and foamy layer thereon including a tearlike globule at the end thereof; pressing and urging said hair end into `said follicle until said tear-like globule reaches the papilla region for engaging the surrounding wall thereof; applying constringent compound upon the aperture of said follicle and around said inserted hair end for securing constriction of said skin and for inducing contractility of the tissue stratum thereunder and thereby retaining and holding said hair end in position.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS