US 3130164 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent O 3,139,164 LIQUID BLEACG AND DETERGENT COMPOlTl0N Georg Peter Best, Vlaardingen, Netherlands, assignor to Lever Brothers (lompany, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Maine No Drawing. Filed July 3, 1959, Ser. No. 824,800 Claims priority, application Great Britain July 10, 1958 10 Claims. (Cl. 252-99) This invention relates to liquid detergent compositions.
Concentrated liquid detergent compositions often suffer from the disadvantage that one or more of the components separate out during standing and/ or that a clear solution is not obtained on dilution to the lower concenration employed for actual use. Moreover, it has not hitherto been found possible to include a bleaching agent .in a concentrated liquid detergent composition to give a product which will retain its bleaching activity to an acceptable degree on storage and which will therefore compare with the well known solid bleaching detergent compositions, containing sodium perborate or sodium percarbonate, used in certain applications, particularly in the of a stable pourable emulsion, suspension, or coacervate' which contains (a) at least one anionic active detergent A of the general formula:
RO.(C,,H O) .SO M in which R is an alkyl radical containing from 6 to 18 carbon atoms or an alkylaryl radical containing from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical; M is an alkalimetal, ammonium or substituted ammonium radical, preferably sodium; n is 2 or 3, and m is from 1 to 8, preferably 2 to 4; (b) a condensed phosphate; a soil-suspending agent; and (d) hydrogen peroxide.
Preferably the composition of the invention contains a mixture of detergents A of the general formula given, in which the average value of m is at least 2 and is preferably from 2 to 4. Particularly suitable are the sodium salts of sulphated polyethyleneglycol mono-alkyl ethers of the general formula RO.(C H O) .SO Na, in which R is an alkyl radical with 6 to 12 carbon atoms and m is from 2 to 3, or R is an alkyl radical with 12 to 18 carbon atoms and m is from 3 to 4.
It has been found that these novel bleaching detergent compositions are remarkably stable with respect to loss of bleaching activity on storage. Their stability can be further enhanced if a stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide is included.
Preferred detergents of type A described above include the sodium salt of sulphated diethyleneglycol monolauryl ether, C H CH .O(C H O) .SO Na; the sodium salt of sulphated diethyleneglycol mono-alkyl ether RO.(C H O) SO Na, in which R denotes a mixture of alkyl radicals as these occur in coconut fatty alcohols, the
sodium salt of sulphated tetraethyleneglycol mono-alkyl ether RO.(C H O) SO Na, in which R denotes a mixture of alkyl radicals as these occur in tallow fatty alcohols, and the salt of sulphated tetraethyleneglycol monononylphenyl ether.
The amount of the condensed phosphates, such as for example sodium pyrophosphate and/ or sodium tripolyphosphate, is desirably from 5 to 30%, preferably from 9 to 25%, by weight of the liquid composition.
The soil-suspending agent may be, for example a carboxymethylcellulose of any customary degree of substitution, such as 0.4-1.1 carboxymethyl groups per monosaccharide unit, in the conventional small amounts.
The composition preferably contains hydrogen peroxide in an amount of 0.5 to 3% by weight of the solution, preferably together with a small amount of a stabiliser for hydrogen peroxide, such as, for example, sodium p-hydroxybenzoate, sodium nitrilotriacetate or sodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate.
In addition to the active detergent A, there is preferably also included another anionic active detergent B, which is not of the general formula given earlier for A. B may for example be a fatty alkyl sulphate salt with from 8 to 18, preferably about 12, carbon atoms in the molecule, or an alkylaryl sulphonate with from 8 to 16 carbon atoms in the alkyl group, preferably an alkylbenzene sulphonate with about 12 carbon atoms in the alkyl group. Salts of acylated hydroxy or amino sulfonic acids may also be used.
Preferred detergents of type B include sodium tetrapropylenebenzene sulphonate, sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate, sodium pentapropylenebenzene sulphonate, sodium lauryl sulphate and sodium oleyl sulphate. (The expressions 5tetrapropylenebenzene and pentapropylenebenzene denote alkylbenzenes in which the alkyl groups are derived from propylene tetramer and propylene pentamer, respectively.)
If, as is preferred, a detergent B is present, the weight ratio A:B is preferably from 1:1 to 1:6, most suitably from 1:2 to 1:4. The active detergents A and B together suitably form from 5 to 25%, preferably from 6 to 20% by weight of the liquid composition.
Other common ingredients of detergent compositions, such as fatty acid monoor diethanolamides, optical brighteners and inorganic salts other than condensed phosphates, may be added, subject to the proviso that the compositions should not of course contain ingredients which will react with hydrogen peroxide or catalyse its decomposition on storage. ,,In particular, the compositions should not contain sodium silicate.
In preparing the liquid bleaching and detergent compositions of the invention, in order to ensure that they do not contain matter that is easily oxidised by hydrogen peroxide, all the ingredients may be subjected to an o-xidising pretreatment, preferably with hydrogen peroxide. It is, however, preferred to prepare the composition from untreated ingredients, using a slight excess of hydrogen peroxide. If the composition is then kept for a few weeks, the excess hydrogen peroxide becomes decomposed, but the remainder is surprisingly resistant to decomposition on prolonged storage. The process of destroying easily oxidisable matter by oxidation with the excess hydrogen peroxide may be speeded up so as to o muao 7 L 1 Z 0 L0 0 1 1 F the same 5 1 6:0 n40 0 2 &
Example 3 The following compositions were prepared in the same way as in Example 1:
glycol coconut oil-fatty alkyl ether A) Sodium salt of sulphated tctraethyleneglycol coconut-0il-fattyalkyl other (A).. Sodium salt of sulphated tetraethyleueglycol nonylphenyl other (A) Sodium tetrapropylcnebenzene sulphonate (13).. Coconut-oil fatty acid mono-ethanol- Sodium salt of sulphatcd diethylenetake only a few hours, by adding a small amount of an oxidation-promoting compound such as, for example the benzoyl or acetyl ester of sodium phenol sulphonate, or fatty acid anhydrides, e.g. acetic acid anhydride; or by raising the temperature. 5
The preparation of the compositions of the invention can be effected by incorporating the ingredients (a), (b) and (c) in water, followed by addition of hydrogen peroxide. A suitable procedure is as follows:
A minor proportion of the condensed phosphate or 10 phosphates e.g. 10% by weight of the total amount to be added, is mixed with the soil suspending agent in water at elevated temperature, e.g. 50 to 60 C. After the liquid has become homogeneous, the major part of the condensed phosphate (e.g. 60%) is stirred in at a someg figfwhat higher temperature (e.g. 7080 C.). Subsequent- Sodium fiig l detergent A and, if desired, B, as well as sodium trlpolyphosphate Optical br1gl1te11er acld mono or diethanol amides are added, IIydr0g011per0Xid0 le the temperature is kept at at least 70 C. The rest of the condensed phosphate is stirred in is then cooled to about 50 lpho-groups (B).
The following compositions were prepared way as in Example 1:
lauryl ether (11)..... 2.14 2.14 2.14 Sodium pentapropylenebenzene sulphonate (B) Sodium dodeeylbcnzene sulphonate (13).. Sodium lauryl sulphate (B) The following compositions were prepared in the same way as in Example 1.
glycol mouo-lauryl other (A) Sodium salt of sulphated tetraethyleneglycol nonylphcnyl ether (AL. Salts of a protein-fatty acid condensate with bound su yl-hexyl sulphate (B).
Benzoyl ester of sodium phenol sul- Water Sodium oleyl sulphate (B) 35 Coconut-oil fatty acid monoethanolam1dc Sodium carboxymethy1cel1ulose Sodium pyrophosphate Sodium tripolyphosphate. Optical brightencrr Hy *ogen per0xide p-Hydroxybenzoic acid Benzoyl ester of sodium 50 Sodium salt of sulphated diethylenc- Sodium eth 55 Laurie acid diethenolamide Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. Sodium pyrophosphate. Sodium tripolyphosphate Optical brightencrs. Hydrogen pcroxide Waterzand the liquid PP -gin Sodium salt of sulphatod diethyleneglycol C. Hydrogen peroxide in an C. The oxidation promoting and the composition g agents for hydrogen peroxide, and colouring substance, are then added. Finally the liquid is homogenized in a suitable a The compositions of the invention are general purpose detergent compositions in the form of stable pourable liquid emulsions, suspensions, or coacervates which have The invention will now be illustrated in more detail Water by the following examples:
Example 1 The following compositions were prepared by mixing together the ingredients in the proportions shown, the figlphated tetraethylcneglycol nonylphenyl other (A) Coconut-oil fatty acid mono-ethanolamide Example 2 The following compositions were prepared in the same way as in Example 1.
(A) one sulphoexcess of about 5% as compared with the final concentration desired in the liquid is added, and the mixture is then allowed to cool to 40 to the concentrations in which detergent compositions are normally used (dilutions of from 1:60 to 1:250, in
compound is then added to stand until decomposition of the excess hydrogen peroxide has stopped. Other ingredients, such as o brighteners, perfume, stabilisin a colloid mill.
little tendency to separate out on standing. On dilution particular of from 1:100 to 1:180, are usual) they become clear liquids.
ures representing percent by weight.
Sodium salt of su Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose Sodium pyrophosphate Sodium tripolyphosphate- Optical brightener Hydrogen peroxide. p-Hydroxybenzoic acitL. Acetic acid anhydride. Watcr glycol monolauryl ether odium tetrapropylenebeuz nate (B Coeonut il fatty acid monoethanol e m n em m n WaW Sodium salt of sulphated diethylenegodium pyrophosphatmfln Optical brighteuer Hydrogen peroxide.
p-Hydroxybenzoic aci Benzoyl ester of sodium phenol sulpho- 5 "U a m a .t on 0 5.0 2 0 6....0. 1 4 4541705 420 .0 .02 a 2 2 .28 m 095 0 1020 5 l 2 3 1765 2 6A2. .020 4 3 1 2 .28 093 l 0 1020 5 1 2 5 5 1765 1 3 e m ma 1 0 10 2 0 6 1 0 7 7 78Wo mW Q06 om 7 L 21 2 .L2 0 1010 07 l 4 6 7578513 20 1 8 1 1 2 L4 2 0 IQLO 0 7 1 4 7 7 78513 296 1 7 1 12 L3 2 0 10 1 0 0 7 5 99000392 822 4 020 .090 1 .8 .23 l 101 000 08 These compositions, although clear to the eye, in fact show a Tyndall-elfect; that is, they are emulsions, suspensions or coacervates and not true solutions.
What is claimed is:
1. A liquid bleaching and detergent composition in the form of a stable, pourable dispersion which consists essentially'of water and, by weight of the composition:
(a) of at least one anionic active detergent A of the general formula RO.(C H O) .SG M, in which R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl radicals having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms and alkylaryl radicals having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical; M is selected from the group consisting of alkali metal, ammonium and substituted ammonium radicals; (C H O) is selected from the group consisting of (C H O) and ((3 1-1 0); and m is from 1 to 8;
(b) from about 5 to 30% of a condensed inorganic phosphate;
(0) as a soil-suspending agent, a minor amount of a carboxymethylcellulose having a degree of substitution from 0.4 to 1.1; and
(d) from about 0.5 to 3% of hydrogen peroxide, said anionic active detergent A being present in such proportions that the compositions are in the form of stable, pourable dispersions which have little tendency to separate out on standing.
2. A composition according to claim 1, in which the value of m is from 2 to 4.
3. A composition according to claim 1 in which the anionic active detergent A, is the sodium salt of sulphated polyethylene glycol monoalkyl ether, of the formula R0 (C H O) SO Na, ill which:
R is an alkyl radical with 6 to 12 carbon atoms, and
m is from 2 to 3.
4. A composition according to claim 1 in which the anionic active detergent A, is the sodium salt of sulphated polyethylene glycol monalkyl ether, of the formula RO(C H O) SO Na, in which:
R is an alkyl radical with 13 to 18 carbon atoms, and m is from 3 to 4.
5. A composition according to claim 1, which contains a compound from the class consisting of sodium p-hydroxy benzoate, sodium nitrilotriacetate and sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetate, as stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide.
6. A composition according to claim 1, which contains, in addition to the anionic active detergent A, an anionic active detergent B, from the class consisting of alkyl sulphate salts containing 8 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl group, and alkylaryl sulphonates containing 8 to 16 carbon atoms in the alkyl group.
7. A composition according to claim 6, in which the weight ratio of active detergent AzB is from 1:1 to 1:6.
8. A composition according to claim 7, in which the weight ratio AB is from 1:2 to 1:4.
9. A composition according to claim 6, in which the total amount of anionic active detergent is from 5 to 25% by weight of the liquid composition.
10. A composition according to claim 6, which contains the following constituents in the following percentages by weight of the liquid composition:
Detergent A 1.4-3.8 Detergent B 4.7-12.1 Fatty acid monoethanolamide 1.0-2.8 Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 0.3-0.8 Sodium pyrophosphate 1.1-2.9 Sodium tripolyphosphate 8.0-18.1 Optical brightener 0.03-0.08 Hydrogen peroxide 1.0-2.6 Stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide 0.02-0.06 Water to 100.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,155,899 Harris Apr. 25, 1939 2,254,434 Lind et al Sept. 2, 1941 2,698,302 Sylvester Dec. 28, 1954 2,903,431 Ruff et a1. Sept. 8, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS 783,585 Great Britain Sept. 25, 1957