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Publication numberUS3122105 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 25, 1964
Filing dateMay 28, 1962
Priority dateMay 28, 1962
Publication numberUS 3122105 A, US 3122105A, US-A-3122105, US3122105 A, US3122105A
InventorsLester G Scherer
Original AssigneeLester G Scherer
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Monorail system
US 3122105 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 25, 1964 1.. G. SICHERER 3,122,105

MONORAIL SYSTEM Filed May 28, 1962 2 Sheets$heet 1 FIG. I

INVENTOR. 7 ii LESTER G. SCHERER 99 O 6% BY F|G.7 M

ATTORNEY Feb. 25, 1964 L. G. SCHERER 3,122,105

MONORAIL SYSTEM Filed May 28, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG.4

FIG.5

59 INVENTOR.

LESTER G. SCHERER ATTORNEY who United States Patent Oil ice 3,122,105 Patented Feb. 25, 1964 3,122,195 la ZONORAEL dYSTEM Lester G. Seherer, 13111 Ventura Blvd, Studio (Zity, Calif. Filed May 28, 19x52, Ser. No. 262,639 (Ilaims. (Ql. l95l47) This invention relates to a monorail system of the type in which the cars are supported on a monobeam track structure comprising a relatively-rigid monobeam anchored on a plurality of upstanding standards supported in spaced relationship in the ground whereby the cars are adapted to travel along the track beam in elevated relationship to the ground, or, optionally directly adjacent the ground.

More specifically, this invention relates to a monorail system in which the cars are supported for linear travel along opposite sides of a track beam which generally has an l-shaped cross-section positioned with its web vertical and its flanges horizontal and having a plurality of vertically spaced rail means on each side of the track beam upon which wheel means, rotatably mounted on the car, ride for supporting the car on the monobeam.

In the past, many such vehicles have been designed so as to be supported by a chassis unit including the load carrying or supporting wheels adapted to ride over the top surface of the supporting beam and lateral stabilizing guide wheels adapted to ride along the side beam surfaces. Optionally, such Vehicles have been supoprted so as to straddle the beam with the support wheels engaging the top and side edges of the beam or to be suspended from tracks arranged to support a car depending from the beam and movable linearly thereon.

In most such structures, the cars are required to pass each other along one or more monobeams, one car being in full view of another during the passing stage and both being subject to substantial aerodynamic forces to rock or vibrate each other as they pass which frequently results in a disturbing psychological influence on passengers of the cars and often a violent rocking movement as a result of the aerodynamic forces.

Furthermore, many of the monorail systems designed for the same purpose actually include a pair of discrete, parallel rails physically separated and each having individual standards whereby the supports themselves entail considerable cost and clutter the supporting landscape with an unnecessary plurality of standards.

It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a new and improved monorail system including a symmetrical track monobeam of general l-shaped cross-section having a vertically positioned imperforate web and pairs of vertically-spaced horizontal flanges projected from opposite sides of the web for supporting one or more cars and in which cars supported on the single beam travel linearly along opposite sides of the beam and unseen by each other during travel.

Another object or" this invention is to provide a new improved monorail system operable on a single beam which is prestressed so as to require fewer standards and thereby avoid cluttering of the roadway with an unncessary plurality of upstanding standards when the monobeam is supported in elevated position, and so as to reduce the size of a subway bore in the event the system is operated underground.

Another object of this invention is to provide a new and improved monorail system which incorporates improved and discrete track means on each side of the single beam for supporting the cars in improved stabilized relationship during its travel.

A further object of this invention is to provide a new and improved monorail system which includes improved drive means capable of being energized by an electrical, or other system incorporated within selective of the rails and readily accessible for energizing the drive means during the linear travel of the car.

Still another object of this invention is to provide a new and improved asymmetrical monorail system comprising a symmetrical track beam wherein the cars are linearly movable along opposite sides of the track beam in spaced parallel relationship thereto and wherein the center of gravity of each of the cars is arranged so as to be carried directly by load bearing wheel means provided therefor.

Yet another object of this invention is to provide a new and improved monorail system wherein selective wheel means supporting the car are resiliently mounted relative to the track beam.

Still another object of this invention is to provide new and improved means for mounting the wheel means of the car wherein the car is enabled to turnrelatively short curves with the greatest of ease and whereby the cars can be run relative to the beam with the greatest freedom from jar and vibration and with the least possible noise.

Further objects of this invention are to provide improved and simplified construction of the cars supported by the monobeam whereby they may be more easily and readily loaded from one common side, may be narrower in width to eliminate passenger congestion, and may afford increased efficiency due to lighter car design. The construction further provides a better lit interior of the cars and less light loss to streets underlying the system.

It is among the objects of this invention to provide a new and improved transportation system in which the monobeam may also be designed to carry cars on one side only for one way trafilc and in which a greater portion of the load is carried on the bottom flange of a composite beam. Therefore, in accordance with this invention a beam may be provided with horizontal flanges on one side only of the vertical portion of the monobeam, as in a general U-shaped beam.

A general object of this invention is to provide a new and improved monorail system of the character described which overcomes disadvantages of prior means and methods heretofore intended to accomplish generally similar purposes.

These and other objects of this invention will become more apparent from the following drawings, detailed description and appended claims.

In the drawings:

FIGURE 1 is a side view, in elevation, of fragmentary section of the monorail system of this invention;

FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary top plan View, in eleva tion, with portions broken away for greater clarity;

FIGURE 3 is a plan view, in reduced scale, illustrating a curved section of beam as associated with the monorail system of this invention;

FIGURE 4 is a vertical, cross-sectional view as taken I 3 substantially along the line 4--4 of FIGURE 1 and illustrating a support standard therewith;

FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary and enlarged, vertical, cross-sectional view illustrating one of the lowermost of the wheel means of FIGURE 4 in greater detail;

FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary, vertical, cross-sectional view, illustrating another lower wheel means of FIGURE 4 in greater detail;

FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary, plan view, in elevation, showing a modified embodiment of an upper wheel means of this invention with parts thereof shown broken away for greater clarity; and

FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary, vertical, cross-sectional view schematically showing a third embodiment of this invention. Referring in detail to the drawings, and more particularly to FIGURES 16, inclusive, there is shown by way of illustration, but'not of limitation, a preferred embodiment of'the monorail car system designed and constructed in accordance with this invention and generally designated by the numeral 10. In general, the monorail system 10 includes elongated cars 11 mounted for linear movement on opposite sides 12 and 13 of a supporting monobeam generally designated by the numeral 14'.

The beam 14, as illustrated herein, comprises a generally I-shaped cross-sectional configuration and preferably constructed of a relatively-rigid, non-electrical-conductive material, such as structurally reinforced concrete having a vertically positioned web 16 and a pair of vertically-spacedhorizontal flanges projecting from opposite sides of the web, the flanges being designated as upper and lower flanges 17 and 18 projecting laterally from the side 12 and flanges 19 and 20 projecting from the op posite side 13. The vertical web 16 is illustrated herein as comprising a pair of laterally spaced vertical sections 21 and 21' which, for the purpose of this disclosure, can be considered as a single, imperforate web separating the opposed sides P12 and 13 of the beam. The discrete web sections 21 and 21' provide a substantially strong construction which is relatively light in weight.

The car 11, as illustrated herein, comprises frame member 22 including a plurality of longitudinally spaced transverse reinforcing frames and having an outer wall 23 having a plurality of doors 24 and windows 26 extending therethrough. The other side of the car is preferably an imperforate inner wall 27 so that vision of the passengers seated in seats, as indicated at 28 located along the inner wall 27, is restricted to vision through the windows 26 so as to avoid any psychological effect which might be adverse to the passengers when a car on one side passes a car supported on the other side of the monobeam -14. For this purpose, any loading platform P. one being indicated by the broken lines in FIGURE 4 and by solid lines in FIGURE 2, is positioned outwardly of the monobeam 14 and spaced therefrom sufliciently to clear the car 11. Steps or stairways (not shown) may be pro vided for access of the passengers to the loading platform, ifdesired. Further, such access may be provided by escalators or elevators, if desired, and the platform provided with rails 29-=for the safety of passengers on the platform. Optionally, the platform P may be supported by suitable structure forming a part of the standards S,

if desired.

The cars, such as car 11, are adapted to be supported on the monobeam by wheel means extending laterally from the frame of the car and engageable with selective track means of the track beam 1=4 for linear movement of the car body along one of the sides 12 and 13 of the a track beam 14. A first wheel means 30 is provided ad- As best seen in FIGURES 2 and 4, the uppermost track means 36 includes a laterally disposed L-sh'aped track of relatively-rigid material, such as steel, or the like, having a horizontal leg 37 overlying the upper surface of the flanges 17 and 19 and a vertical leg 38 extending upwardly therefrom and adjacent to the outer edges of flanges 1'7 and 19, there being a track means 36 on each horizontal flange portion v1! and 19. The horizontal leg V of track means 3-6 is useable for securement of the track to the flange 117 or 19. The extending leg 38 includes an inwardly facing vertical surface 39 for engagement by the upper wheel means 30. The upper wheel means 30 includes a wheel assembly adjacent the fore and aft ends of the car 1 1, the fore assembly being designated by the numeral 30 and the aft by the numeral 30" and each includ in two or more longitudinally-spaced wheels 40, each rotatable about an axis substantially parallel to the plane of the movement of the car and to the vertical surface39 of the rail 36 so that the periphery of the wheels 49 ride on the surface 39. The Wheels 40- are preferably resiliently mounted relative to the frame of the car 11. Such a resilient mount is best illustrated in FIGURE 2 as a T-shaped member '41 supporting a wheel 40 at each of the outer ends of the cross-member and havingan intermediate arm 42 pivoted as at its outer end 43 to a resilient spring member 44 which, in turn, has a pair of outer ends 46 tied in suitable manner to the frame 22 of the car whereby the T-shaped member 41 may flex transversely relative to the car body to provide resilient mounting means for the wheels so as to adapt the wheels to more effectively follow the track means 36 even at its curves such as the curve illustrated in FIGURE 3. Inasmuch as the monobeam is substantially symmetrical about its vertical center, the car wheel means 30, 32 and 33 are adapted to engage either side of the monobeam.

On each side of the monobeam 14, the lower flanges.

18 and 20 provide horizontal track surfaces 50 and 51 secured to the upper edges of the flanges and vertical track surfaces 52 and 53- secured so as to face the outer edges of the flanges. The horizontal surfaces 50 and 31 are engageable by the wheel means '32 for the main support of the center of gravity of the car 11 Whereas the side surfaces 52 and 53 are each engageable by the wheel means 33 for transmitting inwardly-extending side thrusts of the weight of the car against the flanges \18 and 20.

The wheel means 32 includes a fore and aft Wheel assembly each having at least two wheels '32 mounted for rotation in a plane substantially parallel to the monobeam 1-4 and about an axis substantially normal to the monobeam. The wheel means 33 includes a fore and aft Wheel assembly each assembly including two or more wheels 33 resiliently mounted for pivotal movement in a plane substantially normal to the vertical surfaces 52 and 53 of the flanges 18 and 20, respectively. The wheel means 32, as best seen in FIGURE 6, has its individual wheels 32 rotatable about individual axles 54 extending transversely from the car body 11 which is preferably connected as by a universal joint 56 and through a coupler 57 to a driven shaft 58 of a drive means in the form of an electrical, or other motor generally designated by the numeral 59. Each shaft 54 preferably includes a spline connection 61 whereby its axle 54 has limited movement along the axis of rotation to adjust placement of Wheels 32 on curves and is resiliently mounted .as indicated generally by the numeral 62 so that the universal joint 56 has limited universal movement relative to the driven shaft 58 of the motor 59. The resilient mount 62 may include any suitable resilient means such as a sleeve constructed of a compressible solid, such as Silastics, or the like, and indicated by the numeral 63.

In this manner, by means of the resilient mount 62, the axially movable joint or spline 61 and the joint 56, the wheel means 32 is relatively flexible to provide relatively free movement of wheel means 32 relative to the car frarne to take up movement of the Wheels relative to its track, particularly on curves.

The individual wheels 33' of the wheel means '33, as best seen in FIGURE 5, are mounted about an axis 63 for rotation in a horizontal plane substantially normal to its adjacent tracl; surface 52. The wheels 33 are each rotatable on a shaft 64 having a pivotal connection 66 to the frame of the .body 11 so as to have pivotal movement towards and away from the surface 52. The wheels 33' are biased towards the surface 52 by resilient means such as the spring means 67 illustrated in FIGURE 5, the spring 67 being yieldable to compress in response to pivotal movement of the shaft 64 in a direction towards the body 11.

For added stability, particularly on outside curves of the monobeam, stabilizing wheel means, generally indicated by the numeral 133 in FIGURE 5, are preferably provided resiliently secured to the car frame and engageable with an upwardly extending vertical portion 134 of the track 52, the wheel means 133 riding on the inner surface thereof to take side loads.

Referring in detail to FIGURE 7, a modification of the upper wheel means is more clearly illustrated and designated by the numeral 96. The wheel means 90 is secured to the upper portion of the car, herein generally designated by the numeral 91 and comprises a resilient mounting member 9-2 in the form of a multiple leafed spring 93, or the like, pivotally secured as at 94 by a shackle bolt to a transverse supporting frame 96 of the car body 91. The horizontal wheels of the instant embodiment, indicated by the numerals 97 and 93 are, as illustrated herein, secured for rotation about axes 99 and 196, respectively, to outer ends of the spring means 93 so as to be resiliently mounted in a horizontal attitude. The wheels 99 and 98 are rotatable on the inwardly facing vertical surface 1&1, similar to surface 33 of the first embodiment, and are biased by the spring means 93 into contact with the surface. The Wheel means 99 preferably includes another pair of wheels like the wheels 97 and 98 adjacent to an opposite end of the car. The wheels in this manner, are flexibly and resiliently mounted so as to more read ly yield and conform to any curved portions of the rail surface 161.

FIGURE 8 illustrates a further modification wherein a car body, a portion of which is designated by the numeral 116,13 shown as being provided with a singular lower wheel means 132 to replace the vertical and horizontal lower wheel means 32 and 33 provided in the first embodiment. In accordance with the instant embodiment, the singular wheel means 132, including fore and aft wheel assemblies provides means whereby each individual wheel 132 of the pa rs of fore and aft wheels is rotatable about an axis substantiall normal to the resultant of the forces directed by the car body 119 on the track beam designated in the instant embodiment of the numeral 114. In such event, each individual wheel 132' rotates about the axis 113 of the wheel and the axis of rotation is substantially normal to' the resultant of the forces of the body directed towards the track thereby eliminating any side forces tending to cause the wheel 132 to skid laterally relative to its track 115. Further, in the instant embodiment, the track 115 is preferably arcuate, forming a trough-like surface 116 in which the wheels, like 132', ride linearly along the lower projecting flange of the track beam 114. The lateral force of the car may be supported partially by upper wheel means, similar to the Wheel means and indicated by the force line 117 of the force diagram associated with FIGURE 8 wherein the resultant R is in a plane parallel to the plane of rotation of the wheels. In some embodiments, the lateral force 117 extending from the center of gravity (C.G.) of the diagram represent approximately thirty-five percent of the load Whereas the vertical, downward force 118 represents approximately sixty-five percent of the load, the resultant of the forces being designated by R. The wheels 132' are provided with axles 119 coincident with the axis 113 of rotation of the wheels and preferabl provided with brake drums 12A selectively controllable within the car body 116 and further, preferably include bearings 121 which are laterally yieldable, constructed similarly to the bearing 62 of the first embodiment.

The track is preferably secured to the track means by lag bolts, as indicated by the numeral 122, and may be adapted to carry an electrical circuit for providing electrical power to a drive means similar to the motor 59 of the first embodiment for selectively driving the wheels like 132.

Therefore, in accordance with this invention, a new and improved monorail is provided which comprises a symmetrical tracl; beam 14 of generally I-shaped cross-section positioned with its web 15 vertical and its flanges 17, 18, 19 and 2% horizontal, a first vertical track rail 38 on each of opposite sides of the beam, secured to the uppermost flanges 17 and 19 of the beam and each including an inwardly-facing track surface 39; a second vertical rail means 52 and 53 on opposite sides of the track beam 14 and secured to the outer surface of the lowermost flanges, 18 and 2d, and including outwardly facing track surfaces 52- and 53; and a horizontal rail means on each of the lowermost of the flanges, the horizontal rail having an upwardly facing track surface 59 and 51, respectively, in combination with an elongated car frame adapted to travel linearly along on of the sides of the multiple tracks of the monobeam in spaced, parallel relationship thereto. Means are provided for suspending the cm for linear movement relative to the track beam and the cars are adapted to ride on opposite surfaces of the beam which is imperforate so as to prevent viewing of one car from another car during passing of the cars on opposite sides of the rail beam.

It is to be understood, that, although the tracks are described as being capable of carrying an electrical circuit for energizing the drive means, other means ma be provided, well known in the art, such as discrete buss bars of high electrical conductive material, such as copper or the like, and engaged by a trolley, or the like, secured to the car, or, optionally, the drive means may be in the form of an internal combustion engine, or the like.

While there is herein shown and described what is conceived to be the most practical and preferred embodiments of this invention, it is recognized that departures may be made therefrom within the scope of this invention which is not limited to the details disclosed herein but is to be accorded the full scope of the claims so as to embrace any and all equivalent devices.

What is claimed as new and desired to secure by Letters Patent is: I

1. In a monorail car system comprising:

a track beam having a vertical web and upper and lower flanges; first rail means mounted on said upper flange and exending upward therefrom to provide a surface facing inwardly toward said Web;

second rail means carried by said lower flange and located on the exterior surface thereof; the combina tion with:

an elongated car frame adapted to travel along one side of said track beam;

first wheel means mounted substantially perpendicular to said surface of said first rail means for engagement therewith and being connected with the upper portion of said car frame in order to hold the upper portion of said car frame adjacent said upper flange;

- second Wheel means secured to the lower portion of said car frame; and

axes means extending from said car frame for mounting said second wheel means substantially perpendicular to said second rail means for engagement therewith to hold the lower portion of the car away from said lower flange and support the major portion of in said second rail means comprises:

positioned substantially normal to the resultant of the load forces acting at the center of gravity of the sections of said car frame opposite said wheels so that no substantial sidewise forces are exerted on said wheels, said rail on said upper surface of said lower flange being substantially normal to said wheels at the point of engagement with said rail.

8 a horizontal rail on each of said opposite sides of said beam and secured on said lowermost flange, the combinaL'on with: an elongated car frame adapted to travel along one of a first vertical rail on the end of said lower flange and a said sides of said track beam, said car frame includsecond horizontal rail on the upper surface of said ing:

lower flange, said second wheel means comprising a first wheel means mounted on said car frame for roplurality of first and second wheels located substantation in a substantially horizontal plane and engagetially perpendicular to said first and second rails, able with the vertical surface of said first vertical respectively; 10 rail of an adjacent side of said beam; said engaged said axes means comprising first substantially horizontal surface of said first rail facing inwardly toward said axes for said first wheels and second substantially web; vertical axes for said second wheels, second wheel means mounted on said car frame for ro- 3. In a monorail car system as defined in claim 2 Wheretation in a substantially vertical plane and engagein said second rail means comprises: able with the upper surface of said horizontal rail of a rail mounted on the upper surface of said lower said adjacent side of said track beam; and

flange; third wheel means mounted on said car frame for rosaid second wheel means comprising a plurality of tation in a substantially horizontal plane and engagewheels mounted for rotation, said axes means comable with the vertical surface of said second vertical prising separate axes for said wheels, said axes being rail of said adjacent side of said beam; said engaged surface of said second rail facing outwardly away from said Web. 7

7. A monorail car system as defined in claim 6 comprising drive means having a drive shaft for connection to said second wheel means, said second wheel means includa wheel resiliently mounted and rotatable about a shaft axially connected to said drive shaft, said drive shaft including a universal joint intermediate of said wheel and said drive means whereby said wheel is axially and laterally yieldable relative to said drive means.

8. A monorail car system as defined in claim 6 where said third wheel means includes a plurality of Wheels mounted for rotation in a horizontal plane on separate shafts substantially parallel with the plane of said web, one end of each shaft being pivoted to said frame to permit some movement of said wheels transverse to the direction of travel of said car frame.

9. In a monorail car system comprising:

track supporting means having an upper portion and a 4. In a monorail car system as defined in claim 2 wherein said first wheel means includes a pair of fore and aft assemblies of wheels adapted to ride on said first rail means, each assembly including a plurality of substantially horizontal wheels attached on a common mounting means to said car frame for rotation of said wheels about axes substantially vertical and parallel to said first rail means, each mounting means being pivotally mounted on said car frame for pivotal movement on a substantially vertical axis.

5. An asymmetrical monorail system comprising:

a track beam of general I-shaped cross section having wardly toward said web and a second rail on said lower flange having a second surface facing outwardly away from said web, the combination with; an elongated car frame adapted to travel along one of a vertically positioned web and upper and lower horilower portion;

zontal flanges projecting from opposite sides of said first rail means mounted on said upper portion of said Web; track supporting means and extending upward thererail means on each side of said track beam, said rail from to provide a surface facing inwardly toward a means comprising a first rail on the upper flange and vertical plane passing through said track supporting having a first substantially vertical surface facing inmeans;

second rail means carried by said lower portion of said track supporting means and located on the exterior surface thereof,

the combination with:

the sides of said track beam, said car frame having a an elongated car frame adapted to travel along one plurality of wheel means on a side of said frame adside of said track supporting means; jacent said track beam and arranged so as to support first wheel means mounted substantially perpendicular said frame for linear movement on one of said sides to said surface of the said first rail means for engageof said track beam, said wheel means comprising a ment therewith and being connected with the upper plurality of first wheels rolling on said first surface portion of said car frame in order to hold the upper substantially perpendicular thereto and secured to the portion of said car frame adjacent said upper portion upper portion of said car frame; and of said track supporting means;

second wheels rolling on said second surface substansecond wheel means secured to the lower portion of said tially perpendicular thereto, each of said second car frame, said second wheel means comprising a wheels being mounted on the lower portion of said plurality of wheels mounted for rotation; and

car frame for rotation about an axis substantially normal to the resultant of load forces at the center of gravity of the section of said car frame opposite each of said second wheels.

6. An asymmetrical monorail system comprising:

a symmetrical track beam of general I-shaped cross section having a vertically-positioned web and upper and lower horizontal flanges projecting from opposite sides of said web;

a first vertical rail on each of opposite sides of said track beam and secured to the uppermost of said horizontal flanges;

:a second vertical rail on each of opposite sides of said track beam and secured to the outer surface of the lowermost 9 aid horizontal flanges; and

axis means extending from said car frame for mounting said second wheel means substantially perpendicular to said second rail means for engagement therewith to hold the lower portion of said car frame away from said lower portion of said track supporting means and support the major portion of the weight of the car frame, said axis means comprising separate axes for said wheels, said axes being positioned substantially normal to the resultant of the load forces acting at the center of gravity of the sections of said car frame opposite said wheels so that no sub! stantial sidewise forces are exerted on said wheels, said second rail means being substantially normal to said wheels at the point of engagement therewith.

(References on following page) References Cite-:1 in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Rutter Ian. 3, 1893 Mengis Mar. 23, 1897 Biggert June 28, 1921 Cornwall Oct. 9, 1923 1321111181 Dec. 16, 1924 Drake Nov. 2, 1926 Rose Feb. 25, 1930 Neuland Dec. 9, 1930 Connors Apr. 14, 1931 10 Lord June 16, 1931 Rayburn July 19, 1932 Marquard Apr. 12, 1960 Moore Nov. 1, 1960 Oberpaul Augv 7, 1962 Holmquist Oct. 30, 1962 Nelson Apr. 2, 1963 FOREIGN PATENTS Great Briia'm June 10, 1893 Germany Nov. 30, 1899

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3194179 *Aug 9, 1963Jul 13, 1965Scherer Lester GMonorail system
US3890904 *Oct 1, 1973Jun 24, 1975Lawrence K EdwardsRailway system
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WO1999044874A1 *Mar 2, 1999Sep 10, 1999Owen William ERail transit system
WO2008132355A2 *Mar 26, 2008Nov 6, 2008Floret GuyRolling equipment for cantilevered monorail vehicles
Classifications
U.S. Classification105/147, 104/119, 104/287, 104/124, 104/121
International ClassificationB61B13/04, E01B25/10
Cooperative ClassificationB61B13/04, E01B25/10
European ClassificationB61B13/04, E01B25/10