US 3131556 A
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y 5, 6 M. NEBEL 3,131,556
RUN RESISTANT KNITTED FABRIC Filed Feb. 2, 1961 United States Patent Ofiice 3,131,556 Patented May 5, 1964 3,131,556 RUN RESISTANT KNITTED FABRIC Max Nehel, 160 Waldstrasse, Wiesbaden, Germany Filed Feb. 2, 1961, Ser. No. 86,737 Claims priority, appiication Germany June 13, 196i) 4 Claims. (Cl. 66-178) The invention relates to a circular knitted stocking (whether forming part of another garment such as breeches or not) or sock (hereinafter generically and in the claims hereof referred to as a stocking), and the invention particularly concerns ladies stockings.
A stocking knitted according to the present invention is produced with a run resistant structure by knitting courses comprising short loops alternating with courses comprising long loops. However, when knitting this structure, such short loops are formed only as every second loop of the course of loops, the thread lengths between these loops not being then formed into loops in the course, but being formed into loops in forming the next course (knitted as a complete course), in which long loops are being formed. This is done in such a way that between the long loops which are formed with one thread (single loops) there are somewhat shorter loops which are formed from two threads (double loops), the aforesaid short loops and the double loops alternating with the long loops being displaced laterally by one wale in the wale direction so that at all times there is a double loop, a short loop, a long loop and then again a double loop following one another in the direction of the wale.
The formation of courses containing loops of two different lengths creates different stresses between the loops, thus producing, particularly through the short loops which act as locking stitches and the inclined connecting portions which proceed therefrom to the loops in the following course, a resistance to runs which is practically complete insofar as concerns normal usage. In addition, this structure gives the stocking a fine and uniform appearance.
According to a preferred feature of the invention, an additional thread is fed to reinforced portions of the stocking, for instance the sole and the high heel, in such a way that it is formed into loops with every long loop, so that all large loops are two-thread (double) loops whilethe additional thread floats across the intervening loops.
Moreover, this run resisting structure can be formed in such a way that it is combined with plain normal courses having loops of normal size, for example, so that a course comprising small loops and a course comprising large loops are followed by a normal course of loops,
The stocking structure so produced not only possesses run resistant properties, but it has the property, particularly important for circular knitted stockings, of having greater extensibility in a lengthwise direction than is the case with plain fabric. This increased ability to extend in length makes it possible to knit a closed fabric tube with the same number of loops in a large fabric circumference and to reduce to a smaller fabric circumference those parts of the stocking where this is required, even when the latter has been knitted with a larger fabric circumference or number of loops than is normal.
It is advantageous to produce such circular-knit stockings according to the invention with a somewhat greater number of loops or width for the circumference of the fabric tube than is usual when knitting normal plain fabric.
The run resistant structure can be used in all parts of a fine gauge stocking except inthe double welt and in the heel and toe portions which are knitted to shape.
When producing stocking styles where the toe poition receives its shape by seaming up the fabric tube, the toe portion too may be knitted in the run resistant structure. In the same way the run resistant structure can be used in the toe alone while knitting the remainder of the stocking of ordinary plain fabric.
If, according to another style of stocking, the heel is shaped from the circular knitted fabric, then the heel portion too may be knitted from the run resistant structure.
The invention has therefore the purpose of creating a ladies stocking which is knitted with a run resistant structure and does not have a vertical seam in the leg portion of the hose, a circular knitted stocking knitted in such a structure not being hitherto available. The stocking fabric according to the invention has in its run resist properties, for instance when the fabric is knitted from fully synthetic yarns with their smooth surface properties, such a great difference in the size of loops between the long loops and the short locking loops that the long loops knitted from one thread use at least approximately four times the amount of yarn that is used for the short locking loops (apart from their transverse thread connections). According to the invention it is therefore necessary when knitting a circular stocking in this structure to maintain the minimum differences in thread length in all portions of the stocking, since normally in such a stocking the upper portion of the leg is knitted from larger loops while the lower portion of the leg and the foot is knitted from smaller loops. If this is not observed, the differences in the size of the loops is increased.
An increase in the differences in the size of the long single loops and the somewhat shorter double loops with the thread from the locking stitch to the short locking stitches may occur in the upper portions of the circular knitted stocking which, because of their increasing circumference, are generally knitted looser from larger loops, as compared with the lower portions which, because of the smaller circumference, are knitted closer from smaller stitches.
In the drawing:
FIG. 1 shows a circular knitted ladies stocking with the marked portions which according to the method of manufacture have been knitted with the run resistant structure;
FIG. 2 shows a loop structure of the run resistant fabric in basic structure;
FIG. 3 shows a loop structure of this run resistant fabric which is reinforced with an additional thread;
FIG. 4 shows a loop structure of this run resistant fabric with an interposed knitted course formed from normal loops; and
FIG. 5 shows a method of production where the toe portion has been knitted in tubular form and shape has been given by seaming up the toe, and the toe portion has been knitted in the run resistant fabric.
The run resistant fabric of the stocking shown in FIG. 2 consists of courses a of short loops, which alternate with courses b of long loops. In forming a course a, first only the small loops B are formed, that is to say only every second loop, the intermediate lengths of thread not then being formed into loops. These intermediate lengths are formed [into loops to form part of double loops D, when the course b of loops is formed, that is, they take pant in the forming of the alternate double thread loops D which lie between the large loops A of this course. By knitting in these intermediate thread portions from the course a in the following course b comprising long loops Where they form part of the double loops D, the short loops B are drawn together thus forming a very small locking loop below each long loop A which extends over two courses of loops and has at least four times the an amount of yarn than is present in the locking loop B, excluding the traversing thread connections P and S. In order to obtain alterating locking loops B in the direction of the wales there is a displacement of one loop from the forming of one course of short loops to the next course of short loops, so that always in the direction of the wales there is a locking loop B above a double loop D, followed by a large loop A, a double loop D and so on in that order. The large loop A is formed because, when the course a of short loops was formed, no loop B is pulled through a loop A, the double loop D together with the small loop B together having approximately the length of the large loop A.
In order to give shape, this circular knitted stocking, in the upper part of its leg portion from 6 to 511, FIG. I, is knitted from large loops and to a larger width or diameter, and then, from the knee part a, in a gradually increasing manner, loops which become smaller are knitted until position 5b is reached when the loops remain of the same size including those in the part of the foot 2.
The circular knitted ladies stocking with its varying sizes of loops must be knitted in the run resistant structure, which demands an enlarging and a diminishing of the thread length of the course a of short loops. The minimum dimension of the four-fold thread length which the single thread large loops A have in relation to the small locking loops B also obtains as the minimum meas ore for the fabric in those parts of the stocking with the smaller width or diameter, from 5b onwards to the toe portion, FIG. 1.
When increasing the size of the loops for the larger circumference or diameter of the stocking parts from 5!) to So and 6, FIG. 1, the large loops A and the double loops D, which have been partly formed from the thread a of the small locking loops B, are knitted still larger in relation to the locking loops B, so that the difference between the large loops A and the locking loops B increases but does not diminish.
This knitted structure according to FIG. 3 can be further improved by using an additional thread 0 only in the course b of long loops and forming this additional thread into loops in this course only together with the thread which forms the long loops A thus forming two thread double loops A--C, the thread 0 forming thread floats H across the loops which lie between the double loops A-C. The length of thread which is formed into loops in the course a and the length of thread in the course 12 can advantageously be adjusted in such a way as to be almost of the same length, so that the thread 0 which has been formed into the long loops A has the same extensibility in the coursewise direction as the thread for the course a of loops.
This loop structure FIG. 3 is particularly suitable for the reinforced parts of the stocking, that is to say for the sole portion 2b, the high heel portion 4 and the reinforced shadow welt 6 'FIG. 1. If the hose is knitted in a style where the toe portion 10, FIG. 5, is formed from tubular fabric receiving its shape by seaming or if the heel portion 30, FIG. 5, is formed by boarding out the circular knitted fabric tube, then if it is required to reinforce these portions of the hose, they can also be knitted from fabric according to FIG. 3.
According to an additional feature of the invention, as shown in FIG. 4, it is possible to combine this run resistant fabric with normal plain courses g which consist of loops of normal size. There is here between two successive courses a and b knitted from loops A, B, D, a normal course g consisting of loops E.
The formation of courses of loops from two different thread lengths creates different relationships in drag between the loops A, D and B thus producing, especially through the small locking loops B with the two inclined portions S running from them to the loops in the following course a completely run resisting structure insofar as concerns normal usage.
A full length ladies stocking when knitted in this run resistant fabric from inelastic thread material, is advantageously knitted with more than four hundred loops for the fabric circumference, because of the increased ability of such fabric to stretch in length.
The double welt 7, FIG. 1, is knitted in the normal plain fabric structure, in order to obtain the transverse elasticity which is required for this part of the hose.
The area of the shadow welt 6 which is knitted with stronger thread material is also produced in the normal loop structure or from very loosely knitted run resistant fabric.
A ladies knee length stocking knitted in the loop structure as described can be made with 400 loops in its fabric circumference.
When using the loop structure according to FIG. 2, 3 or 4 there are various manufacturing styles. One style according to the invention for knitting the ladies stocking of FIG. 1 comprises knitting the leg portion 5 and the foot part 2 in the run resistant fabric, while the heel part 3 which is knitted to shape and the toe part 1 which is also knitted to shape are knitted in the normal plain fabric, the dotted lines in the parts 1, 3 indicating where narrowing has taken place. The stocking may be mainly knitted from the fabric shown in FIG. 2, and the reinforced sole 2b and/or high heel 4 from the fabric shown in FIG. 3 in which every second course is reinforced by an additional thread c. This reinforced fabric can be knitted to a width which remains constant or the width can be made to increase or decrease (FIGS. 4 and 5) in a manner which is known or possible with circular knitted stockings.
In another manufacturing style, the toe part In of the stocking (as shown in FIG. 5) is knitted with the fabric in tubular form and by means of a seam N it is equipped with a toe part 101 which is seamed up to shape. This type of toe knitted in tubular fabric, irrespective of how it receives shape by means of seaming, may be knitted according to the invention with the run resistant fabric of FIGS. 2, 3 or 4.
By knitting the toe with fabric having these run resistant properties, it is possible for seaming up the fabric to use seams with side stitches, which are soft and fiat without seaming in a large number of loops.
A further style for the stocking comprises knitting the heel portions from the run resistant fabric, FIGS. 2, 3 or 4. With such a stocking, the heel portion 3a is knitted in the Well known manner as shown in FIG. 5 in circular tubular form. The fabric in the heel portion 3a can either be knitted alone from the fabric of FIG. 3 with reinforcement part c or it can be formed connected with the reinforced sole fabric, FIG. 5. If the fabric of the sole portion 21) is not knitted from the fabric shown in FIG. 3 but from fabric shown in FIG. 2, the heel portion 3a can also be knitted from the fabric shown in FIG. 2, from which the stocking parts 5 and 2a are knitted.
Circular knitted ladies stocking according to the invention can be knitted from fully synthetic inelastic threads, from fully synthetic elastic crimp yarns or from natural silk yarns. It is advantageous also for these stockings incorporating the structure according to FIGS. 2, 3 or 4 to use various types of threads together, threads a, b and c being different from each other as respects the thread material.
It can thus be advantageous to use for courses b of long loops a thread which shrinks less and for the courses a of short loops a thread which shrinks more.
These circular knitted stockings according to a further feature of the invention are manufactured in such a way that, for knitting the courses a of short loops, an elastic crimp yarn is used, and, for the courses b of long loops, an inelastic fully synthetic yarn isused, or these two yarns can also be used in a reverse manner.
When knitting breeches and stockings combined, according to the invention, the fabric, the double welt fabric excepted, can be of the structure shown in FIGS. 2, 3 and/ or 4 and is advantageously knitted in all parts from fully synthetic crimp yarns. Apart from this, breeches and stocking combined can be knitted by the same manufacturing methods as those used for knitting the stocking.
The stocking, or the breeches with stocking can also be knitted only partially from the run resistant fabric, that is in those parts which are particularly subjected to wear.
When knitting breeches combined with stockings of fabrics which are not particularly fine in gauge, and of stronger crimp yarn and with larger loops, it is possible to lessen the number of loops for the fabric circumference in relation to the previously mentioned number of loops.
The making up of the upper portion of the breeches combined with stockings requires the insertion of several seams in order to connect the cut fabric edges, so that also for this purpose it is possible because of the run resistant fabric to use various types of seams which are advantageous without the possibility of the loops slipping out of the seam.
This application is a continuation-in-part of United States Patent No. 3,080,740, issued March 13, 1963, said patent, and particularly the knitting machine capable of producing the fabric of this invention, being included herein by reference.
While I have described herein some embodiments of my invention, I wish it to be understood that I do not intend to limit myself thereby except within the scope of the claims hereto or hereinafter appended.
1. Circular knitted stocking having at least some portions thereof other than the welt of differing diameter,
said portions being circular knitted of a run-resistant structure, said structure comprising in each wale successively a long loop, a short loop and a double loop, the loops in each wale being staggered with respect to the loops in adjacent Wales, the thread in one course forming a long loop in one Wale and a part of the double loop in the next wale with connecting portions between said long and said double loops and the thread in adjacent courses forming the short loop in one Wale and a part of the double loop in the next wale with connecting portions between said short and said double loops, the ratio of the length of thread in each long loop exclusive of any connecting portions to the length of thread in each short loop exclusive of the connecting portions being at least about four to one in the portion of less diameter and such ratio increasing in the portions of greater diameter.
2. A circular-knitted stocking according to claim 1 in which the welt and the continuation shadow welt are knitted as in a normal plain fabric.
3. A circular-knitted stocking according to claim 1 having a toe portion knitted from the run resistant structure and shaped by seaming up the circular knitted fabric.
4. A circular-knitted stocking according to claim 1 in which the heel portion is formed from circular fabric which has been shaped afterwards, the circular-knitted heel portion being formed of the run resistant structure.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,190,409 Maier Feb. 13, 1940 2,699,056 Margulies Ian. 11, 1955 FOREIGN PATENTS 548,017 Italy Sept. 18, 1956