US 3125831 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 24 1964 R. w. MARSCH` ETAL 3,125,831
' TILE ASSEMBLY Filed Feb. 24, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTORS Robert WMCLTSCIL March 24, 1964 R. w. MARscH ETAL.
TILE ASSEMBLY 2. m 1m @fm nm m S ww/ W w Mm am. M C 'ilmmli @w lmmm 1| I1 6M m- Ii@ |I.l| Ihm MD 2 ww o mw @m .4l M m d w Filed Feb. 24. 1960 United States Patent O 3,125,831 TILE ASSEMBLY Robert W. Marsch, Collingdale, and Fred H. Beckman,
Coatesville, Pa., assignors to Quartz Mosaic, Inc., Yorklyn, Del., a corporation of Delaware Filed Feb. 24, 1960, Ser. No. 10,638 7 Claims. (Cl. 50 26S) This invention relates to a novel tile assembly incorporating a thermosetting plastic binder and an inert filler and its method and apparatus for manufacturing, and it more particularly relates to such an assembly which incorporates a siliceous ller and a polyester binder.
Such tile assemblies incorporate tile material bonded to a sheet of fabric by the plastic binder which forms a part of the tile material. These assemblies are highly decorative and relatively easy to manufacture by virtue of automatic adherence of the tiles to an applied hacker sheet when the binder hardens or sets. However, the hardened binder is so slippery that standard adhering agents do not stick to it, and any irregular areas of the binder which penetrate through the backer cause corresponding irregularities on the face of the tiled area when the tiles are applied in place on a Wall. When this binder is allowed or caused to penetrate completely through to the reverse surface of the hacker sheet, conventional adhering agents such as mastics, therefore, cannot dependably secure these sheets to a structural wall such as one made of plasterboard or plaster. Furthermore, it has been found extremely difficult to dependably cast attractive and regularly formed tiles which are not defaced by pock marks even when careful methods are used.
An object of this invention is accordingly to provide a dependable method of manufacturing uniform and perfect tile assemblies incorporating a plastic binder which bond it to a hacker sheet; and
Another object is to provide a unique tile assembly made by such a method which can be dependably secured to wall surfaces by conventional adhering agents.
In accordance with this invention, the tile material incorporating a plastic binder is discharged under pressure into a multi-cavity mold. A sheet of relatively nonseparable strong paper, which is dense enough to maintain its reverse surface clear of the binder, is laid over the filled mold. The binder penetrates the surface of this paper to an unexpected degree which permanently bonds the tiles thereto when the binder sets or cures even though it does not pass through to the reverse surface of the paper. The assembly is then removed from the mold after curing, and the resultant assembly is easily secured to a structural wall by the use of conventional adhering agents because they adhere effectively to paper. Furthermore, the nonseparable property of this paper backer maintains the tiles permanently secured in a dependable manner to the wall in spite of the usual opinion that paper is not strong enough for such use. This nonseparability is conveniently achieved by utilizing a relatively strong single ply type of paper. Furthermore, dependable bonding of the tiles to the paper is insured by precisely governing the amount of iill added to each cavity of the mold which permits suflicient bonding agent to be available for contacting the backer sheets without overilowing to such an extent that bulging or rippling of the backer sheet is caused.
Novel features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent to one skilled in the art from a reading of the following description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein similar reference characters refer to similar parts and in which:
FIG. 1 is a view in elevation of a tile assembly which is one embodiment of this invention;
3,125,83l Patented Mar. 24, 1964 ICC FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the mode of installation of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional View taken through FIG. l along the line 3 3;
FIG. 4 is a View in elevation of an apparatus for making the embodiment shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is a plan view of the apparatus shown in FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken through FIG. 4 along the line 6 6; and
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional View taken through FIG. 4 along the line 7 7.
In FIGS. l and 3 is shown a tile assembly 10 incorporating a number of individual tiles 12 bonded to a backer sheet 14. This permits, as shown in FIG. 2, assemblies 19 to be conveniently attached to a Wall surface 16 by application of the hacker sheet 14 to the surface of Wall i6 coated by an adhering agent i8 which is, for example, a conventional mastic adherent.
Tiles 12 incorporate a plastic binder such as one of the thermosetting polyesters described in chapter VII of the book Polyesters and Their Application, copyrighted by Bjorksten Research Laboratories in 1956. They also, for example, incorporate a substantial quantity of an inert filler such as pulverized sand thereby providing a final structure which is hard and durable. Typical formulations for making this tile composition are set forth in the following:
Example A Range in Preferred Constituent percent by Example Weight in percent by Weight Sand mesh). 40-55 52 Polyester Resin 40-58 45 Styrene Monome 3-5 3 Titanium Dioxide.. 4-6 5 approx. Pigment Dispersion 1,-6 3% approx. Cobalt Naphthenate .2-1 1.25 M.E.K. Peroxide .5-3 1.5
1Based on resin-styrene Weight.
Example B Range in Preferred Constituent percent by Example weight in percent by weight 120 Mesh sand 50-65 59 Polyester Resin 35-50 39 Styrene Monomer 2-5 2 Antimony Oxide (KR Grade) 1-3 110 Chlorinated Parafln 1-3 110 Titanium Dioxide (Dispersio 3-7 5 Pigment (Dispersion) l-7 4 Cobalt N aphthenate .2-1 .25 M.E.K. Peroxide 5-3 5 1Based on resin-styrene weight.
The sand is, for example, a commercial grade of pulverized sand consisting in the most part (approximately 99.5% by weight) of pure silica with traces of impurities maintained slight enough to avoid interference with set-v ting and hardening of the final product.
The polyester is, for example, any one of the commercially available polyesters described in chapter VII of the book Polyesters and Their Applications copyrighted by Bjorksten Research Laboratories in 1956, or in section IX of the publication Technical Data on Plastics, pp. 67-79, published February 1957 by the Manufacturing Chemists Association, Inc.
The pigment dispersion is, for example, one of the coloring agents described on pages 94-96 of the aforementioned book and also described in U.S. Patent 2,433,992.
The peroxide is, for example, a solution of peroxidized methyl ethyl ketone in dimethyl phthalate in which 60% of the peroxidized methyl ethyl ketone, calculated as Cgi-11604, is present. Benzoyl peroxide (Cal-C() 202 may be used instead of the MBK. peroxide, and its molecular weight is 242.22. Dimethyl aniline may also be substituted for the cobalt naphthenate accelerator.
The antimony oxide and chlorinated paraffin are utilized for their tire retarding properties where the polyester resin itself is of a type which might not be as resistant to lire as might be desired.
Heretofore tiles of this general type were made by hand troweling the mixture of constituents into a polyethylene mold Which was then covered by a porous fabric sheet. The material penetrated through to the reverse surface of the sheet which was then rolled or scraped to eliminate excessive material. After the material was allowed to cure and polymerize, the assemblies were removed from the polyethylene molds. The resultant products were quite useful; however, certain disadvantages resulted because of the method by which they were made. One of them was the incorporation of air pockets in the remote corners of the mold compartments causing pecking of the formed tiles. particularly at their edges and corners, Furthermore, the cured plastic lying upon the reverse side of the backer sheet would not adhere dependably and securely enough to conventional adhering agents such as mastics which interfered with installation of the tile assemblies upon walls. A novel method incorporating the apparatus shown in FIGS. 4-7 avoids these problems and provides tile assemblies 1l) having remarkably effective properties as are later described in the following.
A formulation such as that of the preferred example in formulation A is mixed according to the following procedure. A dough-type mixer with variable paddle speeds is used to blend the mixture. The proper amount of polyester resin is weighed and placed in a mixing tub to which is added the proper amount of cobalt naphthenate. The tube is then set into position in the mixer and mixed at slow speed for two minutes. The mixer is then stopped, and the proper amount of polyester pigment dispersion is added. The mixer is again started and run at a slow speed for three minutes. The container from which the pigment was added is cleaned with one pound of styrene monomer which is added to the mix. This is done to assure the addition of all pigment required. The machine is then run at medium speed, and the proper amount of sand is slowly added with the machine running. After all the sand has been added, the mixer runs at medium speed for three minutes. At this point, the balance of the proper amount of styrene monomer is added, and the mixer is run for two minutes at slow speed. Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide in the proper amount is then added and mixed Yat slow speed for one minute. The material is then ready to use.
This mixture 19 is fed into pressure pot Ztl of processing apparatus 22 shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. An air line 24 connected to pressure pot or hopper 20 expels mixture 19 through a number of discharge nozzles 26, for example ten in number, regularly spaced across the bottom of pot 2t). Nozzles 26 are, for example, made of polyethylene to prevent the mixture from sticking to them. Apparatus 22 also includes an endless conveyor 28 incorporating, for example, a sprocket chain; and it is driven by an electric motor 3i) connected to conveyor 28 by means of pulley belt 32 and pulley sheaves 34 and 36 which are respectively connected to the motor shaft and a conveyor belt shaft. Regularly spaced lugs 38 are mounted upon conveyor 23 and move under a mold supply stack 40 from which one multi-compartment polyethylene mold is discharged at a time. This mold 42 is then advanced under a wheel roller 44 which liattens it and removes any surface irregularities and then advances it under the row of nozzles 26. Mold 4Z includes rows of compartments corresponding to the position of each nozzle 26; and ten in all are, therefore, incorporated in this example of practice of the invention.
An automatic means 46 which is, for example, a solenoid operated gate is actuated by an automatic control means 43 which is, for example, a micro switch whose actuating lever Sil is positioned approximately directly in line with the row of nozzles Z6. Gate 46 is accordingly maintained open as long as mold 42 is passing under it and the air pressure, size of the nozzles and rate of conveyor speed are coordinated to exactly lill the mold cavities to the condition shown in FIG. 6 in which the upper surface 52 of the mixture in each compartment entirely fills each cavity without spilling over to a degree which might ripple or bulge the backer sheet when it is later applied. This permits the resultant assembly a'fter backer sheet 14 is applied, as shown in FIG. 7, to have a relatively smooth rear surface.
Backer sheet 14 is made of a non-separable ply strong paper which is, for example, a #9() kraft paper of the single ply type. A rag or rope lled type of paper is particularly advantageous for use because it is strong and dense enough to prevent the tile mixture binder from penetrating through to its reverse surface, and it therefore, preserves this reverse surface in a clean condition to insure and facilitate its attachment to a wall by means of a conventional adherent such as mastic. The mold 42, as shown in FIG. 7, covered by the backer sheet 14 is lifted from the rear end 54 of conveyor 2S and then allowed to cure which intimately bonds each tile into the surface 56 of backer sheet 14 leaving reverse surface S3 free and clear of the tile mixture binder, as shown by the partial penetration of the material of tile 12 into backer sheet 14 in FIG. 3.
These tile assemblies are provided, for example, in the square assembly 10 shown in FIG. 2 incorporating, for example, one hundred tiles in ten rows. The portions 6@ of backer sheet 14 lying between tiles 12 are thin enough to be easily cut or parted to facilitate the separation of tile assemblies 1t) into smaller sections. Furthermore, the tiles themselves are easily cut without undue danger of fracturing which is a great advantage in fitting to given wall configurations in comparison to the dithculty of accurately cutting conventional ceramic tile.
What is claimed is:
l. A tile assembly comprising a sheet of relatively nonseparable ply imperforate strong paper, a number of tiles incorporating a hardened mixture of a pulverized sand filler and a polyester binder attached to one surface of said paper in a decorative array, said binder penetrating only a partial distance into the thickness of said paper toward the other surface thereof and thereby permanently attaching said tiles to said paper, and said paper being dense enough that its other surface is free of penetration by said binder to maintain the other surface of said paper clear of said tile binder thereby preventing said tile binder from interfering with attachment of an adhering agent to said other surface.
2. A tile assembly as set forth in claim l wherein said sand filler is sand of approximately mesh particle size.
3. A tile assembly as set forth in claim 2 wherein said sand is present in the range of from 40 to 65% by weight of the tile mixture.
4. An assembly as set forth in claim l wherein said paper has low shrinkage characteristics.
5. An assembly as set forth in claim l wherein said paper is Weak enough to permit it to be easily cut between said tiles thereby facilitating the separation of tile panels of predetermined size.
6. An assembly as set forth in claim l wherein said paper has a relatively stronger fiber content.
References Cited in the le of this patent VUNITED STATES PATENTS Desagnat Ian. 5, 1937 Schmol Dec. 9, 1941 6 Pottinger Dec. 16, 1941 Desagnat Jan. 19, 1943 Hume June 1, 1943 McElroy Mar. 20, 1956 Rutgers July 3, 1956 Rubenstein Sept. 9, 1958 De Pataky Feb. 27, 1962