US 3128768 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Ap 1964 M. GEISTAUTS SURGICAL DRILL Filed Nov. 24, 1961 8 RT m U mm m u ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,128,768 SURGICAL DRILL Mikelis Geistauts, St. Paul, Minn, assignor to Rosemount Engineering Company, Minneapolis, Minn., a corporation of Minnesota Filed Nov. 24, 1961, Ser. No. 154,580 8 Claims. (U. 128-305) This invention relates to an appliance for drilling into the bone of the patient, for the setting of the reinforcing wires or nails, as during bone-fracture repair. In some instances, in such surgical procedure, it is necessary to start a drill of small diameter in a location of deep penetration, through an incision opening in flesh, and in unhandy positions, and frequently it is necessary to start the drill at an oblique angle relative to the surface of the bone in which the drill is to penetrate.
It is an object of the invention to provide an improved appliance which may be used by the surgeon for carrying out the drillling operation. It is another object of the invention to provide an improved drill which will provide support for the drill during the starting of the drill and during the subsequent drilling operation. It is a further object of the invention to provide an improved surgical drill guide which provides support for the drill as the drill penetrates. It is another object of the invention to provide a hygienic device for drilling and guiding drills, during surgical operations.
Other and further objects are those inherent in the invention herein illustrated, described and claimed and will be apparent as the description proceeds.
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends this invention then comprises the features hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims, the following description setting forth in detail certain illustrative embodiments of the invention, these being indicative, however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principles of the invention may be employed.
This invention is illustrated with reference to the drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view of the drill, in place relative to a bone, into which the drill is penetrated.
FIGURE 2 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of the drill of the present invention.
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged fragmentary longitudinal sectional view of the drill bit end portion of the apparatus.
FIGURE 4 is a transverse sectional view taken along the line and in the direction of the arrow 44 of FIG- URE 3.
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view illustrating a slightly modified form of the drill guide.
Throughout the drawings, the corresponding numerals refer to the same parts.
Referring to the drawings, the drill guide consists of a plurality of telescoping housing sections 10, 11 and 12. The section is of maximum diameter and at its righthand end, as shown in FIGURE 2 has a slightly enlarged portion 10A, the interior surface of which is threaded at 10B. At the opposite end, section 10 is inturned at 10C, so as to provide an inner shoulder for engaging enlarged flanged end 11A of the section 11. Similarly, the left-hand end of section 11, as shown in FIGURE 2, is inturned at 11B to provide an inner flange for engaging the outwardly turned end flange 12A of the end section 12. Referring to FIGURES 1, 2 and 3, section 12 is provided at its left end with internal threads 12B, terminating at a shoulder 120. This internally threaded end of the section 12 is made thus to receive an end collar 13, which is similarly threaded at 13B to match the thread 12B of section 12, into which it is screwed. It will be noted that the inner bore 13C of the end collar is of such a diameter as to provide only a slight clearance 14 relative to the diameter of drill 16, and accordingly the end 13D of the collar is exposed adjacent the seat 12C, and thereby forms a seating surface against which the end of the coil spring 15 is adapted to rest. The coil spring has an inside diameter only slightly larger than the diameter of the drill 16, and the spring extends back and is seated in a recess 17A of the inner drill support 17.
The drill support is provided with threads at 17B which match the threads 1013 of section 10. The drill support has a bore all the way through which receives the drill 16, and the drill is adapted to be held firmly with reference to the drill support by means of a set screw 18, which passes through a threaded aperture 10D in portion 10A of section 10. Accordingly, the set screw 18 not only serves firmly to attach the drill 16 to the drill support 17, but also the set screw 18 serves as a key, to prevent rotation of the drill guide 17 in the threads 10B, 17B. The exposed end 17C of the drill guide is adapted to receive a chunk C of any suitable hand or motor driven device D by which the drill support 17 and everything attached to it may be rotated.
The drill and drill guide are shown in the position of use in FIGURE 2. To prepare the guide for use, the sections 10, 11 and 12 are extended lengthwise to their maximum position so that the flanges 10C and 11A of sections 10 and 11 respectively, and the flanges 11B and 12A of the sections 11 and 12 respectively are engaged. The drill 16 is adjusted relative to the drill support 17 so that only a very small end portion 16E of the drill is exposed, as shown in FIGURE 2. The set screw 13 is then tightened, and the drill 16 will thereafter not move relative to the drill support 17.
Accordingly, with the incision made in the patient, and the bone BO exposed, the surgeon is then able to take the drill guide and seat the points 20 which extend from the collar 13 in position on the bone BO. At least two points 20 will normally engage the bone, and thereby prevent the end collar 13 of the drill guide from either sliding around the bone or moving longitudinally with reference to the bone. With the points 20 thus firmly seated, the drilling device D is rotated, and this causes rotation of the drill support 17 and section 10. Section 11 is free-floating, whereas section 12 is prevented from rotation, and relative rotation may therefore take place at the flanges 10C-11A or at the flanges 11B-12A, wherever a minimum friction occurs. As the device D is rotated, the rotation is imported to the drill 16 and the drill will be projected through the collar 13 until it engages the bone B0, and drill penetration begins. There is nothing to prevent the sections 10, 11 and 12 from telescoping as section 10 rotates relative to section 12, and the spring 15 is merely compressed. Accordingly, the drill 16 is free to extend farther and farther through the collar 13, while rotation of the drill and drill penetration continues. Meanwhile, the portion of the drill 16 is supported by the spring 15, particularly through section 11. The spring 15 normally will rotate with the drill and its left end, as shown in FIGURES 1, 2 and 3, rotating against the smooth face 13D of the collar 13. The spring 15 has merely clearance relative to the drill 16 and the inside surface of section 12. Inside the bore 13C of the collar 13, the drill turns with only a slight clearance 14. Therefore, adjacent the point of drill penetration, the drill is entirely supported by the spring and the bore against lateral deflection except for the small distance between the outer face of collar 13 and the point of penetration of the drill into the bone. The spring 15, where it passes through section 11 gives adequate support for the drill, and even though some slight lateral deflection may occur, this is not sufficient to be harmful. In this way, the entire drilling operation may be completed without undue ditficulty. In some instances, the surgeon will remove the drill support from the drill 17, while the drill is in place in the patient, and X-ray the patient to check the progress of the drill. This can easily be accomplished merely by loosening set screw 18, after which the whole drill guide and support is pulled off the drill while the drill still penetrates the bone of the patient. If the X-ray pictures show the drill to be properly directed, the drill support and guide is again slipped down on the drill until points 20 seat, and screw 18 is then tightened and drilling proceeds. X-raying during the drilling also enables the surgeon very accurately to estimate the additional penetration of the drill which is needed. This is done from the X-ray. Then, after the drill support has been replaced and screw 18 tightened, a measurement is taken before drilling is restarted, the measurement being taken from the points 20 back to a reference point, such as the back edge of housing A. In this way the surgeon can keep track of additional drill penetration.
From the sanitary standpoint, when the drilling operation is complete, the screw 18 is removed. When this is done, the drill support 17 may be unscrewed from section 10, and this permits withdrawal of the drill 16 and along with it there will be removed the spring 15. The spring and drill 16 may then be removed from the drill support 17, and the set screw 18 may also be removed for complete sanitation and sterilization.
The end collar 13 is then unscrewed from section 12, and this permits section 12 to be removed from section 11, and section 11 can be removed from section 10. Accordingly, all parts of the drill guide can be completely dis-assembled with convenience for thorough cleaning and complete sanitation and sterilization.
Referring to FIGURE 5, there is illustrated a slightly modified form of the invention. In this form of the invention the section 10 is modified to provide outside threads 10E at its right end, as shown in FIGURE 5, and is provided with an inner journal surface 17]. An opening 10G in the wall of section 10 is provided through which a screw 18 is threaded. In this case the head of the screw lies flush with or below the surface of the drill support 17. A cap 21 is threaded on the threaded end 10E to hold the drill support in the section 10.
The drill support 17 is provided with a smooth surfaced enlargement 178 (not threaded as in FIGURES 1-4), and this has bearing clearance at 17] so as to turn neatly in section 10. The drill support 17 is pushed against cap 21 by the force of spring 15.
With these modifications, the drill support 17 is accordingly able to rotate within section 10, and section 17 therefore may be gripped by the surgeon. This is advantageous in certain locations where the surgeon or surgical assistant desires to steady the outer end of the drill guide structure.
As many apparently widely different embodiments of 4 this invention may be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, it is to be understood that I do not limit myself to the specific embodiments disclosed herein.
What I claim is:
1. A surgical drill comprising a hollow chucking mandrel, a slender drill fitted in said mandrel and having its bit end projecting from said mandrel, a helical coil spring slidably mounted over an exposed part of said drill and being of diameter to snugly fit said drill, a telescopic sleeve composed of at least two sections mounted over said drill and spring and attached to said mandrel, means to prevent said spring from moving axially out of said telescopic sleeve, said telescopic sleeve having an aperture therein through which the drill is adapted to be projected as the sleeve is telescoped.
2. The surgical drill specified in claim 1 further characterized in that means is provided for securing said end section of the sleeve, the mandrel and drill against rela tive rotation.
3. The surgical drill specified in claim 1 further characterized in that said end section of the sleeve is journaled on said mandrel and the drill is secured in said mandrel.
4. A surgical drill comprising a hollow mandrel adapted to be connected to a chuck for rotation, a slender wire drill fitted in said mandrel, and projecting therefrom, said mandrel including a tubular end where the drill projects, and a compressible helical spring having an inside diameter of a size to receive the drill therein and an external diameter to be received in said tubular end and a length such that it covers the projecting drill, a telescopic sleeve composed of at least proximal and distal sections slidable relative to each other from a condition of maximum extension to a condition of lesser extension, said proximal section of the sleeve being connected to the mandrel and the distal section having an axial opening therein through which the drill may be projected, said spring being seated in the distal sleeve section for normally urging it to a condition of maximum extension relative to the proximal section.
5. The surgical drill specified in claim 4 further characterized in that the telescopic sleeve is composed of proximal, distal and intermediate sections.
6. The surgical drill specified in claim 4 further characterized in that the telescopic sleeve proximal section is secured to the mandrel for rotation therewith.
7. The surgical drill specified in claim 4 further characterized in that the telescopic sleeve proximal section is journalled on the mandrel.
8. The surgical drill specified in claim 4- further characterized in that said distal section includes projections outwardly thereon.
References Cited in the file of thispatent FOREIGN PATENTS 565,964 Great Britain Dec. 6, 1944