Low-friction frame for locking devices
US 3126217 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 1964 F. J. RUSSELL ETAL 3,126,217
LOW-FRICTION FRAME FOR LOCKING DEVICES Filed Jan. 2, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 27 I3 12-. 4 4e '42 2! 22 74 5 j s2 5] 79 INVENTORS 77 FEED J'- RUSSELL 50 650265 .B. SOLOl/IEFF 6 I 45 49 33 BY ATTORNEVS March 24, 1964 F. J. RUSSELL ETAL 3,126,217
LOW-FRICTION FRAME FOR LOCKING DEVICES Filed Jan. 2, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS FQED J- Passe/.4.
gfOEGE B. SoLm IE F ATTORNEVS United States Patent 3,126,217 LOW-FRICTION FRAME FOR LOCKING DEVICES Fred J. Russell, 3800 Don Felipe Drive, Los Angeles, Calif, and George B. Solovieif, South Gate, Calif; said Soloviefi assignor to said Russell Fiied Jan. 2, 1962, Eer. No. 163,478 3 Clmms. (Cl. 292-4) The invention relates to door locks and has reference especially to that portion of the lock commonly identified as the retractor and its frame and the rotatable mounting for the spindles, all of which parts work together in order to withdraw the latch bolt. In still greater particular the invention relates to a co-relationship between different kinds of materials in order to take advantage of new low-friction materials in certain strategic locations while at the same time preserving in the lock the necessary ruggedness and dependability required of hardware of this kind.
The conventional arrangement of door locks of the kind here under consideration consists of a metal frame providing a chamber more or less at the mid-area of the lock in which spindles on opposite sides are mounted for rotation and within which is a retractor slide either made of formed sheet metal or some type of metal casting designed to be fastened to the tailpiece of a latch bolt assembly and to reciprocate by rotating retractor elements of the spindles. Under pressure exerted by the reciprocating elements, exterior portions of the retractor slide rub against interior portions of the frame as the frame guides the retractor slide during its movement. The frictional forces, of course, must be overcome by rotation of the spindles. A sufficient clearance must be provided between the retractor slide and the surrounding frame so that the friction will not be too great. The clearances, however, must not be too free, since, otherwise, the operation of the lock will be too noisy or the lock will not operate properly. Problems therefore are in herently present in an all metal lock.
It is therefore among the objects of the invention to provide a new and improved frame for a door lock which is either entirely or partially constructed of lowfriction material arranged in such fashion that ruggedness and durability of the parts are not sacrificed.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved frame and in some instances bearing sleeves attached to the frame constructed in the main of nonmetailic low-friction material for all portions against which other moving parts of the lock device have to slide or rotate so that a maximum degree of advantage will be taken of the low friction characteristics of relatively stationary portions of the device.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved frame assembly for a door lock which may be entirely constructed of nonmetallic low-friction material arranged in such fashion as to provide multiple advantages of low-friction character in that those portions of the frame assembly which normally engage metallic surfaces present low-friction engaging areas partly to ease the guiding relationship of the frame for the slide, partly to minimize friction when the spindle is rotated in its position, and further to minimize the frictonal resistance of other portions which support movement thereby to minimize wear.
Also included among the objects of the invention is to provide a new and improved frame assembly for a door lock which makes it possible to supply all of the tensile strength needed for parts which may be subject to strain whether they be constructed of nonmetallic or metallic material, the structure being so designed that wearing surfaces wherever need be may be constructed of lowfriction nonmetallic material for the purposes hereinabove described.
With these and other objects in view, the invention consists in the construction, arrangement and combination of the various parts of the device, whereby the objects contemplated are attained, as hereinafter set forth, pointed out in the appended claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal view partially broken away and partially in a section showing the frame and retractor slide in assembled relationship.
FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 22 of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 3-3 of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view taken on the line 44 of FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 5 is a side perspective view of the retractor slide.
FIGURE 6 is a side elevational exploded view of the two main portions of the frame.
FIGURE 7 is an end perspective view of one of the main portions of the frame.
In the particular embodiment of the invention herein chosen for the purpose of illustrating the invention there is shown a housing 10 Within which is located a frame indicated in general by the reference character 11. The frame consists essentially of two frame sections, namely, the section 12 on the right, as viewed in FIGURE 1, and the section 13 on the left. A spindle bearing 14 forms part of the frame section 12 and a similar spindle bearing 15 forms part of the frame section 13. A spindle 16 is rotatably mounted within the spindle bearing 14 and a spindle 17 is rotatably mounted within the spindle bearing 15. A retractor slide indicated generally by the reference character 18 and shown in perspective view in FIGURE 5 is located within the frame 11 wherein it is adapted to be reciprocated in a transverse direction. The retractor slide is so equipped as to engage a tail piece 19, shown in broken lines in FIGURE 2, which is the tail piece of a substantially conventional latch bolt assembly (not shown).
The frame sections 12 and 13 as here disclosed consist of a non-metallic low friction material such, for example, as nylon or Delrin, these being commercially available synthetic plastic materials capable of being molded and machined as need be and of such character that the surface wherever exposed has a low coefiicient of friction when frictionally engaged with an unlike material, such as metal, and also when engaged by a like material such as a similar low friction plastic material. Although the frame sections are shown as solid material in the chosen embodiment, it will be understood that what is important is to have those portions of the frame sections where frictional wear and guidance takes place consist of the low friction material whether or not remaining portions of the frame may be constructed of the same material.
More particularly, the frame section 12 has a recess 21 Within it, the recess 21 being complementary to a recess 22 in the frame section 13, the recesses being in matching relationship so that when the frame sections are assembled, the recesses together form a chamber for reception of the retractor slide 18.
On the frame section 12 is a boss 23 which matches and is in alignment with a boss 24 on the frame section 13. A projection 25 on the boss 23 is received within a pocket 26 in the frame section 13. Extending through a hole 28 in the boss 24 and a similar hole 29 in the boss 23 is a bolt 27, thereby to hold upper portions of the frame sections together when the bolt is threaded through a nut 30 mounted in a square recess 31 in the frame section 12.
On the lower sides of the frame, a similar arrangement is made use of, there being a boss 32 on the frame section 12 matching a boss 33 on the frame section 13. A projection 36 on the boss 33 is received in an appropriate pocket (not shown) in the boss 32 and a bolt 38 holds the parts together. In each instance the bolt, namely, the bolt 27 and the bolt 38 extend through a side wall 42 of the housing and serve to fasten the frame sections in the housing as well as to hold them together.
The spindle bearing 14 previously identified may be formed integrally with the frame section 12 and may consist of the same low friction material. Threads 14' may be provided under certain circumstances for the attachment and mounting of a suitable mounting plate 43. Within the spindle bearing 14 is a cylindrical bore 44 which serves as the bearing surface for the spindle 16. As here shown the spindle is a hollow tubular metallic piece which rotates within the cylindrical bore without the need for any lubricant other than that supplied by the inherent character of the low friction material of the spindle bearing. A cylindrical bore 44" is similarly provided with respect to the spindle bearing and the corresponding frame section 13. Threads are indicated by the reference character 15'.
The retractor slide 18 as shown is located within the chamber formed by the recesses 21 and 22. An upper wall 45 of the recess 21 which is coextensive with an upper wall 46 of the recess 22 serves as a slideway and guide for an upper riding surface 47 of the retractor slide. Similarly a wall 48 at the lower side of the recess 21 is coextensive with a wall 49 of the recess 22 and together provide a guide and sliding area for a lower riding surface 50 of the retractor slide.
Also serving as a guide for the retractor slide is a side area 51 which is adapted to slide against a bottom 21' of the recess 21. On the opposite side a side area 52 has a similar sliding and guiding relationship with respect to a bottom 22' of the recess 22. Adjacent the side area 51 is a shoulder 53 extending as far as a step 55. A roll-back 56 of the spindle 16 is adapted to be rotated into engagement with the shoulder 53 as suggested in FIGURE 2 in order to shift the retractor slide transversely in a direction from left to right, as viewed in FIGURE 2, and in this Way withdraw the tail piece 19 of the latch bolt (not shown).
A lower roll-back 57 operates in a similar fashion upon a shoulder 58 when the spindle is rotated in a counterclockwise direction, as viewed in FIGURE 2. The spindle 17 is provided in a similar fashion with roll-backs 60 and 61. One of the shoulders 62 on the opposite side is adapted for engagement by the roll-back 60 as shown in FIGURE 5.
Although the retractor slide in the chosen embodiment is pictured as a casting preferably of metal, it will be understood that the retractor slide may, in keeping with conventional practice, be constructed of formed sheet metal or even on some occasions of material other than metal. laws 63 and 64 actually form the means by which the tail piece 19 is attached to the retractor slide.
On the opposite side of the slide are springs 65 and 66. Right-hand ends of the springs, as shown in FIG- URE 2, are retained by a spring keeper 67 which has an upper leg 68 in spring-pressed engagement with a retaining button 69 and a lower leg 70 in spring-pressed engagement with a retaining button 71. A pocket 72 partially formed in each of the frame sections serves as a snug guiding retention for the leg 68. On the lower side a similar pocket 73 provides retention for the leg 70. A mid-portion 67' of the spring keeper may bear against an inner surface of the housing 10.
A hole 74 in the retractor slide 18 has a bottom 76 upon which the spring 65 rests. Similarly a hole 77 on the opposite side of the retractor provides a bottom 79 within which the spring 66 is mounted.
When it is understood that all of the contacting and wearing surfaces within the frame 11 are of low friction non-metallic material, the smoothness of operation can be understood. Not only does the retractor slide engage low friction surfaces at all areas of contact, but the roll backs of the spindles where they may tend to engage inside walls of the frame sections also experience a low friction engagement of metal with a non-metallic low friction wearing surface. Because of this, tolerances can be held relatively small as compared with other construction without jeopardizing the long-wearing characteristics needed in a device of this kind. Moreover, because of it being possible to compact and secure the frame sections firmly and snugly within a surrounding housing, the necessary ruggedness is inherently embodied in the structure by reason of its design and assembly.
While the invention has herein been shown and described in what is conceived to be the most practical and preferred embodiment, it is recognized that departures may be made therefrom within the scope of the invention, which is not to be limited to the details disclosed herein but is to be accorded the full scope of the claims so as to embrace any and all equivalent devices.
Having described the invention, what is claimed as new in support of Letters Patent is:
1. In a door lock device a frame assembly only including two complementary integrally molded and axially separable parts of non-metallic low friction material, said parts each having a portion of a chamber therein, said parts each comprising a transverse wall having on the interior a portion of said chamber complementary to the chamber portion of the other part, and means securing said parts together in interlocked, abutting relationship, a spindle rotatably mounted on each part, retractor means forming part of each spindle having a rotationally facing driving area, a retractor slide for operating a latch bolt, said slide having a transversely reciprocatable mounting in the chamber, a bearing sleeve of non-metallic low friction material extending outwardly from each part in alignment with each other and forming mountings for the respective spindles, and diametrically spaced parallel walls on each axially separable part forming walls of the chamber in sliding engagement with the retractor slide.
2. In a door lock device a frame assembly limited to two complementary axially separable parts of non-metallic low friction material, said parts each having a portion of a chamber therein complementary with respect to the chamber in the respective opposite part, a spindle rotat ably mounted on each part, retractor means forming part of each spindle having a rotationally facing driving area, a retractor slide for operating a latch bolt, said slide having a transversely reciprocatable mounting in the chamber, a bearing sleeve of non-metallic low friction material having an integral molded relationship with each part and extending outwardly from each part in alignment with each other and forming low friction mountings for the respective spindles, the bearing sleeve in each instance comprising an inseparable element of the respective separable part, said parts having inwardly facing axially spaced low friction parallel walls in sliding engagement with the retractor slide and each part having diametrically spaced low friction parallel wall sections which, when assembled, form diametrically spaced parallel walls of the chamber in sliding engagement with the retractor slide.
3. In a door lock device a frame assembly limited to two complementary axially separable parts of nonmetallic low-friction material and of substantially the same mass and configuration, said parts having a common chamber therein, a spindle rotatably mounted on each part, retractor means forming part of each spindle having a rotationally facing driving area, a retractor slide for operating a latch bolt, said slide having a transversely reciprocatable mounting in the chamber, a bearing sleeve of 5 6 nonmetallic low-friction material having an integral References Cited in the file of this patent molded relationship with each part and extending out- UNITED STATES PATENTS Wardly from each part in alignment with each other and 2,547,256 Ce f A 3, 1951 forming low friction mountings for the respective spin- 2,841,974 Hensel July 8, 1958 dles, said parts having diametrically spaced parallel walls 5 59,439 Russell et a1 Nov. 8, 1960 in sliding engagement with the retractor slide, anchor 3,042,437 Duvan July 3, 1962 plates on axially opposite sides of the frame, and a non- OTHE REFERENCES metallic anchoring means comprising an exterior part of House and Home, VOL XIX N0 1, January 1961 each bearing Sleeve and forming an attachment between 10 (advertisement of E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.) the respective bearing sleeve and anchor plate. on page 231),