|Publication number||US3121249 A|
|Publication date||Feb 18, 1964|
|Filing date||Apr 12, 1962|
|Priority date||Apr 12, 1962|
|Publication number||US 3121249 A, US 3121249A, US-A-3121249, US3121249 A, US3121249A|
|Inventors||Affleck Stephen B, Earley Robert R, La Follette Elwood L|
|Original Assignee||Procter & Gamble|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (29), Classifications (15)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1964 s. B. AFFLECK ETAL 3,121,249
DETERGENT-FILLED DISPOSABLE PAPER DISHCLOTH Filed April 12, 1962 hen B. Affleck Robert R. Eurley Elwood LcFollefle INVENTORJ AGENT United States Patent 3,121,249 DETERGENT-FELED DESPOSABLE PAPER DIS-HCLQTH Stephen B. Aiheclr and Robert R. Earley, Cincinnati,
Ohio, and Elwood L. La Follette, Lawrencehnrg, 11111., assignors to Tue Procter & Gamble (Iompany, Cincinnati, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Filed Apr. 12, 1962, Ser. No. 186,996 11 Claims. (Cl. 15-506) This invention relates to detergent impregnated fibrous structures for the cleansing of dishes and other articles.
In the cleansing of dishes, kitchenware, and utensils, etc., by hand, it is common practice to immerse the soiled dishes in a container, or sink, filled with warm water containing some cleansing substance. The cleansing substance may be either soap or a non-soap detergent surfactant composition. The non-soap surfactant compositions, however, have been found generally more effective on the greasy food soils associated with dishes. After soap or detergent, dishes and water are added to the container or sink in any order, the dishes are generally scrubbed, scoured or wiped with a cloth of open, stringy Weave, referred to as a dishcloth. Sponges and brushes of various types have also been used to perform the scrubbing function, although a dishcloth is customarily employed. This mechanical action aids the cleansing process by mechanically agitating the food and grease particles clinging to the dishes and by carrying the soap or detergent solution to the dish surfaces.
Further, the dishcloth agitates the water solution of soap or detergent so that loosened grease and soil particles are emulsified or otherwise put into solution or suspension by action of the cleansing substance.
The disadvantage of the procedure outlined above is that it is accomplished by a more or less inexact addition of amounts of cleansing substance to the water and is culminated by the necessity of storing a wet dishcloth or other spongious body between dishwashing operations. In addition to the problem of where to hang the dishcloth for drying, the housewife is confronted with either the inconvenience of meticulously cleansing the dishcloth, itself, after each use, or the liability of incurring a kitchen nuisance problem. This nuisance problem is made up of the mildew, odors and other products of bacterial or fungal action associated with damp porous bodies containing organic material. Various means have been suggested or employed in an attempt to eliminate the nuisance of a dishcloth and to improve the exactitude with which amounts of detergents are added to batches of soiled dishes. These means, ranging from the simple loading of a single paper sheet with soap, cleansing powder, or detergent, as disclosed by US. 2,112,963, issued April 5, 193 8, to Harold H. I ones, to the provision of multi-layer structures like those disclosed by US. 2,665,528, issued January 12, 1954, to George L. Sternfield and Myron W. Block, have all been subject to faults in such factors as the wet strength of the paper, the amount and type of detergent added, the absorbency of the structure, and the wet handling quality of the paper structure.
To alleviate these faults in the prior art it is proposed, in accordance with the present invention, to provide a disposable, uniformly detergent-loaded paper laminate having improved strength, absorptive capacity, detergent loading, handle and other desirable attributes for accomplishing the dishwashing function.
More specifically, it is proposed, in accordance with the present invention, to provide a disposable, uniformly detergent-loaded paper laminate having at least two plies of wet-strength paper bonded together with a continuous open-grid pattern composed of a printable plastisol formula and uniformly impregnated on at least one ply with 3,121,249 Patented Feb. 18, 1954 operative amounts of a non-soap detergent surfactant composition. The term plastisol as used herein refers to plastic formulations which contain, in addition to powdered thermoplastic resins and liquid plasticizers, minor amounts of a compatible release agent. Because of the addition of release agents, the preferred plastisol formulations are readily printable and may be proper members of the organosol class. In this manner, as set forth in greater detail hereinbelow, it is possible to provide a disposable paper dishcloth which possesses substantially the same wethandling characteristics and scouring ability of a nondisposable dishcloth and at the same time releases the required amount of detergent when employed in a dishwashing or similar operation.
It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide a disposable, uniformly detergent-loaded paper dishcloth.
Another object of this invention is to provide a disposable, uniformly detergent-loaded paper dishcloth of laminated paper construction having substantially the sarne wet-handlin g characteristics asa non-disposable dishcloth.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a laminated, wet-strength, paper structure, at least one ply of which is uniformly impregnated with effective amounts of a non-soap detergent surfactant, whose plies are held together by a continuous open-grid pattern composed of a bonding agent which contributes wet-bursting and wettearing strength to the structure without substantially interfering with the lateral or vertical movement of liquids within the individual plies of the laminate.
till further objects of this invention will become apparent by reference to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary plan view of a two-ply embodiment of a disposable, detergent-loaded paper dishcloth with the top ply cut away and peeled back to show the continuous open-grid bonding employed according to the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged cross sectional view of the disposable paper dishcloth of FIGURE 1, taken along the line 2-2, which diagrammatically depicts the ply spacing effected by the bonding grid pattern.
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary plan of a three-ply embodiment of the present disposable, detergent-loaded paper dishcloth with the top and intermediate plies cut away and peeled back to show the continuous open-grid bonding pattern between the plies;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged cross sectional view of the disposable paper dishcloth of FIGURE 3, taken along the line 4-4, which diagrammatically depicts the ply spacing effected between the three plies by the continuous opengrid bonding pattern.
Referring to FIGURES 1 and 2 of the drawing, it will be noted that, in its least complex form, the essential elements of the disposable, detergent-loaded paper dishcloth are a bottom sheet 10 of wet-strength paper bonded to a top sheet 11 of wet-strength paper by a continuous open-grid pattern of bonding lines 12 formed of a fused plastisol formula. It will be understood throughout the instant application that, although the plies of the present dishcloth may be formed of wet-creped, dry-creped and uncreped wet-strength toweling papers and combinations thereof, the creped papers are preferred because of the resiliency, absorbency and surface characteristics which they contribute. In FIGURE 1 the continuous open-grid bonding lines are depicted as straight lines generally parallel and at angles of degrees with the paper edges and forming'squares; in FIGURE 3 the bonding lines are depicted as generally parallel, undulating or wavy lines intersecting to define generally square areas, the sides of which are essentially parallel with the paper edges. In general, within the other limitations set forth herein, al-
though certain patterns set forth hereinbelow are preferred, there is no limitation on the type of continuous open-grid bonding pattern employed. Therefore, it is contemplated that any continuous open-grid pattern, including squares, diamonds, touching circles and combinations thereof, is Within the scope of the present invention. Likewise, although two and three ply combinations are shown and described to illustrate the present invention, laminates having four or more plies within practical limits are effective in practicing the present invention and will occur to those skilled in the art. The drawing also serves to illustrate that the bond between the thermoplastic grid and the paper plies involves only the outer fibers of the plies so that the lateral movement of liquid within the individual plies is substantially unrestricted. In the manufacture of a disposable, detergent-filled paper dishcloth like that shown in FIGURES l and 2, a bottom sheet of wet strength paper It is fed from a parent roll and has continuously applied to its surface, by any convenient means, a continuous open-grid bonding pattern composed of a fusible plastisol formula. A printing system, known as intaglio, wherein pigmented bonding materials are-deposited from grooves in a roller has been found preferable in the present laminate formulation, but any system capable of placing the plastisol in the required pattern is acceptable for use in forming the paper structure. These systems include, for example, offset printing and extrusion of the plastisol thru orifices. Although a continuous application of plastisol to a continuous sheet is described herein, a non-continuous system wherein individual sheets of paper are laminated,
or a system wherein the feed from the above mentioned parent rolls is intermittent, can also be employed. Similarly, although the continuous system is adapted to the formation of laminates wherein the machine direction of the various plies runs in the same direction, the adoption of single sheet or intermittent systems will make possible the formation of laminates in which the machine direction of the alternate paper plies are at right angles to each other.
The base sheet, having the open-grid pattern of bonding plastisol applied thereon, is then brought into contact with another sheet on the still tacky printed side so that a bond is formed between the two sheets with the continuous bonding pattern sandwiched between the plies. With different printing arrangements, the top instead of the bottom sheet can be printed. Also, in laminates having more than two plies, the bonding pattern can be applied in any manner which provides a bonding pattern between adjacent plies. rection bond lines can be formed on one ply while the transverse lines are formed on a second ply before bring ing the pattern side of the plies together.
In a three ply embodiment of the present invention as illustrated in FIGURES "3 and 4, therefore, the required bonding patterns may either be printed on both surfaces of the center sheet or on two of the plies. The three-ply embodiment depicted shows the two bonding patterns in register, which is preferable but not essential.
I a The plastisol pattern sandwiched between the plies is fused by subjecting the laminate to the fusion temperature of thethermoplastic resin employed in the plastisol fora sufficient length of time to fuse the powdered plastic resin together and to bond it to the outermost fibers 'of the adjoining plies. The time and temperature necessary to fuse and bend a given thermoplastic formulation without causing it'to slump can be easily determined by those skilled in the art. It is important to fuse and bond the thermoplastic without the application of exces- 's'ive heat because, if the plastic runs, ply separation will For instance, the machine dibe lessened. Plastic fluidity caused by excesive'heat will also permit penetration of the thermoplastic into or thru the paper at the bonding lines, and is to be avoided so that the absorbency of the plies at these points is substantially undiminished. With the polyvinyl chloride resins, however, maximum grid strengths are obtained at longer curing times; for example, 350 F. for a period of about 5 minutes to about 10 minutes. Higher temperatures can also be employed for shorter periods to avoid charring the paper plies. The heat necessary to accomplish the fusion of the powdered thermoplastic in the plastisol pattern and its bonding to the outermost fibers of the paper can be applied in any convenient manner. For example, the laminate can be passed thru a zone heated by electrical resistance elements, steam coils, infrared lamps or dielectric heating.
The laminate passes from the heated zone to a relatively cooler zone, which may be at room temperature or may consist of a cooled zone in a higher speed process. This cooled zone solidifies the thermoplastic in its fused form.
One or both of the outside plies of the laminate are then impregnated or coated by spraying, dipping, doctoring, orifice or roller techniques, with aqueous or solvent solutions of detergent solids so that the detergent solids are absorbed in one or more plies of the laminate. If desired, the treated laminate can be passed between rolls to further distribute the detergent.
The detergent-treated laminate can be used without drying, but, for the purposes of packaging and distributing the product dishcloths, they are dried to a moisture range of between about 10% and about 50% by conventional drying methods.
Since perfumes are susceptible to loss and odor change under drying conditions they are preferably applied by spraying or otherwise to the detergent-impregnated dishcloths after drying.
The dishcloths are then packaged for distribution in any manner acceptable for packaging conventional towel or tissue products. These methods include, for example, cutting the dishcloth laminate stock into individual dishcloths and packaging them in dispensing boxes. (the dishcloth laminate stock can also be prepared in the form of towel rolls with perforations to allow easy separation of a single dishcloth. The towel-roll type package can 7 dishcloth comprised of a detergent-loaded paper laminate of at least two plies of paper selected from Wetcreped, dry-creped and uncreped toweling papers and combinations thereof can be made to have certain unique advantages in the dishwashing operation. These advantages accrue from the combination of structure, paper bonding-agent formulation and detergent type employed in the present disposable paper dishcloth. Among the benefits derived are the incorporation of a greater fiber weight content via multi-ply lamination to give desirable wet strength and absorbency without the stiffness resulting from the same fiber weight content employed 7 "as a single ply. A further advantage is the use, for
bonding the laminate, of a plastisol formula which is bulky and yet pliable so that a good scouring property is attained in the dishcloth, and the necessary bond to make the plies act in conjunction is achieved. All of these benefits are realized without substantially affecting the absorbency of the product dishcloth and Without essentially affecting the lateral or vertical flow ofliquids in its plies, since the bonding pattern aifects only a small percentage, 6% or less, of the plies and bonds only the b outer fibers. For these reasons water can wick to portions of the dishcloth not in contact with wet surfaces and the full absorptive capacity of the disholoths can be utilized. Another advantage accrues from the use in the combination of a plastisol formula which has the proper pliability to prevent the dishcloth from wadding when wet with Water or detergent solution and yet has sufficient resiliency to result in a cloth-like product. The use of detergent solids in combination with paper affords the advantage of retarding their release. In this manner their cleansing action persists until all the dishes are washed, and repeated use of the dishcloth can be made if a few dishes are washed at a time.
In achieving the results of the present invention it is important that the selected paper have the qualities of softness, extensibility and absorbency as well as the necessary wet-strength to withstand the rigors of dishwashing. Papers having these attributes are referred to herein as toweling papers. Although toweling paper furnishes composed of other paper-making fibers and containing or treated with other wet'strength agents can be used, the preferred paper for the practice of the present invention contains about 25% sulfite hardwood fibers, about 74% sulfate softwood fibers and about 1% of a polyamide epichlorohydrin (modified urea formalde hyde) wet-strength resin.
The terms wet-creped and dry-creped used herein refer to papers in which the creping is accomplished in the wet and the dry states, the preferred Wet creped and dry creped papers having 1-2% crepe and 1215% crepe respectively. Toweling papers having other percentages of crepe can also be used in this invention, although an appreciable crepe percentage is preferred because creping lends extensibility and tends to enhance such factors as the handle and the strength of the product.
Viscous plastisol formulations which have been used in the practice of the present invention are tabulated below:
TABLE I.-PLASTISOL FORMULATIONS The glycol components of the formulations set forth in Table I above act as release agents in the printing of the continuous open-grid bonding pattern and, should other 6 means the used for placing the bonding pattern on the paper, for example, extrusion thru orifices onto the surface of the paper, these release agents are unnecessary.
Of the plastisol formulations set forth in the table above, Formula A is preferred and is the formulation employed in the preferred practice of this invention, although the remainder of the tabulated formulations and others of similar type using polyethylene can be employed. It is important, however, that the plastisol formulation print cleanly, if this method of applying the bonding pattern is employed, and not slump between printing and fusing. These attributes are important to developing the scouring facility, wet strength, and appearance of the paper dishclotlr product.
Other thermoplastic resins which can be used in place of polyvinyl chloride in the plastisol binding patterns of the present invention to give corresponding advantages are: the polystyrenes, the polyamides, the ethyl celluloses, the cellulose nitrates, the cellulose propionates, the butyrates, the acetates and the acrylics.
Anionic organic detergents which can be used in the compositions of this invention alone or in admixture include both the soap and non-soap detergents, although the latter materials are preferred as stated hereinbefore. Examples of soaps which can be used are the sodium, potassium, ammonium and alkylolamrnonium salts of higher fatty acids (C -C Particularly useful are the sodium and potassium salts of the mixtures of fatty acids derived from coconut oil and tallow, i.e., sodium or potassium tallow and coconut soap. Examples of anionic organic non-soap detergents are: alkyl glyceryl ether sulfonates; alkyl sulfates; alkyl monoglyceride sulfates or sulfonates; alkyl polyethenoxy ether sulfates; acyl sarcosinates; acyl esters of isethionates; acyl N-methyl taurides; alkyl benzene sulfonates; alkyl phenol polyethenoxy sulfonates. In these compounds the alkyl and acyl groups, respectively, contain 10 to 20 carbon atoms. They are used in the form of watersoluble salts, the sodium, potassium, ammonium or alkylolamrnonium salts, for example. Specific examples are: sodium lauryl sulfate; potassium N-methyl lauroyl tauride; triethanolamine dodecyl benzene sulfonate.
Examples of nonionic organic detergents which can be used in the compositions of this invention alone or in admixture are: polyethylene oxide condensates of alkyl phenols wherein the alkyl group contains from 6 to 12 carbon atoms (e.g., t-octylphenol) and the ethylene oxide is present in a molar ratio of ethylene oxide to alkyl phenol in the range of 10:1 to 25:1; condensation products of ethylene oxide with the product resulting from the reaction of propylene oxide and ethylene diamine wherein the molecular weight of the condensation products ranges from 5000 to 11,000; condensation products TABLE II.DETERGENT FORMULATIONS Components Ammonium salt of the sulfated condensation product of one mole of middle-cut coconut alcohol, containing about 2% C10, 66% C12, 23% C and 9% C alcohols, with 3 moles of ethylene oxide. percent Sodium salt of the sulfated condensation product of one mole of middle-cut coconut alcohol, containing about 2% C10, 66% C12, 23% C 4 and 9% C alcohols, with 3 moles of ethylene oxide percent.
Alkyl dimethyl amine oxide of middle-cut coconut alcohol containing about 2% C10, 66% C12, 23% C 4 and 9% C alcohols percent Coconut monoethanol amide of coconut fatty acids having an approximate carbon chain length distribution of 8% Ca, 7% C10, 48% C 2, 17% C14. 9% C15, 2% C18, 7% oleic, and 2% linoleic (the first six fatty acids listed being saturated) "percent" Sodium salt of the sulfonated reaction product of a mixture of 4- parts by weight of middle-cut coconut alcohol (containing approximately Cm, 66% C12, 23% C14, and 9% Cm alcohols) and 3 parts by weight tallow alcohol (derived from tallow-fatty acids approximately 2.5% Cu, 28% C16, 23% C18, 2% palmitoleic, 41.5% oleic and 3% lino- 1eicthe first three acids listed are saturated) with epiclilorohyclrin percent do Propylene glycol- Ethanol H2O, perfume, and coloring ..do
of from about to 30 moles of ethylene oxide with one mole of a straight or branched chain aliphatic alcohol containing from 8 to 18 carbon atoms (e.g., lauryl alcohol); C -C alkyl di-(C C alkyl) amine oxides (e.g., dodecyl dimethyl amine oxide); mono and diethanolamine condensates with higher fatty acids.
Several examples of detergent formulations which have been used in the practice of the present invention are set forth in Table H.
Of the detergent formulations set forth in the table above, Formula 1 is the formulation employed in the preferred practice of the present invention, although the remainder of the tabulated formulations and others of similar type can be employed.
The test results reported herein were obtained by the following methods:
The wet tensile strengths were obtained by a method adapted from that set forth in the Oificial Standard method of the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, entitled Tensile Breaking Strength of Paper and Paperboard, and designated as T 404 n150. The standard method was modified in that the distance separating the clamps was reduced to 4 inches instead of 7.1104 inches. Further modifications consisted of using test specimens having a width of one inch and wetting the specimen thoroughly on both sides with water after clamping it in the test apparatus. The results are reported in grams per inch of test specimen width.
Similarly, the Wet mullen burst test data were obtained by an adaptation of the Official Standard method, designated as Bursting Strength of Paper, T 403 m-53, wherein the test specimen was thoroughly saturated with water prior to clamping it in the test apparatus. The results are reported as the average pounds per square inch necessary to rupture the test specimens.
The tear test data were obtained by an adaptation of the standard method, entitled Internal Tearing Resistance of Paper, T 414 m-49. The standard method was modified by using 8 or 16 sheets per test, as required for the total units to fall between 20 and 60, and by saturating the sheets prior to clamping them in the test apparatus. The results are reported as the scale units of a standard Elmendorf tearing tester necessary to tear one sheet.
The capability of a wet dishcloth in absorbing water was arrived at by successively immersing and hand wringing a dishcloth, and measuring the grams of water wrung from the dishcloth. The successive immersing and wringing operations were continued until such time as the weights of water wrung from the discloth after each immersion were substantially the same. This constant weight in grams was considered an effective measure of the water absorptive capability of a given dishcloth under normal conditions of use.
In the preferred embodiment of the present invention the individual plies of the disposable dishcloths have a total fiber content of from about 15 pounds to about 25 pounds per ream or 3000 square feet of paper. Also, the preferred dishcloths have an area of about 120 to about 250 square inches. The plies of these detergent loaded paper laminates are bonded together by a continuous open grid pattern comprised of from about 2 pounds to about 10 pounds of a plastisol per 3000 square feet of dishcloth for a 2 ply product and a like additional amount for each additional ply. The plastisol is fused to form a pliable thermoplastic :resin pattern. Preferably, the open-grid pattern renders not more than about 6% of the surface of .a bonded ply non-absorbent, and said laminate has applied on its surface from about 12 pounds to about 26 pounds per 3000 square feet of a detergent active applied in the form of a liquid or paste containing from about 25% to'about 65% of detergent solids. Although the detergent-loaded laminates can be used as dishcloths without drying, it is preferable for packaging and handling convenience, to dry them to a moisture content of about 15% to about 25%. Perfumes can be added to the dishcloths, if desired, to en-v hance their attractiveness.
grams per inch of width in the weakest direction, a wet mullen burst test of at least 4 pounds per square inch and a wet tear of at least 3.7 tear units per sheet. Fun thermore, dishcloths formed in the preferred manner are capable of absorbing at least grams per 120 square inches of dishcloth of water from a wet surface after being thoroughly wetted and wrung out. Dishcloths formed according to this practice exhibit qualities of absorbency, softness and pliability together with scouring and wet handling characteristics especially suited to dishwashing.
The invention will be further illustrated inugreater detail by the following specific examples. It should be understood, however, that although these examples describe in detail some of the specific embodiments of the invention, they are given primarily for the purposes of illustration and the invention in its broader aspects is not to be construed as limited thereto.
Example I A disposable paper dishcloth is formed by printing 6 pounds per 3000- square feet of surface of plastisol formulation A from Table I in a continuous open grid pattern consisting of /s inch squares, the straight lines of which are at a 45 degree angle with the machine direction of the paper, onto a continuous moving web of 20 pound basis weight (basis weight weight/3000 sq. ft.) wet-cr'eped, wet-strength paper. The paper of this and the succeeding examples is composed of the preferred furnish containing sulfite hardwood fibers, 74%
kraft softwood fibers and 1% polyarnide-epichlorohydrin wet strength resin. The paper has a crepe of 2%,. A second continuously moving web of identical paper is then brought into contact with the still tacky continuous open-grid pattern so as to sandwich the pattern between the two paper plies and bond them together. The soformed laminate is then passed into an oven where the powdered thermoplastic of the plastisol is fused together and to the outer fibers of the paper plies by being subjected to a temperature of 325 F. for a period of seconds. The thermoplastic is not rendered fluid by this application of heat and the plastisol retains the raised form in which it was deposited on the initial sheet. The
cooled laminate is then treated by coating roll applica-. tion with approximately 38 pounds per 3000 sq, ft. of detergent formulation (-1) from Table II. ing procedure results in the deposition of approximately 17 pounds per 3000 sq. ft. of detergent solids in the plies of the laminate. The treated laminate is then passed between squeeze rolls to distribute the detergent solu-" tion uniformly, following which it is passed thru a drying chamber which reduces its moisture content to a value in equilibrium with the ambient air, e.g. approximately Detergent-filled disposable paper dishcloths having dimensions of 12 inches by 14- inches are then cut rom the dried paper laminate and folded by conven-K The dishcloths of this example have'a tional means. wet tensile strength of 1076 grams per inch in the crossmachine direction and 1999 grams per inch in the machine direction, a wet bursting strength of 5.1 pounds per square inch, and a wet tear test of 7.1 units per sheet. The ave-rage water absorptive capability of a dishcloth formed according to this example is 36 grams per dishcloth. Substantially the same results are obtained if The preferred dishcloths of this invention have a wet tensile strength of at least 550' This treat:
. 9 placed in a package with a cutter bar for the same purpose. Dry-creped papers may be substituted for the wetcreped papers of this example with substantially the same results. The dishcloths of this example are effective in cleaning soiled dishes.
Example II A disposable paper dishcloth is prepared by printing 8 pounds per 3000 square feet of surface of plastisol formulation B from Table I in a continuous open-grid pattern consisting of inch squares, the straight lines of which are at 90 degree angles with and parallel to the machine direction of the paper, onto a continuously moving web of pound basis weight dry-creped, wet-strength paper. The paper has a dry crepe of approximately 12%. A second continuously moving web of identical paper is then brought into contact with the still tacky continuous opengrid pattern so as to sandwich the pattern between the two paper plies and bond them together. The so-formed laminate is then passed into an oven where the powdered thermoplastic of the plastisol is fused together and to the outer fibers of the paper plies by being subjected to a temperature of 350 F. for a period of 30 seconds. The laminate is then treated by spraying it with 24 pounds per 3000 square feet of detergent formulation (2) from Table II. This treating procedure results in the deposition of approximately 12 pounds per 3000 square feet of detergent solids on and in the plies of the laminate. The treated laminate is then passed thru a drying chamber which re duces its moisture content to a value in equilibrium with the air in the storage area. Detergent-filled, disposable paper dishcloths having dimensions of '15 inches by 17 inches are then cut from the dried paper laminate and folded by conventional means. The dishcloth of this ex ample exhibits desirable wet-handling and strength characteristics as does the dishcloth of Example I. Polyethylene can be used as the thermoplastic resin in this example with substantially the same results. The detergent filled, disposable paper dishcloths of this example have utility in washing soiled dishes.
Example III A disposable paper dishcloth is formed by printing 5 pounds per 3000 square feet of surface of plastisol formulation C from Table I in a continuous open-grid pattern consisting of /4 inch squares, the lines of which run in the machine and cross-machine directions of the paper, onto a continuous moving web of pound basis weight wet-strength, dry-creped paper. A second continuously moving Web of Wet-strength, wet-creped paper is then brought into contact with the still tacky continuous opengrid pattern so as to sandwich the pattern between the two paper plies in the manner of Example I. The laminate is then passed into an oven where the thermoplastic powder in the plastisol is fused together and to the outer fibers of the paper plies by being subjected to a temperature of 300 F. for a period of seconds. The laminate is then coated by roll application with 70 pounds per 3000 square feet of detergent formulation 5 from Table II. This roll coating procedure results in the deposition of approximately 23 pounds of detergent solids per 3000 square feet in the plies of the paper laminate. The detergent-filled laminate is then dried and cut into disposable paper dishcloths having the dimensions of 14 inches by 15 inches. These dishcloths exhibit desirable wet strength, absorptive capacity, wet handling characteristics and cleansing power for use in the washing of dirty dishes. Uncreped toweling paper can be substituted for either of the paper plies of this example, or both of them, to produce a paper laminate having desirable characteristics for use as a disposable, detergent-loaded paper dishcloth. The dishcloths of this example can be bonded with a plastisol wherein the thermoplastic resin is polyethylene.
10 Example IV A disposable paper dishcloth is formed by printing 2 pounds per 3000 square feet of surface of plastisol formu= lation D from Table I in a continuous open-grid pattern consisting of /1 inch squares, the straight lines of which are at a 45 degree angle with the machine direction of the paper, onto a continuously moving Web of 30 pound basis weight, wet-creped, wet-strength paper. A second continuously moving web of 20 pound basis Weight, wetcreped, wet-strength paper is then brought into contact with the still tacky continuous open-grid pattern so as to sandwich the pattern between the two paper plies and bond them together. The laminate is then passed into an oven where the thermoplastic is fused in the manner of Example I by being subjected to a temperature of 300 F. for a period of 30 seconds. The laminate is then uniformly sprayed with approximately 38 pounds per 3000 square feet of detergent formulation (6) from Table II. This spray coating procedure results in the deposition of approximately 20 pounds per 3000 square feet of detergent solids in the plies of the laminate. The coated laminate is then passed between squeeze rolls to distribute the detergent solution. The detergent-filled laminate is then dried in the manner of Example I. Detergent-filled disposable paper dishcloths having dimensions of 13 inches by 17 inches are then out and folded from the dried paper laminate by conventional means. The detergentfilled disposable paper dishcloths of this example are use ful in washing soiled dishes and in wiping soiled or wet kitchen surfaces. The A1 inch straight-lined pattern of this example can be replaced by a pattern consisting of undulating lines forming squares, diamonds, touching circles, and other continuous open-grid patterns while maintaining desirable dishcloth characteristics.
Example V A disposable paper dishcloth is formed by printing 5 pounds per 3000 square feet of surface of plastisol formulation E from Table I on each side of a 20 pound basis weight, dry-creped, Wet-strength sheet in a continuous open-grid pattern consisting of inch squares. The straight lines of this pattern are at a 45 degree angle with the machine direction of the sheet. Two 15 pound basis weight, wet-creped, wet-strength sheets are then brought into contact with the printed patterns on both sides of the sheet so that the three sheets are bonded together. The plastisol pattern is then fused at a temperature of 350 F. for five minutes. The laminate is then cooled and coated, by roller application, on each outer surface with approximately 27 pounds of detergent formulation (4) from Table II per 3000 square feet of dishcloth. This coating procedure results in a total coating of approximately 54 pounds of the detergent formulation and the deposition of approximately 25 pounds per 3000 square feet of detergent solids in the plies of the laminate. After drying in the manner of Example I, disposable paper dishcloths having dimensions of 14 inches by 15 inches are cut from the laminate and packaged. The dishcloths of this example are particularly useful in washing soiled dishes because of the increased strength developed in the plastisol pattern by the longer curing period. Uncreped toweling paper can be substituted for one or more of the plies of the dishcloth formed in this example while retaining its essential characteristics as a disposable, detergent-loaded paper dishcloth.
Although several specific examples of the inventive concept have been described, the same should not be construed as limited thereby to the specific formulations of substances or constructions mentioned therein but to include various other equivalent formulations of substances and constructions as set forth in the claims below. It is understood that any suitable changes, modifications or variations may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is" claimed is:
1. A disposable paper dishcloth comprised of a de-- tergent-loaded paper laminate of at least two plies.of towelling paper, the plies of said detergent-loaded paperlaminate being bonded together by a continuous open-grid pattern composed of pliable thermoplastic resin, and said laminate containing organic materials selecte'dfrom the group consisting of the anionic detergents, nonionic detergents and'mixtures thereof.
2. A disposable paper dishcloth as described in claim 1 having'two plies of dry-creped toweling paper bonded together by a continuous open-grid pattern composed of plasticized polyvinyl chloride.
3. A disposable paper dishcloth comprising of a detergent-loaded paper laminate ofat least two plies of towelling paper, the outer fibers of the plies of said detergent-loaded paper laminate being bonded'together by a continuous open-grid pattern composed of pliable thermoplastic resin, said continuous open-grid pattern providing ply separation, and said detergent-loaded paper laminate containing organic materials selected from the group consistingof the anionic detergents, nonionic detergents and mixtures thereof.
4. A disposable paper dishcloth comprised of a detergent-loaded paper laminate of at least two paper plies of creped towelling papers, each of said plies having a basis weight of from about pounds to about pounds per 3000 square feet, the plies of said detergent-loaded paper laminate b'eing' bonded together by a continuous open-grid pattern. comprised of from about 2' pounds to about 10 pounds per 3000 square feet between each of said plies of a pliable thermoplastic resin, and said lam inate coated on at least one surface with about 12'pounds to about 26 pounds per 3000 square feet of organic solids selected from the group'consisting of the anionic detergents, nonionic detergents and mixtures thereof.
5. A disposable paper dishcloth as described in claim 4 wherein each of the plies are Wet-creped and have a basis weight of about 20'pounds per 3000 square feet.
6. A disposable paper dishcloth comprised of a detergent-loaded paper laminate consisting of at leasttwo plies of towelling papers, the total weight of said plies totaling from about pounds to about 50 pounds of paper per 3000 squarefeet of dishcloth, the plies of said detergent-loadedpaper laminate beingbonded together by a continuous open-grid pattern comprised of from about 2 pounds to about 10 pounds per 3000 square feet of a pliable thermoplastic resinbetweeneachof said plies, and said laminate containing at least about 12 poundsper 3000'square. feet of organic solidsselected: from the: group consisting of the anionic detergents, nonionic detergents and mixtures thereof, saiddishcloth having a wettensile strengthof at least 550 grams per inch. of width in the weakest direction, a. wet mullen burst test of at .least- .4 poundspersquare inch anda wet tear strength of at. least 3.7 units per sheet- 7. A disposable paper dishcloth as described in'claim 6 wherein. the pliable thermoplastic. resinis plasticized- 8. A disposable paper dishcloth as described in claim 6 wherein the pliable thermoplastic resin is plasticized polyethylene'and the laminate contains about 17 pounds of detergent solids per 3000 square feet.
9. A disposable paper dishcloth comprised of a detergent-loaded paper laminate consisting of two plies of wet-creped paper containing about 25% sulfite hardwood fibers, about 74% sulphate softwood fibers and about 1% of a polyarnide-epichlorohydrin wet strength resin, each of said plies weighing about 20 pounds per 3000 square feet, the plies of said detergent-loaded paper laminate being bonded together by a continuous open-grid pattern comprised of about 6 pounds per 3000 square feet of a plastisol formulacontaining about 52.5% polyvinyl chloride, about 33% dipropylene glycol dibenzoate, about 13% propylene glycol, together with about 1% of a barium-cadmium stabilizer and about 0.5% of a pigment, said continuous open-grid pattern rendering not more than about 6% of the laminate surface nonabsorbent, said detergent-loaded paper laminate having applied'thereon about 17 pounds per 3000 square feet of detergent solids applied in the form of a liquid detergent formula containing from about 40%. to about 60% of organic materials selected from the group consisting of the anionic and the nonionic classes of'detergents.
10. A disposable paper dishcloth as described in claim 9 wherein the organic materials selected from the. group consisting of the anionic detergents, nonionic detergents and mixtures thereof are a mixture of the ammonium salt of the sulfated condensation. product of one mole of middle-cut coconut alcohol containing about 2%C 66%C 23%C and 9%C alkyl groups with three moles of ethylene oxide together with the alkyl dimethyl amine oxide of middle-cut coconut alcoholconabout 2%-C1 66%-C12, 23%C14, and
11. A disposable paper dishcloth as described in claim 8 wherein the organic material is a mixture of the sodium salt of the condensation product ofone mole of-middlecut coconut alcohol, containing about 2%C1n 66%.- C 23%C3 and 9% C alcohols, with 3 moles of ethylene oxide, together with the coconut monoethanol amide of coconut fatty acids having an approximate carbon chain length distribution of 8%-C 7%C 48% C12, 7%-C14, 9%C16s 2%C13, 7%0leic,
and 2%--linoleic (the first six fatty acids listed being saturated).
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,868,862 Washburn July 26, 1932' 2,178,566 Dike etal Nov. 7, 1939 2,495,066 Jones Jan. 17, 1950 2,665,528 Sternfield et al Jan. 12, 1954 2,739,092 Stevenson Mar, 20, 1956 2,868,685 Downs et a1 Jan. 13,1959 2,896,626 Voigtman July 28, 1959 2,902,395 Hirschy et al Sept. 1, 1959' FOREIGN PATENTS r 568,441 Canada Jan. 6,- 1959 759,136 Great Britain Mar. 4, 1952
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|U.S. Classification||15/104.93, 510/237, 156/291, 510/235|
|International Classification||A47L17/08, A47L13/17, A47L17/00, C11D17/04, A47L13/16|
|Cooperative Classification||C11D17/049, A47L13/17, A47L17/08|
|European Classification||A47L13/17, C11D17/04F, A47L17/08|