US 3121572 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 18, 1964 F. TOROK TOOL CONSTRUCTION Filed Nov. 7. 1961 mwsw mm: M
ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,121,572 TOOL CGNSTRUCTION Frank Torolr 5927 Palmetto St., Philadelphia 20, Pa. Filed Nov. 7, 1961, Ser. No. 150,832 3 Claims. (Cl. 27--50) This invention relates to hand tools, and is especially concerned with hand tools in the nature of screwdrivers.
As is well-known to those versed in the art, it is usually necessary for a mechanic, or even the average householder, to acquire a set or substantial number of screwdrivers for satisfactorily performing even minor jobs, as each screwdriver is intended and adapted for use with only a single type of screw.
While it has been attempted to provide a screwdriver set, wherein a single handle is adapted for use with any selected one of several shanks, and while there have in the past been hand tools having replaceable bits, these types of constructions have been relatively expensive, difficult and time-consuming to use, and lacking in durability.
It is, therefore, an important object of the present invention to provide a hand tool of the general type described, which overcomes the above-mentioned prior-art difficulties, is extremely simple and durable in construction, quick and easy to operate, and which is Well-adapted for economical mass production and sale at a reasonable price.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a screwdriver construction having the advantageous characteristics mentioned in the preceding paragraph, which is extremely convenient and effects substantial savings in weight and space, is readily adapted for use with a wide variety of bits for all types of screws, and wherein conventional bits may be most economically manufactured from strip material.
Other objects of the present invention will become apparent upon reading the following specification and referring to the accompanying drawings, which form a material part of this disclosure.
The invention accordingly consists in the features of construction, combinations of elements, and arrangements of parts, which will be exemplified in the construction hereinafter described, and of which the scope will be indicated by the appended claims.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal View, partly broken away, showing a screwdriver constructed in accordance with the teachings of the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is an end view, somewhat enlarged, of the bit end of the screwdriver of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged, fragmentary view of the screwdriver of FIGURES 1 and 2, partly in section;
FIGURE 4 is a view similar to FIGURE 3, showing the screwdriver thereof in a bit-releasing condition;
FIGURE 5 is a partial longitudinal view of the screwdriver of FIGURE 1 in a bit-releasing condition, and at right angles to the View of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 6 is a longitudinal view, partly in section, showing a slightly modified embodiment of screwdriver in accordance with the teachings of the instant invention;
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged, fragmentary view of the screwdriver of FIGURE 6;
FIGURE 8 is a sectional view taken substantially along the line 88 of FIGURE 7;
FIGURE 9 is a fragmentary longitudinal view, partly in section, showing another slight modification of the instant invention;
FIGURE 10 is a longitudinal fragmentary view, partly in section showing still another slightly modified embodiment of the present invention; and
FIGURES 11 and 12 are transverse sectional views showing still additional embodiments of the present invention.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, and specifically to FIGURES 1-5 thereof, there is a hand tool or screwdriver shown in FIGURE 1 and there generally designated 20. The screwdriver may include a generally elongate shank 21, which may be fabricated of substantially circular rod stock, such as of metal having desirable stiffness and slight resiliency. Fixedly secured to and extending longitudinally outward from one end of the shank 21, the upper end as seen in FIGURE 1, is a handgrip member or handle 22.
The other or distal end region of the shank 21, remote from the handle 22 is formed with a cutout or slot 24 extending longitudinally inward from the distal shank end and opening laterally from the shank.
More specifically, the slot 24 extends diametrically across the distal end region of the shank, opening through opposite sides thereof, and bifurcates the distal end region of the shank to define thereof a pair of spaced, longitudinally outwardly extending legs 25. As best seen in FIGURES 1, 3 and 4, the legs 25 are configured to diverge slightly from each other in the longitudinally outward direction, so that the slot 24 between the legs may flare slightly toward the distal ends of the legs; and, the external surface portion 2-5 of each leg 25 extends slightly obliquely outward in the direction toward the distal end of the respective leg.
Slidably circumposed about the shank 21, between the handle 22 and legs 25, is a tubular member or sleeve 25. Thus, the sleeve 28 is movable longitudinally along the shank 21 toward and away from the legs 25. The sleeve or tube 28 may be externally knurled intermediate its ends, as at 29, and have its end regions 34) and 31 tapering outwardly, for convenience in manual gripping. Also, the outer end region 31, lowermost in the drawing, may have its internal surface 32 generally conical or flaring outward for increased area engagement with the leg surfaces 26, as will appear presently.
In addition, an engaging member or bit .34 may be of a flat, generally rectanmilar configuration. The bit or blade 34- is advantageously fabricated of hard-rolled spring steel or other suitable material, and may be relatively small and inexpensive, being fabricated as by stamping or cutting from strip stock. The bit or blade 34 may have one end wedge-shaped, as at 35, if desired for insertion in the groove or nick of a screwhead. The other end of the bit or blade 34 is removably inserted in the slot 24, between the legs 25, and is of a width just equal to or slightly less than the width of slot 24.
As best seen in FIGURE 3, the bit or blade 34 has one end engaged inward into the slot 24, preferably abutting the end Wall of the slot. The sleeve or ferrule 23 is moved downward, in the direction of arrow as, so that the daring sleeve surface 32 engages the flaring leg surfaces 25 and urges the legs radially inward toward each other into firm frictional holding engagement with the bit. In this condition, the tool 24 may be used as a conventional screwdriver.
When it is desired to remove or replace the bit 34, the sleeve or tube 28 may be manually slipped upward away from the legs 25, in the direction of arrow 37 in FIGURE 4. This releases the legs to spread slightly and permits removal of the bit 34, as seen in FIGURE 5. Of course, a similar bit specifically configured for driving engagement with other types of screws may be replaced in the slot 24.
In FIGURES 68 is shown a slightly modified embodiment of screwdriver, generally designated 20a. The screwdriver there illustrated includes a shank 21a having on one end a handle 22a, and a sleeve 28a mounted on the shank for movement longitudinally therealong.
More specifically, the shank 21a may be similar to the shank 21, and in addition is provided at its inner end, adjacent to the handle 22a with external screw threads 23a. Thus, the distal end region of the shank 21a, remote from the handle 22a, and spaced from the screw threads 23a is formed with a cutout or slot 24a extending inward from the distal shank end, diametrically across the shank, and opening from the shank at opposite sides thereof. Thus, the distal shank region is bifurcated to define a pair of. legs 25a spaced apart by the slot 24a, and the legs'may extend slightly obliquely outward away from each other, in the direction longitudinally of the shank.
The handle 22a may be of any suitable material, such as plastic or the like, and is illustrated as being of a generally cylindrical, hollow configuration, fixedly secured in end-to-end relation with the shank 21a. The interior hollow 27a of the shank may be utilized to contain a plurality of additional or replacement bits or blades 33a. The outer end of the handle 22a may be open, and closed by a removable closure 40a to afford access to the interior of the handle.
The tubular member or sleeve 28a may be slidably circumposed about the shank 21a, and formed interiorly at its inner end, the upper end in the drawings, with internal screw threads 41a in threaded engagement with the screw threads 23a. Thus, rotation of the sleeve relative to the shank 21a effects longitudinal relative movement by engagement of the threads 23a and 41a. The opposite or outer end of the sleeve 28a may have its internal surface of a slightly flaring configuration, as at 32a, for increased surface area of engagement with the external surfaces 26a of the legs 25a.
Thus, upon rotation of sleeve 28a to move the latter toward the distal end of shank 2.1a, the sleeve engages the legs 25a to resiliently deflect the legs inward toward each other for firm frictional holding of a bit or blade 34:: in the slot 24a. Conversely, upon rotation to move the sleeve 28a away from the legs 25a, the latter are permitted to flex slightly outward and release the bit 34:: for removal or replacement.
In FIGURE 9 is shown a' slightly modified embodirnent, wherein a shank 21b is formed in its outer region with a slot 26b extending inward from the outer shank end and opening through diametrically opposed regions of the shank, similar to the slots 24 and 24a. Howi ever, in the embodiment of FIGURE 9, only one of the legs 25b, defined of the distal shank region by the slot 24!), extend obliquely outward (the right-hand leg as seen in the drawing).
Also, the embodiment of FIGURE 9 illustrates a sleeve 2812 slidably circumposed about the shank 21b and having a generally cylindrical internal surface 325. Upon sleeve movement toward the'legs 25b, the right-hand leg is resiliently deflected inward toward the left-hand leg to firmly frietionally hold a bit in the slot 24b; and of course, the bit may be released by movement of ti e sleeve 23b away from the legs 25b to permit return of the 4 right-hand leg to its obliquely outwardly extending condition.
In the embodiment of FIGURE 10, a shank is there designated 21c and may have its distal end formed with a slot or cutout 240 to define legs 25c, either one or both of which may extend obliquely outward. In addition, the shank 210 is formed with an enlargement or enlarged portion 43c spaced from the legs 250, which enlargement defines a radially outstanding shoulder 44c facing toward the distal shank region.
A sleeve 28s is slidably circumposed about the shank between the enlargement 43c and legs 25c for movement toward and away from the latter to effect holding and releasing action of the legs. In addition, suitable resilient means, which may be a coil compression spring 450 circumposed about the shank 21c is arranged to resiliently and yieldably urge the sleeve 28c toward its position in locking or holding engagement with the legs 250. That is, the coil compression spring 48c has its opposite ends in respective engagement with the shoulder 44c and the inner end of sleeve 280 to automatically move the sleeve to its position effecting locking action of the legs 25c, and permit releasing movement of the legs by withdrawal of the sleeve inward against action of the spring.
In FIGURE 11 is shown an outer-end View of a shank 21d holding a bit 34d of nonrectangular cross section. Thus, the embodiment of FIGURE 11 illustrates that a slot or cutout 2411' may be formed in the distal end region of the shank 21d extending inward from the distal shank end and opening outward through opposite sides of the shank, the slot being configured to accommodate and firmly frictionally hold bits of other than rectangular cross section. In the illustrated embodiment, the slot 24d includes a generally V groove 47d on the inner surface of each leg 25d, with the V grooves opening into the slot and facing each other for receiving projections or ribs of the bit 34d, which is generally of star-shaped cross section.
Similarly, the embodiment of FIGURE 12 illustrates a shank 21e wherein a slot 242 extends inward from the distal shank end and opens radially outward from diametrically opposed regions of the shank for firmly frictionally holding a bit 342 of polygonal or noncircular cross-sectional configuration. The shank legs 2 52 may each be formed on its inner or facing side with a longiudinally extending groove, as at 4%, for receiving and nonrotatably engaging diametrically opposed regions of the bit 34c.
From the foregoing, it is seen that the present invention provides a hand tool in the nature of a screwdriver which fully accomplishes its intended objects, and is welladapted to meet practical conditions of economical manufacture and long-continued use.
Although the present invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity of understanding, it is understood that resilient material, a handle at one end of said shank,
tl ere being a slot extending inward from the other end of said shank and opening laterally through opposite sides of said shank to bifurcate said other end region of said shank and define legs, said slot tapering inward to its inner end, said legs having their facing sides generally fiat, at least one or said legs extending obliquely outward in the direction toward its distal end, a generally flat screw-engaging bit removably inserted in said slot against the inner end of the latter and extending longitudinally outward beyond said other shank end, a sleeve circumposed about said legs extending across the open sides of said slot and movable longitudinally of shankinto and out of engagement with said legs to resiliently deflect the latter toward each other for firmly and releasably retaining said bit in said slot, and spring means resiliently urging said sleeve toward said other shank end and yieldably resisting sleeve movement away from said other shank end, for automatic retention of 5 said bit in said slot.
2. A screwdriver according to claim 1, wherein both of said legs extend obliquely outward in the direction toward the distal ends, and said sleeve being internally flared toward said other shank end for maximum surface 10 engagement With said legs.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Doty June 24, Bodrner Mar. 10, Wendt Apr. 29, Doniger Mar. 29,