US 3132549 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 12, 1964 A. w. LEE
HAND WRENCH Filed Aug. 29, 1961 Alvin W Lee INVENTOR.
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United States Patent 3,132,549 HAND WRENCH Alvin W. Lee, 4760 SW. Lower Drive, Lake Grove, Oreg. Filed Aug. 29, 1961, Ser. No. 134,615 2 Claims. (Cl. 81-57) This invention relates to wrenches, for twisting such elements as nuts, bolts, screws, and the like, and having manually actuated mechanism to produce rotation of a workturning spindle in the wrench. The wrench has particular utility in applications where it is desired to turn a screw, nut or bolt with one hand, either completely into or out of its seat, without having to remove and replace the wrench at intervals during the process.
A general object of the invention is to provide a novel speed wrench, that is actuated by gripping or squeeze pressure exerted by the hand. Preferably the wrench is constructed so that on a single constriction of the hand, a work-turning spindle in the wrench undergoes multiple rotations sufiicient completely to tighten or loosen the usual bolt, nut or screw.
Another general object is to provide a novel form of speed wrench, that features a pistol-grip mechanism for actuating it, such mechanism when actuated being operable to rotate a work-turning spindle extending in a direction approximately normal to the pistol-grip mechanism.
In general terms, a wrench embodying this invention comprises a housing having a barrel portion, and a palm seat depending downwardly adjacent one end of the barrel portion. Pivoted to the base of the palm seat is a squeeze arm, having an upper end movable in an arcuate sweep adjacent the barrel portion of the housing. A rack secured to this upper end, and curved to parallel the arcuate movement of the upper end, engages a pinion in gearing connected to a work-turning spindle in the wrench. The spindle is journaled in the barrel portion of the housing, and extends about normally to the palm seat. The gearing is substantially enclosed within the housing and is thus shielded. The gear ratio of the gearing is such that on a single pivotal sweep of the squeeze arm, multiple rotations of the spindle result.
Thus, a more specific object of-the invention is to provide a wrench having pistol-grip mechanism for actuating it, with such mechanism including a movable squeeze um, and gear means operatively interposed between the squeeze arm and a work-turning spindle in the wrench operable to rotate the spindle on movement of the arm.
A related object is to provide such a speed wrench, where the squeeze arm constitutes an arm pivoted to the base of a palm seat in the wrench, and has a nonpivoted or free end movable in a sweep past part of the housing of the wrench, with a rack on said end as part of the mechanism producing rotation of the spindle.
Another object is to provide a wrench where gearing is provided to convert arcuate movement of an actuating arm into rotation of a spindle, and such is enclosed within a chamber provided in housing structure of the wrench.
A further object is to provide, in a wrench of the above general description, a novel digitally operated latch means for locking gear parts therein, and thus locking out the actuating mechanism, enabling the wrench to be used for finally tightening or initially loosening an element such as a nut or bolt, by twisting the wrench bodily about an axis corresponding to the axis of a rotatable work-turning spindle therein.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a speed wrench, with actuating mechanism for rotating a workturning spindle therein, that has novel means for reversing the direction of rotation of the spindle, upon operation of the actuating mechanism in a given direction.
As will be seen from the description that follows, the speed wrench is readily actuated by one hand, in cramped or confined quarters, with the hand positioned naturally and with the element to be turned located in the usual comfortable working position in front of a person. The actuating mechanism of the wrench may easily be locked out, or the operating direction of the wrench changed, without letting go of the wrench, and using the same hand that holds the wrench.
The invention is described hereinbelow in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a side view of a wrench constructed according to an embodiment of the invention, with portions of the housing of the Wrench removed, to illustrate details of interior construction; and
FIG. 2 is a top view of the wrench in FIG. 1, also with portions removed.
Referring now to the drawings, the tool or wrench is indicated generally at 10. Forming the body of the wrench is a housing 12. Housing 12 comprises a pair of alochiral sections 12a, 12b, and these are secured together by screw fasteners 14.
Along the top of housing 12 there is provided what is referred to herein as a barrel portion 16, and integral with barrel portion 16, and depending downwardly adjacent one end of the barrel portion, is an elongated portion 18, referred to herein both as a first handle portion and as a palm seat.
The base of portion 18 is bifurcated, so that forks 18a, 18b are provided at the base. Pivoted between forks 13a, 18b is an elongated squeeze arm 29. also referred to here in as a second handle portion. The arm is pivotally mounted in place by pivot means 22. Pivot means 22 accommodates pivotal movement of the upper or free end of arm 20 toward and away from portion 18, with the upper end moving in an arc adjacent barrel portion 16, as indicated by the arrow in FIG. 1.
Mounted on the upper end of arm 2% is an elongated, arcuate rack 26. The rack parallels the arcuate move ment of the upper end of the arm. When arm 26 is pivoted, it moves from the position shown in solid outline in FIG. 1 (its extended position), to the position indicated in dashed outline (its retracted position) where it lies adjacent portion 18, and during this movement the rack at upper end of the arm moves into the housing through slot 23. The rack is operable during pivotal movement of the arm to produce rotation of a work-turning spindle 23 in the wrench, as will be described. Bias means, in the form of a spring 3% with ends engaging portion 18 and arm 20, is provided for urging arm 2% to its extended position. Limiting movement of the arm and rack, between extended and retracted positions for the arm, is a pin 32 joined to the upper end of the arm, and a slot 34 that receives the pin, with the pin moving within the confines of the slot.
In the wrench, portion 18 and arm 20 constitute pistolgrip mechanism for actuating the movable parts in the wrench. The wrench is held in one hand, with portion 153 against the palm, and the fingers clasped around arm 20. In this position, barrel portion 16 of the housing and spindle 29 extend out forwardly of the hand, in approximately the same position as the usual barrel in a pistol.
Work-turning spindle 29 is journaled in a forward part of barrel portion 16, and is substantially perpendicular to portion '18. Bushings journaling the spindle are indicated at 42, 44, and a bore receiving the spindle is indicated at 46.
Fixed, as by pin 49, to the outer, forward end of spindle 29 is a fitting 50 with a squared end 560. End Slla is provided with a detent 52, urged by a spring (not shown) to a position projecting to one side of the squared end. If the wrench is to be used in turning elements such as head screws or nuts, a socket fitting or chuck, such as shown at 5d in dashed outline, is detachably fastened to 3 end 5011 of fitting 50, with detent 52 detachably holding the chuck in place. Chuck 54 is removable, to enable different sizes and shapes of chucks to be substituted therefor.
Housing 12 of the wrench has walls 60 defining a chamber 62 within the interior of the housing. 'The chamber is substantially completely enclosed within the housing, and is employed for mounting within the housing gear mechanism operatively connecting rack 26 and spindle 29.
More specifically, extending transversely of spindle 29, and journaled in the housing adjacent the inner end of spindle 29, is a shaft 66. The shaft is also shiftable in an axial direction, and finger seats 68 may be provided at the exposed ends of the shaft to facilitate axial shifting of the shaft. At 71) is indicated a spring biased detent, that seats within one or the other of a pair of annular grooves 71 or 72 extending around shaft 66. The detent detachably secures shaft 66 in place, in a position where the detent is either in groove 71, or groove 72.
Affixed by a pin 75 to the inner end of spindle 2 9 is a bevel gear 76. Secured to shaft 66, and therefore disposed at right angles to gear 76, are a pair of bevel gears 78, 80. In one of the two positions mentioned for shaft 66, bevel gear 78 meshes with gear 76 (as shown), and in the other position for the shaft bevel gear 81) meshes with gear 76. The two gears and shaft mounting them are part of reversing mechanism in the wrench, since the direction of rotation of spindle 29 reverses upon changing the gear selected to mesh with gear 76.
Shaft 66 is positioned in the housing slightly above rack 26. Affixed to the shaft between gears 78, 30 is a pinion gear 82. This has considerable width, and in both positions of the shaft mentioned, the teeth of the pinion gear mesh with the teeth of rack 26 below it.
Supported on housing 12, in an upper part of the barrel portion, is a digitally operated latch means indicated generally at 86. Means 86 comprises an arm 83, having a thumb seat 89 at one end, and secured at its other end to a stub shaft 91. The shaft extends inwardly from the side of the housing, and has secured to its inner end a latch 92. The latch lies over bevel gear 76, and enters between the teeth of gear 76 in its lowered position. Urging the latch upwardly and away from gear 76, to the position shown in FIG. 1, is a spring 94.
When latch 92 is forced downwardly by pressing down on the thumb seat, the latch is effective to lock the gear parts in place, and prevent turning of work-turning spindle 29 in the housing of the tool. With the parts locked, the tool or wrench may be twisted bodily about the axis of spindle 29, with the spindle turning directly as a result, and the tool used for final tightening or loosening of an element.
Explaining the operation of the tool, a suitable chuck is first secured to the end of fitting 50, and shaft 68 adjusted to place either gear 73 or gear 89 in mesh with gear 76, depending upon whether an element is to be tightened or loosened. A workman then grasps the wrench in his hand, with his fingers extending about squeeze arm 20 and the base of his palm on portion 18. On applying squeeze or gripping pressure, arm 2% pivots inwardly, with movement of the rack past pinion gear 82 and rotation of the pinion gear. The gearing described has a gear ratio that results in multiple rotations of spindle 29 on one sweep of arm 20. The usual nut or screw may be completely tightened or loosened with one actuation of arm 20. To finally tighten or loosen a screw or nut,
while still grasping parts 18, 20, the thumb is placed on thumb seat 89 and arm 88 lowered, to lock bevel gear 76 in a stationary position within the housing.
The tool is readily manipulated with one hand, and used where space is limited. The gear parts are enclosed within and shielded by the housing. The rack on the end of the squeeze arm is disposed adjacent the barrel portion and effectually shielded thereby. The squeeze arm, since it is pivoted at its base to the base of the palm seat, is connected solidly where its end is exposed, thus minimizing chance of bending or other damage to the arm.
1. In a wrench, a body portion, a work-turning spindle journaled in said body portion having one end adapted to turn a workpiece and a gear secured to the opposite end thereof, a shaft extending transversely of said spindle adjacent said opposite end journaled on said body portion and mounted for axial movement, a pair of gears fixed to said shaft and disposed on opposite sides of the gear secured to said spindle, means for shifting axially said shaft to place either one or the other of said pair of gears in engagement with said gear secured to the spindle, a pinion gear secured to said shaft, an actuating arm movably mounted on said body portion having a movable end adjacent said pinion gear, a rack on said movable end engaging said pinion gear and operable to rotate the pinion gear on movement of said movable end, and a latch pivoted on said body portion pivotable between hold and release positions and operable in its said hold position to engage the gear on said spindle and prevent the same from rotating.
2. In a hand-powered rotary tool, a body having a barrel portion and depending from one side thereof a palm seat, a work-turning spindle substantially paralleling the barrel portion and journaled therein and having one end adapted to turn a workpiece and a gear secured to the opposite end thereof, an axially movable shaft extending transversely of said spindle adjacent its said opposite end journaled in said barrel portion, said shaft having ends adjacent opposite sides of said barrel portion exposed on the outside of said barrel portion, a pair of gears secured to said shaft and disposed on opposite sides of the gear secured to said spindle, said exposed ends of said shaft comprising means operated digitally for shifting said shaft axially to place either one or the other of said pair of gears in engagement with the gear that is secured to said spindle, a pinion gear secured to said shaft between said pair of gears, an actuating arm movably mounted on said body portion having a movable end adjacent said pinion gear, a rack on said movable end of said arm engaging said pinion gear and operable to rotate the gear on the movement of the end of said arm, and a latch mounted on said body portion pivotable between hold and release positions and operable in its said hold position to engage the gear on said spindle and prevent the same from rotating.
References Qited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,322,391 Alexander Nov. 18, 1919 1,322,623 Rosecrans Nov. 25, 1919 1,648,134 Kientz Nov. 8, 1927 1,949,241 Carlson et al. Feb. 27, 1934 2,633,044 Pasquariello Mar. 31, 1953 2,701,490 Griparis Feb. 8, 1955 2,704,475 Shuman Mar. 22, 1955 2,913,942 Rozmus Nov. 24, 1959 3,035,451 OConne'll et al. May 22, 1962