US 3127864 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 1964 J. BENTKOWSKY ETAL 3,127,864
cooanmnso mam cou'mor. sys'rm FOR suaummss Filed April 17, 1962 s Sheets-Sheet z 5a 60 x 5) l DEPTH ORDER agave 122 v 57 A A m 'x m 116 5 I 18 9 67 a0 :51 13 u j A fi'wfr 24 19: L43 v 21 20 1,; 5 I S 2 2 79 j 2/ s I 2 23% E22 a 2 '5 ENGINE ENGINE 114 l uz 11 i 15 i T0 T0 11.3 DIVING DIVING PLANE PLANE v f78 2! 7 I, V112 lhl 7 7 SUBMARINE SPEED COMPUTER l l /"I51 I 75 'I a Golb.
w-wm l u SQUARING 84 CIRCUIT 114 9 V: s -150 73 RA TE SERVO 68 148 142 143 52?: SERVO HEAD'NG STEERING DIRECTIONAL I 41 SERVO REFERENCE 13s omv s uomn To 139 145 RUDDER 21 mvmons JEROME BENT/(OWSKY GYRO JOSEPH H. CHADW/CK JR. COMPASS 145 V/RGEL 5 WILL/4M5 RING 137 y ATTORNEY p i 7, 1 J. BENTKOWSKY ETAL r 3,127,864
COORDINATED DEPTH CONTROUSYSTEM FOR SUBMARINES Filed April 17, 1962 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INPUT INPUT INPUT 103 Q INPUT I04 I05 O T INVENTORS JEROME BENTKOWSKY JOSEPH H CHADW/CK JR. VIRGEL E. WILL/AME I I BY \i/INPUT ---7 My AT OR/VE) United States Patent 3,127,864 COORDINATE!) DEPTH QONTROL SYSTEM 7 FOR SUBMARINES Jerome Bentkowsky, Charlottesville, Va., Joseph H. Chadwick, Jr., Amityville, N.Y., and Virgel E. Williams, Charlottesville, Va., assignors to Sperry Rand Corporation, Great Neck, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware Filed Apr. 17, 1962, Ser. No. 188,119 11 Claims. ((31. 114---144) This invention relates to a system for maneuvering a submarine about its pitch axis to change its depth to an ordered depth automatically. More particularly, the invention concerns a diving planes control system operable to change the depth of the submarine in a smooth maneuver without overshooting.
At present, manually operable systems for changing the depth of a submarine require that the diving planes follow the movements of a member controlled by the planesman. Thusly, pushing the member forward, as in the stick control of an aircraft, sets the planes to cause the submarine to dive, and pulling the member back sets the planes to cause the submarine to rise. Under ideal conditions with such a system, a planesman is required to perform six movements of the member to change the submarine to its ordered depth. In descending to a lower submarine depth, the first forward movement of the member operates the planes to nose the bow of the submarine downwardly. Reverse planes are then applied by the second movement of the member to stop the motion of the submarine about its pitch axis at a dive or pitch angle that depends on other conditions such as the depth order, speed and performance time. In the third operation by the planesman, the planes are returned to a streamlined condition with the subinarine pitched to descend in an attitude controlled by the planesman. Three additional operations of reverse character are required of the planesman to bring the submarine to its ordered depth at an attitude in which the dive angle has been removed. This is accomplished by fourthly moving the member back to stop the descent of the submarine by raising its bow upwardly, fifthly counteracting the required condition of the diving planes to eifect the fourth operation, and sixthly by moving the planes to streamline with the submarine level at the ordered depth. More than the noted movements of the member by the planesman are generally required before orders are completely executed because of the variables noted. The maneuver is accomplished automatically in the improved system after a single operation by the planesman in setting the ordered depth on a depth indicator.
An object of the present invention is to provide a system for changing the depth of a submarine that only requires a single movement of a manually operable member to execute depth change orders.
In the improved maneuvering system, the depth change orders are derived from an order synchro that is controlled by a manually movable order member. The motion of the order member is observed by the planesman on an indicator included in a display panel showing the ordered depth. The movable member is also operatively connected to the order synchro to provide an input to the elevation and pitch angle error channel of the system depending on its movement with relation to the present elevation or depth of the craft.
The operation of the system is observed by the planesman on the depth indicator and the pitch angle indicator included on the display panel. The display panel further includes a movable element with a first pointer part readable with relation to the pitch angle indicator and a second pointer part readable with relation to the elevation or depth indicator. The movement of the two pointer element of the display panel is dependent on the tilt of the craft about its pitch axis. The pull-out point of the automatic maneuver is indicated to the observer on the display panel when the reading of the display pointer part on the depth indicator corresponds to the ordered depth set in the order indicator. The pitch attitude of the submarine at this point in the maneuver is further observed on the display panel by the relative position of the other of the pointer parts of thetwo pointer element with relation to the pitch angle indicator.
One of the features of the invention is provided by the means included to adjust the sensitivity of the combined elevation or depth error and'pitch angle error inputs to the servo means of the system non-linearly and the means included to adjust the output of the pitch rate and elevation rate output means included therein linearly. The non-linear and linear adjustments made are such that the motions of the submarine during the maneuver are not overdamped for small depth changes and are not highly underdamped for large depth changes.
A further feature of the invention resides in the inclusion in the system of means for setting the pitch tilt with the rate of change of pitch angle and depth of the I submarine.
Still a further feature of the invention resides in the inclusion in the system of the means for adjusting the outputs of the respective combined error and rate channels of the system in accordance with the speed of the submarine.
, A further feature of the invention is provided by the included display panel with depth order, depth, and pitch angle indicators thereon, and with a movable element with a part readable on the scale of the depth indicator and a part readable on the pitch angle indicator.
Another feature or" the invention resides in the inclusion in the system of an input to the diving plane servo means that depends on the square of the rate of turn of the submarine about its yaw axis. This input prevents depth changes during turning maneuvers of the submarine about its yaw axis.
Other objects, features and structural details of the invention will be apparent from the following description with relation to the accompanying drawings wherein: 7
FIGS. 1a and 1b are schematic diagrams showing the related components of our improved automatic depth control system;
FIG. 2 is a representative circuit detail of the linear and non-linear sensitivity adjustment components of the system shown in FIG. 11);
FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 are curves illustrating the non-linear and linear character of the outputs of the respective a and b adjustment components of the system;
FIG. 6 is a representative circuit detail of one of the limiter components included in the system,
FIG. 7 is a representative circuit detail of the squaring circuit component of the system shown in FIG. lb; and
FIG. 8 is a curve illustrating the relation between the input and output voltages of the circuit shown in FIG. 7.
The automatic depth control system shown in FIGS.
' la and lb has particular utility in response to helm orders to change the depth of a submarine through movement of its diving planes from one depth to another depth by a single manual operation of the planesman at the helm. The system functions to cause the change to be made at a pitch angle within the performance range of the depth and vertical references included therein. The
J3 magnitude of the change is limited only by the hydrodynamic capabilities of the hull and the range of the included depth reference. In operation, the system brings the submarine to its ordered depth quickly, accurately and smoothly without overshooting.
As indicated in FIG. lb, the improved system functions to maneuver the submarine about its pitch axis through control of the diving planes thereof. In this connection, the engines iii and 11 of the driving servo means of the system are shown as shaft connected to the respective movable submarine components. The servo means shown further includes a depth order servo 12 having a mixer 13 that combines the controlling inputs thereto. A motor 14 is operatively connected to the mixer 13 by way of lead 15, amplifier l6 and lead 17. The output shaft 18 of motor 14 drives the rotors of two conventional transmitters or synchros 19, 29 that are energized from a suitable source of electrical power indicated at 21 Leads 22 and 2-3 connect the respective synchros l9 and 20 to the driving engines It) and 11 of the system to control the pitch motions of the submarine. Servo 12 also includes a repeatback output for the drive motor 14 provided in the form of an electrical transmitter or synchro 24 whose rotor is positioned in accordance with the motor output shaft 18. As shown, synchro 24 is energized from the power source 21 and is connected as an input to the motor 14 by way of lead 25, amplifier 16 and lead 17.
The means provided in the improved system for changing the depth of the submarine to an ordered depth include a suitable vertical reference shown in the form of a gyro vertical 26 and a suitable depth reference shown in the form of a depth detector 27 of the differential pressure type. As shown in FIG. la, detector 27 is provided by a stanchion 28 fixed exteriorly to the hull structure 29 of the submarine on which the oppositely disposed ends of a closed bellows 3t and an open bellows 31 are mounted. The other ends of the respective bellows 3t), 31 are suitably secured to the spaced inside walls of a movable yoke 32 supported on the submarine structure 29 by leaf springs 33 and 34. A tube 35 communicates the water pressure exterior to the structure 29 to the open ended bellows 31 by way of a suitable opening in the stanchion 28. The closed or sealed bellows T20 of the arrangement shown counteracts any tendency for the yoke 32 to move with relation to the stanchion 28 due to pressure changes within the hull structure 29. As the detector 27 operates, the yoke 32 moves to the right as viewed in the drawing as the water pressure external to structure 29 decreases as the submarine climbs from a lower depth to a higher depth. The yoke 32 moves to the left as viewed in the drawing when the submarine dives to increase its depth in the water with respect to zero water pressure at sea level. The output depth E of the detector 27 is accordingly dependcut on the depth of the submarine in the water as a measure of the displacement of the yoke 32. with relation to its position to the stanchion at the noted reference pressure levels. The depth input to the system is derived from a suitable E-pick-off or synchro 36 whose armature 37 is fixed to the yoke 32 of the detector and whose stator 38 is connected to the hull structure 29. The stator 38 of the pick-off 36 is also energized from the power source 21. The output E of the system normally functions to move the diving planes of the submarine to maintain it at an ordered depth. The maintained depth is accordingly dependent on the setting of an order synchro 39 connected to the pick-off 36 by way of lead 40. The pick-off 36, lead as and synchro 39 components provide a data transmission system whose depth output E is fed to the mixer 13 of serve 12 as a depth error input depending on the magnitude of the change ordered. As the system responds to move the craft to make the change, the indicated output E diminishes and reaches nil at the completion of the maneuver.
As shown in FIG. la, the rotor of synchro 39 is connected to a manually movable order member in the form of a crank 41 located at the instrument panel of the craft on a display panel 42 in front of the planesman. Panel 42 includes depth order indicator 43 with a movable part in the form of a three digit counter with representative numerical indicia thereon. Shaft 44 connects the crank 41 to the rotor of the synchro 39 and shaft 45 connects the synchro rotor to the movable indicia counter of the order indicator 43. The input E to the servo means from synchro 39 and pick-off or synchro 36 in the provided arrangement is dependent upon the manual movement of the order setting member or crank 41. The indicator 43 on the panel 42 shows the depth ordered by the planesman in the considered case for a submarine to be 200 feet.
The display panel component 42 of the improved system also includes a depth indicator 46 having relatively movable scale part 47 and pointer part 48. The movable scale part 47 shown in the drawing contains numerical depth indicia thereon of the character used in the order indicator 43. The pointer 48 is a fixed index on the face of the display panel 42. As the submarine maneuvers in the water to change its depth, the scale part 47 moves with relation to the index 48 to indicate the change to the planesman. As read by the planesman the panel indicator 46 shows the submarine to be in a dive approaching the ordered depth of 200 feet with its present depth at feet. As shown, scale part 47 of indicator 46 is moved with relation to the fixed index 48 by an operative connection to the pickoff or synchro 36 which includes a depth receiver 49 arranged in follow-up relation to the synchro 36 by way of lead 50 to the output lead 44). The rotor of the follow-up receiver 49 is operatively connected to the scale part 47 of indicator through shaft 51. At the completion of the ordered dive, the reading of indicator 46 will correspond to that of the order indicator 43 with the relation between the scale 47 and pointer part 48 being such as to indicate that the submarine is at the ordered 200 foot depth. The ordered depth input E from synchro 39 to the mixer 33 nulls at the time that the submarine arrives at the ordered depth. The depth order input E of the depth changing means of the system is fed to the servo mixer 13 by way of lead 52, a rheostat 53 with a movable slider 54 designated as B sensitivity adjustment, lead 55, a limiter 56, lead 57, amplifier 58, lead 59, an a sensitivity adjustment 60 and connecting lead 61.
The depth changing means of the improved system further includes a pitch angle error input 0 to the servo meansv As shown in FIG. 1a, the input 0 is derived from a suitable vertical reference in the form of the designated gyro vertical 26 whose rotor case 62 is connected by shaft 63 to the rotor of an electrical transmitter or synchro 64. The synchro 64 of the provided arrangement is energized from power source 21 and is connected to mixer 13 by Way of amplifier 58 through lead 65 to a synchro 66 with a settable knob providing a neutral angle trim adjustment and lead 67. The input 6 to amplifier 53 in the order channel of the system is accordingly dependent on the degree of tilt of the submarine about its pitch axis with respect to a level condition or the diving angle in the considered example. The order changing channel having the E and 6 inputs therein combine the inputs so that the diving planes are initially moved responsive to E, at its maximum to nose the submarine into the considered dive. As the submarine noses downwardly to the ordered depth, the pitch input 6 to the servo 12 increases until it together with an input E depending onthe rate of change of depth of the submarine hereinafter described equals the adjusted input E During the portion of the maneuver where there is no change in E the diving planes are streamlined and the submarine descends to the ordered depth at a constant rate and a predetermined dive angle. As the submarine approaches the completion of the maneuver, the output 9 becomes greater than E and the servo means responsiveto the output of the order changing channel moves the diving planes so as to raise the nose or" the submarine to move it about its pitch axis toward a level condition. When the submarine arrives at its ordered depth, the E and 6 inputs are reduced to null, it is level and its diving planes are streamlined.
The rate channel of the system constitutes means for providing an output depending on the rate of change of depth E and pitch angle 0 of the craft. In the improved system, the rate input E and 0 to the mixer 13 of the servo 12 is derived from a rate servo 68. As shown in FIG. 1b, servo 68 includes a repeater synchro 69 whose rotor is driven to null by a motor 70 through shaft 71. A pitch tilt angle input 0 from a second synchro 72 whose rotor is connected to the rotor case 62 of the gyro vertical is tied to the repeater synchro 69 by way of lead 73. The follow-up motor 70 of the servo 68 is driven by the output or" the synchro 69 by way of lead 74, amplifier 75 and lead 76. Motor 70 is accordingly operated at a rate that is dependent on the rate that the submarine is moving about its pitch axis asthe stator of the synchro moves with the submarine with respect to its stabilized rotor. As shown, the motor 70 drives a generator 77 through the output shaft 71, the generator including an exciting winding energized from source 21 and an output winding that is connected to the servo mixer 13 by way of lead 78, a b sensitivity adjustment 79 and lead 80. The E output of the rate servo is derived from the depth synchro or pick-off 36 connected to amplifier 75 by way of lead 81 to lead 52, a rheostat S2 with a slider 83 designated as the B sensitivity adjustment, lead 84, limiter 84 and lead 34". The output of generator 77 is accordingly depend eat on the turn rate 6 of the submarine about its pitch axis as well as its rate of change of depth The linear and non-linear adjustments 79 and 60 of the improved system provide properly damped performance of the submarine during climb or dive maneuvers. As shown in FIG. 2 such adjustments may be provided by a two channel circuit where one channel is used where the adjustment is linear and two channels are used where the adjustment is non-linear. As a non-linear adjusting means the circuit shown in FIG. 2 combines two voltages and determines a breakpoint at which the slope of the related voltages change. As represented in FIGS. 2 and 3, the voltage V channel is directly connected through resistor 85 in a summing amplifier 86. The voltage output V of amplifier 86 is fed back to the amplifier through a feedback resistor 87 which controls the gain of the sensitivity adjustment. Here as shown by curve 88 in FIG. '5, there is a linear relation between the input and the channel voltage V the slope of the curve being determined by the resistor 85. In the voltage V channel, the input is fed to the primary of a transformer 89 which provides 180 degree phase reversal. The output of the transformer 89 is then fed the amplifier 86 by way of a network including resistor 90 and dead zone circuit 91. As shown, the dead zone circuit 91 consists of a reference transformer 92, a full Wave direct current bridge 93, a pair of voltage splitting resistors 94- and 95 and a pair of limiting diodes 96 and 97. This channel represents an open circuit for relatively low voltage inputs and a short circuit for relatively high voltage inputs. Here as shown by curve 98 in FIG. 4 there is a linear relation between the input and the channel voltage V The difference between the slopes of the curves 88 and 98 is determined by the transformer 89 and the resistor 90. The break point 99 shown on curve 190 in FIG. relating the output V of the amplifier 86 to the provided input is determined by the reference input to transformer 92 as adjusted by a potentiometer ltil whose slider may be set from a suitable knob 102. By adjustment of knob 102 to include or exclude the V channel of the circuit, the adjustment 60 ence synchro tothe rate output means.
the means providing the rate of change of depth and pitch 7 linearly.
In accordance with the present invention, the maximum pitch tilt angle at which the submarine climbs or dives is determined by adjustment of the limiters 56 and 84 by a pitch angle setting means or knob 133. As shown, the setting means 133 is operatively connected to the respective limiters through shaft 134 to limiter 84 and through connecting shaft 135 to limiter 56. As shown in FIG. 6, the respectivelimiters include a series resistor 103 and a parallel circuit having a pair of diodes 194, 105, a pair of splitting resistors 106, 107, a bridge 108, a reference transformer 169, and a potentiometer whose slider is moved from knob 133 to adjust the excitation of the transformer from the source 21. The voltage at which limiting occurs is determined by the output voltage of the transformer 169, the output waveform of the limiters 56 and 84 remaining essentially sinusoidal. The described arrangement provides a means for setting the maximum pitch tilt angle of the submarine during maneuvers that adjustably limits the input of 36 and order synchro 39 to the combined error output means and adjustablylimits the input of the depth refer- In the improved system, the adjustment selected to limit the depth error accordingly limits the tilt angle of the submarine about its pitch axis during the maneuver.
The improved system further includes means for adjusting the system in accordance with the speed of the submarine. As shown in FIG; lb, such means includes a submarine speed computer 111 whose output shaft 112 is connected to move the rotor of synchros 113, 1 14 and 115 which are energized from the power source 21. Synchmo 115 controlled by computer 111 is connected to the non-linear output adjustment 6% and the linear output adjustment 79 'by Way of lead 116. The described arrangemerit accordingly pnovides means for adjusting (the horn linear output means of the system in accordance with speed as well as means for adjusting the linear output means of the system accordance with speed. Overdamped operations of the system for small depth changes and underdamped operations of the system for large depth changes are accordingly avoided. The speed input (S) to the adjustments 60 and 79 is indicated at lead 116. Synohro 113 is connected 'by lead 117 to repeater syn-chro 118 whose rotor positions the slider 83 of the potenttiome ter 82 depending the speed of the craft. Likewise, synchro 114 is connected by lead 120 to repeater synchro 121 whose rotor positions the slider 54 of the rhe-ostat 53 depending on the speed of the submarine. The elevation error input to the rate channel of the system is accordingly adjusted for changes in speed. The input of the depth reference 27 and order synchro 39, E to the combined error channel of the system is similarly adjusted. In operation, the system combines the adjusted and limited error, adjusted and limited rate and feedback inputs to the motor 14 of the servo 12 so that the diving planes of the submarine move automatically to bring it to its ordered depth. All but the first of the heretofore noted manual operations of the planesmlan are eliminated. The maneuver is accomplished at a dive or climb angle within the structural stress limits of the crait, quickly, smoothly and Without overshooting.
The pull-out point in the maneuver is indicated to the plainesman on the display panel 42 by a movable element 122 with a pointer part 123 readable on the scale 47 of the depth indicator 43. At this point in (the maneuver, the pitch rate 0 and repeatback input to the servo 12 are null and as the ordered depth approached the elevation input E goes below the sum of the pitch angle 6' and elevation rate E inputs. The servo 12 of the system then the depth reference synchro operates the planes to raise the nose of the submarine to terminate the dive and bring it to its ordered depth with no motion about its pitch axis, in a level attitude and with its planes streamlined. As observed by the planesman on the display panel 42, this point occurs when the pointer part 123 of element 122 reads 200 feet as indicated on the scale 47 of the indicator 43. It is noted that the present depth of the submarine in the maneuver is shown on the panel 42 by the indicator 43 to be 150 feet so that the submarine at this point is still 50 feet removed from the completion of the maneuver. At the completion of the maneuver, the pointer part 123 and the fixed pointer 48 will both read the ordered depth of 200 feet on the scale 47. Element 122 of the panel is a horizontal aim supported by an actuating piece 124 of a pitch angle receiver 125 for movement across the face of the panel in the direction of the vertical arrow-s 125 and 127. With no input to the receiver 125, the piece 124 is biased so that the pointer part 123 will be at the center of the panel in a position corresponding to the fixed pointer or index 48 of indicator 43. The operation of receiver 125 is dependent on the pitch angle of the submarine from a level attitude. An input is accordingly provided for the receiver 125 from the reference synchro 64 by way of lead 65, synchro 66, lead 67 and connecting lead 128.
The display panel of the system also includes a pitch angle indicator 125 with a fixed scale 13% and a movable pointer 131. Element 122 of the panel further includes a second pointer part 132 readable on the scale of the indicator 125 to indicate to the pl anesman the dive or nose angle of the submarine rat the pull-out point of the maneuver as well as the attitude of the submarine with respect to its pitch axis from a level or zero scale position at any stage in the maneuver.
To prevent the submarine from changing from the reference depth established by detector 27 during heading changes under control of the rudder, the improved system counteracts any rudder force about the pitch axis by operating the diving planes in accordance with the square of the submarines turn rate about its yaw axis. Such an output is derived from the gyrocompass in the rudder channel of the improved system which, as shown in FIG. 112, has a compass ring 137 with an azimuth drive motor 138 whose shaft 139 positions the rotor of a synchro 140 energized from source 21. The rate signal is provided by a turn rate servo 147 whose b input is obtained from lead 141 connected to synchro 14-1) and whose 1 input provides an input to the rudder steering engine by way of lead 148. The rudder channel of the system accordingly includes means for providing an output in accordance with the turn rate of the submarine about its yaw axis. The squaring means for the output included in the improved system is provided by a suitable squaring circuit 149 with an input lead 15s connected to lead 148 and an output lead 151 connected to the mixer 13 of the depth order servo 12. The illustrative squaring circuit 149 shown in FIG. 7 is a three channel circuit with a common amplifier 152 whose first channel includes a series resistor 153. The second channel includes a series resistor 154, a pair of diodes 155, 156 and a pair of opposing batteries 157, 158 of equal voltages V The third channel includes a series resistor 159, a pair of diodes 160, 161 and a pair of opposing batteries 162, 163 of equal voltages V higher than that of the voltage V of the batteries of the second channel. The curve 164 of FIG. 8 shows the cut in voltage points V and V of the second and third channels necessary to maintain the square output relation as the 1/ input increases. Operation of the diving planes by the turn rate square input to mixer 13 eliminates depth errors that would otherwise occur in steady state turns.
While the invention has been described in its preferred embodiments, it is to be understood that the words which have been used are words of description rather than of 8 limitation and that changes within the purview of the appended claims may be made without departing from the true scope and spirit of the invention in its broader aspects.
What is claimed is:
1. A system for maneuvering a submarine with diving planes including servo means connected to operate the diving planes having a synchro providing a repeatback output; means for changing the depth of the submarine to an order depth providing a combined depth error and pitch angle error output including a vertical reference having a synchro with a pitch angle input, a depth reference having an input synchro, a manually movable order member, a depth order indicator with a movable element connected to the member, and a synchro connected to the member and the depth reference synchro having an input depending on the movement of the order member; means operatively connected to said vertical reference synchro and said depth order synchro for providing an output in accordance with the rate of change of pitch angle and depth of the submarine; means for adjusting the means providing the combined error output non-linearly, means for adjusting the means providing the rate of change output linearly, and means for combining the output of said repeatback synchro and the adjusted outputs of said combined error output means and rate of change output means connected to operate said servo means.
2. in a system for maneuvering a submarine; means for changing the depth of the submarine to an ordered depth providing a combined depth error and pitch angle error output including a vertical reference having a synchro with a pitch angle input, a depth reference having an input synchro, a manually movable order member, a depth order indicator with a movable element connected to the member, and a synchro connected to the member and the depth reference synchro having an input depending on the movement of the order member; means responsive to the synchros of the depth and vertical references providing an output depending on the rate of change of depth and pitch angle of the submarine; means for adjusting the means providing the combined error output non-linearly, means for adjusting the means providing the rate of change output linearly, and servo means responsive to the adjusted outputs of said combined error output means and said rate of change output means.
3. A system as claimed in claim 2, including a display panel having said depth order indicator thereon, a depth indicator on said panel with relatively movable depth scale and pointer parts, and a movable element with a part readable on the depth scale, and means connected to operate the movable element of the display panel depending on the pitch tilt angle of the submarine.
4. A system as claimed in claim 2, including a display panel having said depth order indicator thereon, a pitch indicator on said panel having a fixed scale, a depth indicator on said panel with relatively movable elevation scale and pointer parts, and a movable element with a part readabl on the scale of the depth indicator and a part readable on the scale of said pitch indicator, and means connected to operate the movable two part element of said display panel depending on the pitch tilt angle of the submarine.
5. In a system for controlling the depth of a submarine, a display panel including a depth order indicator with a movable element, a depth indicator with relatively movable depth scale and pointer parts, and a movable element with a part readable with relation to the depth scale; means for changing the depth of the submarine to an ordered depth including manually settable means connected to the movable element of the depth order indicator, and means connected to operate the movable element of said display panel in accordance with the pitch tilt angle of the submarine.
6. A system as claimed in claim 5, in which said display panel includes a pitch angle indicator with a fixed scale, and the movableelement of said display panel includes a second part readable on the pitch angle scale.
7. In a system for maneuvering a submarine; means for changing the depth of the submanine to an ordered depth providing a combined depth error and pitch angle error output including a vertical referenc having a synchro with a pitch angle input, a depth reference having an input synchro, a manually movable order member,
and a synchno connected to the member having an input depending on the movement of the order member; means responsive to the synchros of the depth and vertical references providing an output depending on the rate of change of depth and pitch angle of the submarine; means for adjusting the means providing the combined error output nonlinearly, means for adjusting the means providing the rate of change output linearly, and servo means responsive to the adjusted outputs of said combined error output means and said rate of change output means.
8. A system as claimed in claim 7, (including means for adjusting the input of the depth reference and order synchros to the combined error output means in accordance With the speed of the submarine, and means for adjusting the input of the depth reference synchro to the rate output means in accordance with the speed of the submarine.
9. A system as claimed in claim 7, including means for adjusting the linear output means in accordance with the speed of the submarine, and means for adjusting the nonlinear output means in accordance with the speed of the submarine. I
10. A system as claimed in claim 7, including means for setting the pitch tilt angle for the depth change maneuver of the submarine by adjustably limiting the input of the depth reference and order synchros to the combined error output means and by adjustably limiting the input of the depth reference synchro to the rate out put means.
11. A system as claimed in claim 7, including means providing an output in accordance with the turn rate of the submarine about its yaw axis, means for squaring the output of said yaw turn rate means, and means connecting the servo means for operation responsive to the output of the squaring means.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,593,509 West Apr. 22, -1952 2,613,629 Maybarduk Oct. -14, 1952 2,701,111 Schuck Feb. 1, 1955 2,869,063 Hess Ian. 13, 1959 2,969,033" Vacquier Jan. 24, 1961 3,008,077 Osder et al. Nov. 7, 196 1