US 3130681 A
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5 Sheets-Sheet 1 VANE TYPE PUMP R. T. FETHERSTON April 28, 1964 Filed May 25, 1959 Rober 7T Feherson 30 IN VEN TOR.
April 28, 1964 R. T. FETHERsToN 3,130,681
vANE TYPE PUMP Filed May 25, 1959 5 sheets-sheet 2 F fg. 2 Q@ lf\ u 44 :W 46
56 1 ma, 5 *7' @i 64 /5 Robert I Fefhersran 64- 50 F/g. 7
, L/ INVENTOR.
April 28, 1964 R. T. FETHERSTQN 3,130,681
VANE TYPE PUMP 4 Filed May 25, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 F fg. 4
Robert 7T Fer/ersten INVENTOR.
United States Patent C) 3,136,661 VANE TYPE PUR/lll Robert T. Fetherston, 476 N. Washington Ave., Battle Creek, Mich. Filed May 25, 1959, Ser. No. 815,606 3 Claims. (Cl. 163-420) The present invention generally relates to a fluid power device which is in the form of a vane type rotary pump vor motor.
of the present invention is to provide a vane type pump having a novel structural arrangement of components which maintains a substantial pressure-balance on the periphery of a rotor together with a structural arrangement which provides variation of the volume of iluid delivered per revolution of the rotor while maintaining the aforementioned balance.
The present invention generally incorporates a casing and a rotor therein. The rotor is provided with a plurality of radially extending slidable vanes. Encircling the vanes and disposed intermediate the rotor and the interior of the casing is a flexible band of continuous construction which substantially forms a container for the vanes and which is adjustable by moving certain areas of the band, thus defining an eccentric cavity for rotation of the rotor whereby the vanes on the rotor will pump fluid in the usual manner. The flexible band is held in adjusted position by a plurality of radially extending piston and cylinder arrangements having the piston rods engaging the band whereby the band may be disposed in an elliptical manner with the minor axis and the major axis being interchangeable by virtue of changing the oval shaped characteristics of the band.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a vane type pump of low turbulence characteristics in which The primary object 'the delivery volume is controlled by delivery pressure with the pump using standard component parts thus enabling a relatively inexpensive manufacturing cost.
These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accomkpanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like nu- 'merals refer to like parts throughout, and in which:
FIGURE 1 is a plan view of the vane type pump of the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a transverse, sectional view taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line 2-2 of FIGURE 1 illustrating the details of construction of the pump unit;
FIGURE 3 is a transverse, plan sectional view taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line 3-3 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 4 is a sectional View taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line 4-4 of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 5 is a detailed sectional view taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line 5-5 of FIG- lURE 2;
FIGURE 6 is a detailed sectional view taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line 6-6 of FIG- URE 2; and
FIGURE 7 is a detailed sectional view taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line 7--7 of FIG- URE 2.
Referring now specifically to the drawings, the numeral 10 generally designates the pump of the present invention which includes a generally hollow housing of circular or cylindrical conguration generally designated by the numeral 12 which includes three separable parts 14, 15 and 16. The part or member 14 is a circular plate having a cylindrical projection 18 thereon, receiving bearing mem- 3,130,681 Patented Apr. 28, 1964 .lCe
bers 2li which support a power shaft 22 and journal the power shaft for rotation about its axis. The member 15 is of generally annular shape and is positioned between members 14 and 16. The plate or member 16 is secured to members 14 and 15 by a plurality of removable bolts 24 or any other suitable means. Also, the casing 12 is provided with a plurality of radially extending areas 26 which dene between them radially depressed areas 28. Also the plate member 16 is provided with a centrally disposed enlarged or thickened area 30 having passageways 32 and 34 extending therethrough in perpendicular relation to each other but in separate relation to each other, that is, the passageways 32 and 34 are not in communication. The passageways 32 and 34 are each provided with an opening adapter 36 to which may be attached a suitable pipe or the like.
The inner end of the shaft 22 is provided with a splined area 38 which receives and drivingly engages a circular rotor 4l). The rotor 46 is provided with a plurality of radially extending slots 42 communicating with the external periphery thereof with each slot 42 receiving a radially movable blade 44. The blades 44 are centrifugally influenced and may be considered radial vanes which move inwardly and outwardly in relation to the rotor 46.
The interior of member 15 forms a cylindrical hollow area 46 which has an axis coincident with the axis of rotation of the shaft 22. Disposed in encircling relation to the vanes 44 and inwardly of the surface of a hollow area 46 is a flexible cylindrical band 43 constructed of a material resistant to wear, such as metal, which is deformable to an elliptical shape, with the flexible annular member or cylindrical member 4S having a rectangular crosssectional shape.
If the device is to be used as a fluid motor to produce rotary motion from fluid under pressure, the vanes 44 are supplied with spring means so that contact between vanes 44 and annular member 46 is maintained even if the rotor 4@ has insuficient velocity or rotational speed to maintain this contact through centrifugal force.
The inner ends of the slots 42 are interconnected by a peripheral channel Si) communicating with the inner ends of the slots 42 and also communicating with system pressure by virtue of means such as the passageway or opening 52 communicating with the bottom of the channel 50.
Supported on the inner surface of the hollow area 46 at substantially relationships to each other are four planar members or blocks 54 which are equidistant from the axis of the shaft at a distance equal to the outside radius of the flexible annular member 48 when the annular member 48 is perfectly circular in form. These blocks 54 may be stationary or movable on anti-friction bearings 56 with the blocks being disposed at a 45 angle with relation to the horizontal and vertical axes of the casing.
The member 15 is provided with a plurality of radially extending slots 58 each of which is provided with a radially movable linger 60 which contacts the exterior surface of the annular flexible member 48. The fingers 60 are actuated by push rods 62 slidably received in sockets 64. The iingers 60 are arranged in groups of three at 90 points around the casing with each group having two push rods 62 of one diameter and a larger push rod 66 is provided for the central linger 60 which push rod is actually in the form of a piston extending outwardly from the raised portion 26 which extends radially on the casing. The cylinder 68 is integral with the casing and conventional seal means is provided between all of the push rods and the sockets in which the same are provided. The cylinders 68 are provided with removable cover plates securely attached in position by conventional means.
T-heads 7 0 are lirmly attached to the push rodsV 62 snaar-:a1
and are prevented from relative movement by keys or pins 72. Each T -head 76B is provided with bifurcated ends 74 with the space between the bifurcations being suilicient to freely receive the ends of elongated links '76 and also the free ends of proportioning levers 7S. The links 76 extend between adjacent T-heads 7@ and interconnect the same and are attached to the bifurcations by pins 30. The inner ends of the bifurcations also include transverse pins 82 which engage the outer surfaces of the proportioning levers 78 for actuating said levers 78. The proportioning levers 7S are anchored to the casing by pins 84- and engage the outer surface of the outer push rods 62.
The cylinders 65S have each end thereof connected with a source of pressure by any suitable means such as a hose or the like or a tubular pipe member and the ends of the cylinders farthest from the rotational axis of the shaft on the cylinders 63 are interconnected along the horizontal axis as illustrated in FIGURE 2 with these ends being connected in parallel with those ends nearest the shaft center of cylinders 68 along the vertical axis as shown in FIGURE 2. Also, those ends nearest the shaft centers of cylinders 6? along the horizontal axis in FIGURE 2 will be connected in parallel with those ends farthest from the shaft centers of cylinders 68 along the vertical axis as viewed in FIGURE 2. This will provide an arrangement so that when pressure is applied to one set of connections, the pistons 66 movable on the horizontal axis are moved outwardly away from the shaft center while the pistons 66 on the vertical axis will move inwardly toward the shaft center. When the other set of connections is supplied with pressure, the motion of cylinders 68 occurs inwardly along the horizontal axis and outwardly along the vertical axis which is the condition illustrated in FIGURE 2.
With this construction, it is noted that a series of cavities are formed both inside and outside of the flexible annular member 48. A plurality of radially extending pressure equalizing channels 86 are provided and so located as to always communicate between the cavity inside and the cavity outside of the flexible annular member 48 as clearly shown in FIGURE 2 regardless of the position of the flexible annular member 4S. Also, the passageways 32 and 34 in the plate cover I6 are communicated through oppositely disposed pairs of ports S8 and 90 with the passageways 32 and 34 interconnecting the ports 8S and 90 respectively with the adapters 36 being provided for external connection.
The orientation and relationships of the various fastening bolts 24 are illustrated specifically in FIGURES 2 and 4 and may vary as desired.
In operation of the mechanism as a pump, the shaft 22 is rotated by any suitable power device in a counterclockwise direction as illustrated by the arrow in FIG- URE 2. With the flexible annular member 48 disposed in the manner illustrated in FIGURE 2, the volume of each cavity formed between successive vanes 44 and enclosed on the sides by the casing members 1411 and 16, the rotor 4t) and the flexible annular member 4S and this volume is subject to an increase and decrease twice each revolution of the rotor with it being at a minimum when centered on the horizontal axis and a maximum when centered on the vertical axis. As illustrated, the cavities are in communication with one of the four ports except when it is instantaneously centered on either of the axes. Further, the cavity is increasing in volume while in communication with the ports 88 and decreasing while in communication with the ports 9th and it therefore follows that if the adapter 36 were to be connected to a source of relatively incompressible fluid while the rotation of rotor 40 is maintained, said fluid would be drawn in through ports 83 and be discharged through ports 90 to any external system requiring fluid under pressure.
In order to maintain the annular flexible member 48 in the form shown in FIGURE 2 against the resilient force caused by its deformation, a pressure must be maintained against the outer ends of the cylinders 68 and against the outer surface of piston 66 along the horizontal axis as illustrated in FIGURE 2 or at the inner ends of the cylinders 63 on the vertical axis or both. If, during the pumping operation this pressure is reduced a movement will occur in the entire positioning system which will maintain an essentially elliptical shape in annular member dit but will reduce its eccentricity. As the pressure is reduced the eccentricity will be reduced until frictional resistance to movement of the positioning system becomes greater than the resilient force of the flexible annular member 48. Then, if the pressure is reversed in the cylinders 68, eccentricity will be reduced to zero and flexible annular member 48 will assume a perfectly circular form. Under these conditions, the volume of each of the above mentioned cavities does not undergo any change whatsoever as the rotor and vanes rotate about the shaft axis. Therefore, no fluid is either drawn in or delivered from said cavities and a condition of no llow then exists.
If pressures in cylinders 68 are increased in the reversed manner, the flexible annular member 48 will then become eccentric with the horizontal axis forming its major axis. The pump cavities then will increase and decrease in a sequence opposite to that previously Set forth. Operation of the mechanism as a lluid motor requires only the addition of the springs mentioned previously which are not shown. It, of course, will be apparent that in this type of operation variations in the eccentricity of the flexible annular member 48 produce corresponding Variations in the angular velocity of shaft 22 and that the change of the major axis of the ellipse from the vertical axis to the horizontal axis or vice versa will reverse the direction of shaft 22 thus reversing the output of the shaft when the device is used as a motor.
Therefore, the simplicity of the device provides for infinitesimal gradations in delivery volume from maximum flow in one direction through zero flow to a maximum flow in the opposite direction without requiring any change in angular velocity or rotational direction of the power shaft which is required on conventional vane type pumps. These variations are accomplished by changing the eccentricity and orientation of the major axis of the ilexible annular member 4S while maintaining constant velocity uni-directional rotation of the shaft. On the other hand, use of the device as a fluid motor Vprovides infinitesimal angular velocity variations and either direction of output shaft rotation while being operated from a constant delivery source of pressurized lluid.
Certain requirements exist as to the proportioning of the elements of the positioning means for the flexible annular member 48. For example, when the flexible annular member is perfectly circular in form, the links 76 are disposed at an angle of 45 with respect to the vertical and horizontal axes. From this point, ilnite movement of pistons 66 moving inward toward the shaft center is greater than the finite movement of pistons 66 moving outward away from the shaft center. The difference in this relative movement depends on the size and eccentricity of the ellipse. It can be shown that for a given length of ellipse, the diagonal connecting the outer ends of the semi-major and semi-minor axes is a constant for that length of curve regardless of eccentricity. Therefore, it follows that the length (center to center of pin holes) of links '76 must be substantially equal to the diagonal connecting the outer ends of the two outside radii of said flexible annular member 4.5 lying along the horizontal and vertical axes. Stated another way, the eective length of links 76 must be substantially equal to the length of a cord, i.e., straight line, extending between the point of contact of a vertical linger member and the outer surface of annular member 43, and the point of contact of a horizontal finger member and the outer surface of annular member 48. It can be seen that these points of contact lie on the major and minor axes of the elliptical shape resulting from deformation of annular member 48. Inasmuch as the movement of the fingers 60 that are actuated by the outer push rods 62 is relatively less than that actuated by the central push rods 62, it is necessary to interpose proportioning levers 78 so arranged as to deliver the proportionally smaller movement required at these points when actuated by the movement of central push rods through the T-heads 70.
The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention as claimed.
What is claimed as new is as follows:
1. A iiuid power mechanism comprising:
a casing having an inner wall defining a cylindrical chamber;
a rotor mounted for rotation centrally of said cylindrical chamber, said rotor having an outer surface of a diameter that is substantially less than the diameter of said cylindrical chamber;
a flexible annular member of uniform cross-section disposed in said chamber between said rotor and the inner wall of said chamber,
said annular member being deformable from a circular shape to a first elliptical shape having a major axis extending in one direction and also to a second elliptical shape having a major axis at right angles to said major axis of the first elliptical shape;
said annular member having an outer peripheral surface with a diameter less than the diameter of said cylindrical chamber, and an inner peripheral surface with a diameter greater than the diameter of said rotor;
a plurality of radially movable vanes mounted on said rotor to engage with the inner peripheral surface of said annular member to form a plurality of pockets between the outer surface of the rotor and the inner peripheral surface of the annular member;
a pair of diametrically opposed inlet ports,
a pair of diametrically opposed outlet ports,
each of said ports communicating with the annular area between said rotor and the inner peripheral surface of said annular member;
four deforming means at four positions 90 apart on said casing for controllably deforming said annular member to a first elliptical shape having a major axis and to a second elliptical shape having a major axis at right angles to the major axis of said first elliptical shape, each of said deforming means comprising:
a first finger member extending radially into said cylindrical chamber,
a push member connected to said rst finger member,
a head member on the end of said push member opposite said finger member,
a pair of second finger members extending radially into said cylindrical chamber, one on each side of said first finger member, and spaced slightly therefrom circumferentially of said chamber;
said first and second finger members being in engagement with the outer peripheral surface of said annular member,
each of said head members being operatively associated with said pair of second finger members to move same in proportioned relaton to movement of said first finger members,
a mechanical system interconnecting said head members in a manner such that movement of two of said operating means which are diametrically opposed effects predetermined inter-related movement of the other two diametrically opposed operating means; said predetermined movement of said operating means being effective to deform said annular member to an elliptical shape by virtue of the engagement of said first finger members with said annular member and to control the curvature of the elliptical shape adjacent the major and minor axes thereof by virtue of the proportioned movement of said second linger members in engagement with said annular member.
2. A iiuid power mechanism in accordance with claim in which:
four planar surfaces are disposed apart in said chamber adjacent the inner wall thereof;
each of said planar surfaces being in engagement with said outer peripheral surface of said annular member at positions approximately midway between adjacent ones of said deforming means; and
said mechanical system interconnecting said head members includes four links connected, respectively, to adjacent head members,
each of said links having an effective length equal to the length of a cord connecting the point of intersection of a major axis and the outer peripheral surface of said annular member, with the point of intersection of a minor axis and the outer peripheral surface of said annular member.
3. A fluid power mechanism comprising:
a casing having ia inner wall defining a cylindrical chamber,
a rotor mounted for rotation centrally of said cylindrical chamber, said rotor having an outer surface of a diameter that is susbtantially less than the diameter of said cylindrical chamber;
a flexible annulai member of uniform cross-section disposed in said chamber between said rotor and the inner wall of said chamber,
said annular member having an outer peripheral surface with a -diameter less than the diameter of said cylindrical chamber, and an inner peripheral surface with a diameter greater than the diameter of said rotor;
a plurality of radially movable vanes mounted on said rotor to engage with the inner peripheral surface of said annular member -to form a plurality of pockets between the outer surf-ace of the rotor and the inner peripheral surface of the annular member;
a pair of diametrically opposed inlet ports,
-a pai-r of diametrically opposed outlet ports,
each of said ports communicating with the area between said rot-or and the inner peripheral surface of said annular member;
four deforming means at four positions 90 apart on said casing `for controllably deforming said annfular member to a first elliptical shape having -a major 4axis and to a second elliptical shape having a major axis at right angles to the major axis of said first elliptical shape;
each of said deforming means comprising:
a Ifinger member extending radially into said cylindrical chamber,
a push member connected t0 said finger member,
a head member on the end of said push member opposite said finger member;
each of said vfinger membems being in engagement .with
the outer peripheral surface of said annular member;
a mechanical system interconnecting said head members in a manner such ythat movement of two of said deforming means which are ydiametrically opposed effects predetermined simultaneous movement of the other two diametrically opposed deforming means;
said mechanical system comprising:
four *linksr connected respectively, to adjacent head members, each of said links having an effective length equal 4to the length of the cord connecting #the point of intersection of a major axis and the outer peripheral surface of said annular member, 'with the point of intersection of a minor axis and the louter peripheral surface of said annular member; and four planar surfaces disposed 901 apart in said chamber adjacent the inner Wall thereof, each of said planar surfaces being in engagement with said outer peripheral surface of said 'annular member at positions approximately midway between adjacent ones of said defor-ming means.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 763,525 Van Beresteyn June 28, 1904 S Ford July 4, 1916 Rayburn June 16, 1934 Hopkins Oct. 2, 1934 Calzoni Oct. 8, 1935 Cline Dec. 26, 1950 Wheeler Mar. 30, 1954 Ungar Oct. 12, 1954 Orshansky Oct. l5, 1957 Wagner Feb. 4, 1958 Wahlmark Iuly 8, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS Germany Dec. 29, 1936 Germany Sept. 20, 1951 Italy Apr. 14, 1939 Italy Sept. 30, 1939