US 3124124 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 10, 1964 A. s. cRoss 3,124,124
' REsuscITATIoN APPARATUS Fned oct. 1e, 1957 -s sheets-sheet 1 INVENTOR ALLEN S. CROSS A 'l Il IIIIIIII 'VIII ATTORNEYS March 1o, 1964 A. s. CROSS 3,124,124
RESUSCITATION APPARATUS Filed Oct. 16, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 PATIENT OPERAT@` rl", I'Illlll'llll 3 INV ENTOR ALLEN S. CROSS ATTORNEYS March 10, 1964 A. s. CROSS RESUSCITATION APPARATUS 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Oct. 16, 1957 FGJI.
ATTORNEYS United States Patent Otiice p 3,l24,l24 Patented Mar'. 10, 1964 3,124,124 RESUSCE'EATIGN APPARATUS Allen Ei. Cross, 1241 Fennsyivania Ave. SE., Washington, D5., assigner of one-tenth to Edward C. Sweeney, Washington, Dit;
Filed Get. 16, 1957, Ser. No. 690,503 1 Qiaim. (Cl. 12S- 29) This invention relates to apparatus for effecting articial respiration and has particular reference to a mouthto-mouth resuscitator device.
In situations where a person is not breathing due to drowning, electrical shock or various other reasons, one quite successful method of reactivating the normal breathing functions has been for another person to directly exhale air from his own lungs at intervals into the lungs of the victim or patient by the operator placing his mouth 1n contact with the mouth of the patient. While other forms of artificial respiration or resuscitation have been heretofore more widely practiced and recommended, there is currently great emphasis upon the mouth-to-mouth resuscitation procedure. However, a serious drawback to the mouth-to-mouth procedure is the strong natural abhorrence for the operator to place his mouth against the mouth of the patient, particularly if the latter is not a close relative, and there is the thought or actuality of receiving a disease from the patient.
In accordance with the present invention a device or apparatus is provided by use of which the operator can force air from his own lungs into the lungs of the patient according to the desired rhythm, but during the periods of exhale by the patient fluids issuing from the latter are blocked from passage into the operator and instead are vented elsewhere.
Accordingly, it is the primary object of this invention to provide apparatus which will overcome the abhorrence of direct mouth-to-mouth contact, in the form of a device which permits direct mouth-to-mouth communication from an operator to a patient while preventing fluid discharge expelled by a patient from reaching the mouth of the operator.
Another object of the present invention resides in the provision of means disposed in a conduit to obstruct fluid communication between the patient and operator during the exhalation phase of resuscitation and which allows venting of the patients fluid discharge through a portion of the conduit to ambient atmosphere.
An important object of the present invention is to provide valve means for allowing the operator to inhale fresh air through a portion of the conduit without establishing communication with the patients fluid discharge.
A still further object of the present invention is to provide a resuscitator device of this character which is extremely simple in construction, thoroughly reliable and effective in its purpose, readily and easily operable, thoroughly sanitary, possessing but few parts, relatively inexpensive to manufacture, completely portable, and otherwise well adapted for the purposes for which the same is intended.
Still further objects and the entire scope of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description given hereinafter. It should be understood, however, that the detailed description and speciiic examples, while indicating the preferred embodiments of the invention, are given by way of illustration only since various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention will become apparent as the description herein progresses.
illustrative embodiments of the invention can be best understood with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIGURE l is a perspective view of a resuscitator device embodying the novel features of the present invention;
FGURE 2 is an elevational end View of the face mask shown in FlGURE 1;
FGURE 3 is a longitudinal sectional view partially in elevation showing the novel features for controlling the movement of fluid through a conduit;
FIGURE 4 is a longitudinal sectional view partially in elevation of the resuscitator device interposed between the mouth of a patient and a human operator constructed in accordance with this invention;
FlGURE 5 is a cross-sectional view of the resuscitator device taken along line 5 5 of FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 6 is a longitudinal sectional view partially in elevation illustrating a modified valve means;
FIGURE 7 is a cross-sectional View taken along the line 7-'7 of FIGURE 6;
FIGURE 8 is a view of the valve means of FIGURE 6 positioned to permit uid communication between the operator and the patient;
FIGURE 9 is a longitudinal sectional view partially in elevation illustrating a modified valve means in relaxed condition to permit venting of a conduit;
FIGURE 10 is a view of the valve of FIGURE 9 shown in extended position to permit mouth-to-mouth resuscitation;
FIGURE l1 is a perspective View partially in elevation of a further modified valve means for a resuscitator device, and
FIGURE 12 is a view of the valve means for FGURB 1l positioned to permit duid communication between the operator and the patient.
A iirst embodiment of the invention is shown in FIG- URES 1-5 wherein reference character 14 represents a conduit interposed between and secured to an oral-nasal face mask 16, of any suitable design, and a mouth piece 18. The face mask 16 has the customary pneumatic marginal cushion 2t) which is connected, if desired, with a valved inflation stern 22. A curved air guide 24 having a pair of longitudinally extending air channels 25 formed along the sides thereof may be connected to the mask 16 and inserted into the mouth of a patient, as shown in FIGURE 4, to permit direct communication between the mask and the patients throat.
However, the air guide 24 is optional, and may be attached as shown, may be used as a separate member to be inserted before the placing of the mask, or may be dispensed with if thought unnecessary.
The inner wall 26 of the mask 15 is provided with an opening or port 28 affording communication between the conduit 14 `and both the patients mouth and nose.
Mounted in the conduit 14 is a valve means designated generally as 30 which functions to both prevent fluid discharge of the patient from communication fwith the mouth of the operator and to simultaneously vent the patients exhalations to ambient atmosphere.
The conduit 14 may be of [general cylindrical coniiguration having a substantially uniform bore 15 throughout the major length thereof and has an inlet 32 at one end tted to receive the mouth piece 18 and an outlet 34 at the other end adapted to communicate with the mask opening 2S. The mouth piece 18 and the mask 16 are secured to the conduit 1'4 by any suitable couplings 17. The valve means Sil separates the conduit 14 into a fluid receiving chamber 36 communicating with the inlet 32 and a fluid discharge chamber 3S communicating with the outlet 34. Circumferentially arranged discharge ports y4t) are yformed in the conduit 14 and these normally communicate with the discharge chamber 38. The valve means Sil includes a reciprocating piston body 42 sealably tted and slidably disposed within the conduit 14.
A stationary movement limiting means, in the form of a shoulder 44, is xedly positioned in the discharge chamber 38. This may be integrally formed with the conduit wall 14, as shown in FIGURES 3 and 4, or may be in .the 'form of a collar 46 pinned or frictionally engaging the inner surface of the conduit bore l5 or otherwise retained. A stationary sleeve member 43 is fixedly mounted within the fluid receiving chamber 36 for limiting the movement of the reciprocating piston body 42 during the exhalation phase of the resuscitating cycle. The piston body 42 is normally resiliently biased against the sleeve 48 (fFIG. 4) by means of a spring member Sti which is connected at one end to a pin 52 anchored to the sleeve 48. The piston 42 is provided with a centrally disposed sealable orifice 514 in piston head 56 for permitting communication between the fluid receiving chamber 36' and the discharge chamber 3S. A valve member 69 is positioned axially within the hollowed piston body 42 and includes a longitudinally extending stem or shaft 62 which passes loosely through the scalable oriiice 54 and is connected to the opposite end of the spring member Si). The valve member 60 is adapted to normally seat against a conical sealing surface 5S formed on the piston head 56 for preventing the passage of liuid from the discharge chamber 38 to the fluid receiving chamber 36.
|In operation, the valve means 3i) will normally obstruct communication between the liuid receiving chamber 36 into which the operator blows air and the discharge chamber 38. lIn response to a rising fluid pressure in the receiving chamber 36, the valve body 42 will move axially downstream to block the dischar-ge ports 46 (position of FIG. 3) and eventually abut against the movement limiting means 44 whereupon increasing liuid pressure will open the valve member 66 to establish communication between the chambers 36 and 38. When the iiuid pressure in the iiuid receiving chamber 36 recedes, the valve member 60 will be lurged against the conical sealing surtace S8 by the spring member 5t) and the piston body 42 will move toward the sleeve 48 opening the discharge ports '40 to vent there through the discharge iiuid expelled from the patient.
A modiiied valve means is shown in FIGURES 6-8, wherein a plurality of circumferentially arranged intake ports 64 are rformed in the conduit here ldesignated 14 which normally communicate with the fluid receiving chamber 36. A modilied valve body 42' is extended longitudinally into the fluid receiving chamber 36 to form a sealing piston sleeve 66. Intake orifice slots 68 are formed in the wall of the piston sleeve 66 which normally communicate with the intake ports 64 when the piston sleeve 66 abuts against the stationary sleeve 4S. When the intake .ports 64 are aligned with the orifices '63, the operator may inhale fresh air without having to remove his mouth from the mouthpiece i8. In addition, this construction lfunctions to reduce condensation in the uid receiving chamber 36 which might interfere with the operation of the valve means 30. When the fluid pressure increases in the fiuid receiving chamber 36, the surface area of the piston head 56 is of a sufhcient size to move the valve body 42', notwithstanding leakage through orifices 68, to a position whereby the piston sleeve 66 will seal the intake ports 64 to prevent additional leakage therethrough; the valve otherwise :functions as does the embodiment of FIGURES 1-5.
A still further embodiment of the valve means is shown in FIGURES 9 and 10, wherein a rubber or resilient tubular flutter valve 72 is formed yfrom flexible or pliable material. The end 73 of the valve 72 is normally contracted to a sealing position to prevent the movement of the patients discharge to the mouthpiece 1.8. When the operator blows into the inlet 32, the valve end 73 opens, and in so doing, seals the discharge ports here designated 44V in conduit 14". When the liuid pressure in the lluid receiving chamber 36 recedes, the valve 72 will collapse to a sealing position as shown in FIGURE 9 to allow the l exhaust from the patient to vent through ports 40 to ambient atmosphere.
A still further embodiment of the invention is illustrated in FIGURES -11 and 12 wherein the conduit here designated 14 is separated by a modified valve means into a tluid receiving chamber 36 and a fluid discharge chamber 3S, as discussed hereinbefore. The -valve means includes a reciprocating valve head 34 which is slidably received by a fixed sealing sleeve 86 located in the receiving chamber 36. -A movement limiting collar 46 is stationarily positioned in the discharge chamber 33. A compression spring member 88 is mounted between the movement limiting collar `46 and a piston 90 which carries the valve head 84- to normally urge the piston and valve head in a direction to insert the valve head into the sleeve 36 (FIG. ll). The valve head 84 is connected to the sliding piston member 90 by means of a stem 92. A plurality of orifices 94 are -formed in the head portion 96 of the sliding piston member 9G. One end of the spring member 88 is connected to the collar cross-rib 98 while the other end abuts against the inner surface 10) of the piston member 90. When the operator blows into the fluid receiving chamber 36, the valve head S4 will slide out of the sleeve 36 and as a consequence the piston member 90 will seal the discharge ports 49". The operated piston is shown in FIGURE l2.
As the operator blows into chamber 36, the air will push the valve head 34 out of sleeve 86 and air will then pass around the valve head and through the orifices 94 to establish communication between the chambers 36 and 3S. As the pressure in the fluid receiving chamber diminishes, the spring member 88 will urge the piston member 90 toward the iluid receiving chamber which in turn will move the valve head S4 into sealing engagement with the sleeve 66. The piston body 90 will continue to move to a position until it abuts against the sleeve (as shown in FIG. ll) whereupon the discharge ports 49" will be completely opened to permit venting of the discharge fluids expelled from the patient.
An advantage of a resuscitator constructed in accordance with the present invention resides in the fact that all the components, except the spring means, may be individually molded from plastic material in finished form and readily assembled by first inserting the valve means through one end of the conduit and sliding it into position. Subsequently, the mask 16 and the mouthpiece 18 may be secured to complete the assembly.
The mouthpiece 1S includes a mouth tiange 80 which fits between the teeth and lips of the operator to insure against leakage when blowing into the inlet 32 and may be formed from resilient material to conform with the contour of the users mouth. In addition, a plurality of perforations 82 may be formed along the body of the ange member 89 to allow the operator to inhale through the mouthpiece 18 by merely separating his lips to uncover the perforations. However, it will be understood that any mouthpiece can be used, or the operator can simply take the end of the conduit in his mouth.
It is to be understood that, although several preferred embodiments of the present invention have been shown in the drawings and described with considerable particularity in the foregoing specification, the invention is not limited to the specific details of construction, shown and described, but includes all modifications coming within the scope of the appended claim and their equivalents.
What is claimed is:
A resuscitation device including means defining a conduit, one end thereof adapted to communicate with the mouth of a human operator for permitting the latter to intermittently blow his breath thereinto, the opposite end of said conduit means being adapted to communicate with a respiratory opening of a patient requiring resuscitation, and valve means within said conduit means including resilient means constructed to permit the valve means to operate solely in response to rising iuid pressure caused by the operator blowing his breath into said one end of said conduit means, the Valve when operated opening a passage for said breath to said patient end of the conduit means for supplying said breath to said patient, said valve means being responsive to declining uid pressure of said operator to block said passage between operator and patient and to open a second passage for exhaust of fluid from said patient to atmosphere, the valve means comprising a slidable piston body operable from a rst position to a second position in response to said rising uid pressure in said operators end, resilient means normally biasing the piston body to its rst position, and a vent opening in the conduit means located so as to be blocked by a portion of the piston body when the latter is in its second position, the device further including at least one vent opening in the conduit means,
and wherein said piston body in the rst position thereof clears said vent opening but in its second position blocks said vent opening.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 228,532 Hoyt June 8, 1880 1,848,234 Swope et al Mar. 8, 1932 2,328,382 Langdon Aug. 31, 1943 2,428,451 Emerson Oct. 7, 1947 2,902,992 Renvall Sept. 8, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS 533,297 Great Britain Feb. 11, 1941 496,982 Belgium July 31, 1950