US 3132671 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 12, 1964 KOPPELMAN ETAL 3,132,671
A METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR WEAVING SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES WOVEN THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20, 1956 13 Sheets-Sheet l IN VE TORS "Z'awar/ fl a 7e 777471.
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May 12, 1964 E. KOPPELMAN ETAL 3,132,671
METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR wmvmc SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES WOVEN THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20, 1956 15 Sheets-Sheet 2 flz/za N I II INVE T0135 12047"; 4 0776 777a. flr/Zz/r K 6'477ff777d77,
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METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR wmvmc SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES WOVEN THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20, 1956 1:5 Sheets-Sheet :5
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y 1964 E. KOPPELMAN ETAL 1 METHQDS OF AND APPARATUS FOR WEAVING SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES WOVEN THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20.- 1956 13 Sheets-Sheet 4 May 12, 1964 E. KOPPELMAN ETAL 3, 7
, METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR WEAVING SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES WOVEN THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20, 1956 1: Sheets-:Sheet 5 May 12, 1964 E. KOPPELMAN ETAL METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR WEAVING SHAPED WOVEN THEREBY FABRICS AND ARTICLES Original Filed Nov. 20, 1956 13 Sheets-Sheet 6 y 1964 E. KOPPELMAN ETAL 3,132,671
METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR WEAVING SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES WOVEN THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20, 1956 13 Sheets-Sheet 7 I w/l May 12, 1964 E. KOPPELMAN ETAL 3,132,671
METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR WEAVING SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES WOVEN THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20-, 1956 13 Sheats-$heet 8 May 12, 1964 E. KOPPELMAN ETAL 3,
METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR wmvmc SHAPED mamas AND ARTICLES wovzu THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20. 1956 13 Sheets-Sheet 9 INV 0R3 I 1704?] Kaye ir/%z If awr v gvnrrz May 12, 1964 E. KOPPELMAN ETAL 3,132,671
METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR WEAVING SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES WOVEN THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20, 1956 15 Sheets-Sheet 10 dfi /4 1/ L l u II J! INVENTORS.
May 12, 1964 E. KOPPELMAN ETAL 3,132,671 METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR wmvmc SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES WOVEN THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20, 1956 13 Sheets-Sheet 11 U w i llr May 12, 1964 E. KOPPELMAN ETAL 3,132,671
METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR wmvmc; SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES WOVEN THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20-, 1956 13 Sheets-Sheet 12 INVENTORS ZZ/darJ/Fa fejrfid?! Fr/Zzl? )5. 6 4 7717711411.
May 12, 1964 E. KOPPELMAN ETAL 3, 32, 71
METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR wmvmc SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES wovzzu THEREBY Original Filed Nov. 20, 1956 1: Sheets-Sheet 15 s J K ":7, a 77/ W 55 E-ET- United States Patent METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR WEAVING SHAPED FABRICS AND ARTICLES WOVEN TEEREBY Edward Koppehnan, Huntington Park, and Arthur R. Campman, Los Angeles, Calif., assignors, by mesne assignments, to Raymond Development Industries, Inc, Huntington Park, Calif a corporation of Delaware Original application Nov. 20, 1956, Ser. No. 623,366, now Patent No. 2,998,934 dated Aug. 29, 1961. Divided and this application M 6, 1961, Ser. No. 93,388.
13 (Ilaims. (Cl. 139-11) This invention relates to improved methods of and apparatus for Weaving curvilinear fabrics, and to improved fabrics Woven thereby. This application is a division from =co-pending application Serial No. 623,366 filed November 20, 1 956 and now Patent No. 2,998,030.
There is an increased need for curvilinear woven fabrics shaped with a relatively high degree of accuracy to a predetermined form, and having relatively high strength and good uniformity of density throughout their areas. Such fabrics are especially advantageous in, for example, the fiber-reinforced plastics industry where shaped articles are made by laying up layers of raw resin impregnated fabric upon a shaped mandrel and subsequently curving the resin to form a laminated article. Heretofore fiat woven fabrics have been used in such processes, and uniform density of the articles produced has been relatively difficult to achieve, especially in the tapered portions of the articles, since flat fabrics cannot be readily wound upon a curvilinear mandrel in a smooth fashion. A substantial amount of hand cutting and skilled fitting has heretofore been required in laying up fabric upon a curvilinearly shaped mandrel, and the cost of laminated" articles formed thereby has heretofore been relatively high.
The practice of the present invention provides shaped, Woven fabrics which may be made to conform closely to any desired surface contour and to fi-t smoothlyupon a shaped mandrel without cutting or skilled fitting operations. Fiber reinforced articles of greatly increased strength, improved appearance, and reduced cost may be readily made using shaped fabric lamina according to the present invention. Instead of fitting flat fabrics upon curvilinear mandrels, socks may now be woven conforming in shape to the mandrels and simply slipped on the mandrels with ease.
Moreover, in curing the resins in previous such articles, relatively difii'cul-t vacuum or pressure bag techniques were used because of the relatively uneven surfaces presented by the wrapped fabrics, and because of the difficulty of hold ng Wrapped fabrics in their desired positions without slippage. Now, according to the present invention, fabrics may be shaped to fit the mandrels closely and accurately and the resins may be cured by so-called matched metal molding]? a process wherein a mating die is fitted in engagement with the mandrel and the impregnated fabric is compressed and heated between the die and the mandrel to cure the resin. Matched metal molding is capable of producing stronger and more uniform materials than previous bagging techniques since greater pressure and heat can be used. Other advantages such as those relating .to improved strength will become apparent through a reading'of this specification.
Accordingly, one important object of the present in- "fee Another object is to provide improved apparatusfor weaving curvilinear fabrics.
These and other object-s are accomplished by the present invention, according to which a curvilinear fabric may be woven conforming with a relatively high degree of accuracy to a predetermined surface contour. The fabric may be woven on a specially modified loom, using a conventional Jacquard head to raise and lower the Warp ends to form the Weaving sheds in which the filling threads are laid. Shaping is accomplished by drawing the filling threads into different predetermined arcuate positions in the warp as the fabric is woven. This may be done according to the present invention by any of three principal methods. The first method comprises varying the rates of take up of the Warp ends as a function of both the progress of the weaving and the positions of the different ends across the width of the warp. 'After each fill thread is beaten up and locked in the Warp, the warp is advanced in a predetermined manner to draw the fill thread into a predeterminedancuate position. The second method comprises the use of a novel reed to beat up successive fill threads into different predetermined arcuate positions, the warp travel being kept constant and uniform. The third method comprises weaving thefabric in an open, or extended form, each fill thread when it is beaten up being positioned along a predetermined curve lying in a plane perpendicular to the direction of weaving.
The invention also provides improved apparatus to Weave fabrics according to the methods described herein. According to one embodiment of the invention, apparatus for weaving by the first method comprises a specially shaped take-up roll over which a fabric is trained as it comes off the loom. The roll is shaped to take up dif ferent warp ends at different, continuously changing rates :as the fabric is woven, thus drawingsuccessive fi'l-l threads into successive, different arcuate positions to shape the fabric to conform to a predetermined surface contour. According to another embodiment, the variable warp take-up may be accomplished by a bent bar take-up roll which, in addition to rotating about its own arcuateaxis, (is selectively rotated about a straight axis as the weaving progresses.
Apparatus for weaving by the second method of the invention'c'omprises a reed having pivoted dent Wires positionable by a shaped cam, which is rotated as the weaving progresses so that successive picks are heated up into different predetermined arcuate positions. I
Apparatus according to the invention for weaving shaped fabrics in an open, or extended form comprises a fan-shaped reed having curved dent wires, and heddle means to position the. warp to conform to desired predetermined contours during successive sweeps of the reed.
Fabrics woven according to the methods and upon apnparatus of the invention are generally characterized by vention is to provide improved methods of weaving curvilinear fabrics. I
Another object is to provide improved woven fabrics shaped to conform to predetermined curvilinear surfaces, and to provide improved fabric reinforced plastic articles including such fabrics.
evenly spaced warp ends and a helical filling which forms substantially planar loops, or hoops when the fabric is extended to its full natural shape. Laminated fiber reinforced plastic articles made With shaped fabrics according to the invention are characterized by increased strength since each layer of reinforcing fabric is unitary and the fill threads lie in substantially circular hoops around the article. Moreover, production costs are significantly lowered because skilled hand fitting is not required and relatively inexpensive matched metal molding may be used in place of vacuum or pressure bag molding methods.
The invention will now be described in greater detail in connection with the accompanying drawings of which:
a portion of ogive shape, illustrating one surface contour that may be readily'fitted'by fabrics woven according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a plan view of a fabric woven according to the invention on flat weaving apparatus, such fabric being shown collapsed, but such fabric being capable of being extended to fit the surface shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 2a is a longitudinal section of the fabric shown in FIG. 2; I I
FIG. 3 is a partly schematic, front elevational view of a Jacquard loom, as modified for weaving according to one embodiment of the invention; FIG. 4 is a fragmentary, perspective view of a loom including a cam-shaped take-up roll according to the invention; 1
FIG. 5 is an isometric view of a chart illustrating one step in the determination of the shape of the cam-shaped take-up roll shown in FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is a chart illustrating the principles of curvilinear weaving according to one embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 7 is a plan view of a chart illustrating a second step in the determination of the shape of the cam-shaped take-up roll shown in FIG. 4;
FIG. 8 is a chart illustrating a third step in the determination of the shape of the cam-shaped take-up roll as shown in FIG. 4, particularly showing the cross section of the roll in one plane;
FIG. 9 is a chart similar to the .one shown in FIG. 8, but particularly showing the cross section of the roll in a second plane;
FIG. 10 is a chart similar to the one shown in FIG. 8, but particularly showing the cross section of the roll in a third plane;
FIG. 11 is a front elevational view of a cam-shaped take-up roll according to the invention;
. FIG. 12 is a fragmentary, perspective view of a loom including a cam-shaped take-up roll according to a modification of the invention, the roll being mounted for selective alternate use with a conventional cylindrical take-up roll;
FIG. 13 is a fragmentary, schematic view of a bent bar take-up roll assembly according tothe invention;
FIG. 14 is a cross section of the bent bar take-up assembly shown in FIG; 13, taken along the line 1414 thereof;
FIG. 15 is a. fragmentary, elevational view of a modified form of a bent bar take-up roll assembly according to the invention; 7
FIG. 16, which appears on sheet 2, is a diagrammatic view illustrating the use of two bent bar roll assemblies for weaving curvilinearfabrics according to the invention using a warp beam;
FIG. 17 is a fragmentary, schematic view of a pivoted dent wire reed according to the present invention;
FIG. 18 is a schematic, cross-sectional view of the reed shown in FIG. 17, showing the reed mounted upon the lay of a loom;
FIG. 19 is an elevational view of a fan-shaped reed having curved dent wires according to the invention, the reed shown being adapted especially for weaving fabrics in open form;
FIG. 20 is a fragmentary, partly schematic, isometric view of the fan reed shown in FIG. 19 together with heddles and heddle control means cooperative therewith;
FIG. 21 is a fragmentary, partly schematic, isometric view of a portion of the heddle control means'used with the fan reed. FIGS. 20 and 21, taken together, constitute FIG. 24 is a schematic, side elevational view of the apparatus illustrated in FIGS. 20 and 21;
FIG. 25 is a chart illustrating one step in the determination of the shapes of the dent wires of the fan reed shown in FIG. 19; 7
FIG. 26 is a chart illustrating a second step in the determination of the dent wire shapes of the fan reed shown in FIG. 19;
FIG. 27 is a chart illustrating a third step in the determination of the dent wire shapes of the fan reed shown in FIG. 19;
. FIG. 28 (Sheet 6) is a schematic, cross-sectional view of a fabric woven in double folds according to the inven- 2 tion; and
FIG. 29 is a schematic, cross-sectional view of a fabric woven in quadruple folds according to the invention.
Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 1 illustrates a shaped object 30 having a cylindrical body portion 31 and an ogive nose portion 32. This object 30 may be any one of several articles such as a laminated fiber reinforced plastic housing for a radar antenna, a mandrel for use in molding such a housing, or simply a woven, curvilinear fabric according to the present invention extended to its full shape for which it is woven. According to the invention, improved fabrics of uniform density may be woven conforming with a relatively high degree of accuracy to the shaped surface of the object 30. The practice of the invention is equally applicable to the weaving of fabrics of many other shapes, the object shown in FIG. 1 being illustrated because of its relative simplicity, and because of its ogive portion 32 which is of a compound curvilinear contour.
A fabric 36 is shown in FIGS. 2 and 2a including a section 38 shaped to conform to the surface of the object 30. This fabric is woven in tubular form, the filling being laid alternately in upper and lower sheds, and selected ones of the warp ends 42 being floated, i.e., being dropped from f the weave as the section 38 is tapered from the cylindrical portion 44 toward its apex 46. 1
According to one embodiment of the invention, the take-up rates of different respective ones of the warp ends 42 are varied as the weaving progresses to curve the fill threads into predetermined arcuate positions, producing puckered portions 48 in the fabric. The fabric, even though woven on a flat loom is not itself flat, but includes, belled, or puckered portions 48 which expand outwardly when the fabric is extended to conform to the contour of the nose portion 32 of the object 30. These puckers 48 are woven into the fabric according to the present invention in all cases where the fabric is shaped to conform to a non-developable surface. In the case of a developable surface, the puckers are absent, but the fill threads are arcuately disposed across the warp in the tapering portions.
The need for the puckers is readily apparent in those cases where the fabric must conform to non-developable surfaces. In the case of developable surfaces such as right circular cones, the fill threads are curved in order that they may extend in substantially circular linestor,
a single view, and may be joined together along the dash more accurately, helical lines, when the picking travel is taken into account) around the fabric when it is extended, and not form cusps along the drop lines 50, where the warp ends 42 are dropped or taken up in the weaving to taper the fabric.
If, as in the prior art, the fill threads are not curved during weaving, the fabric may be made to conform to tapering developable surfaces such as right circular cones, but when such a fabric is thereafter extended, the fill threads are distorted out of a desired uniform, helical disposition and form undesirable cusps along the drop lines 50, pointing generally away from the apex of the fabric. This distorted, or skewed disposition of the fill threads reduces the so-called hoop strength of the fabric, and also tends to introduce non-uniformitiesin the fabric density, especially if the fabric is stretched appreciably.
Moreover, surfaces of compound curvature, and those having both cylindrical and tapering portions are generally not developable, and fabrics of uniform density conforming thereto cannot readily be woven by previous methods.
Cam-Shaped Take-Up Roll The fabric 36 illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 2a, as well as fabrics of many other desired shapes, may be woven according to the invention upon a flat loom 56, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, using a creel 58 to supply the warp and a conventional Jacquard head 59 to shed it. The loom 56 is provided with a specially shaped take-up roll 60 over which the fabric 36 is trained as it comes from the lay 64 of the loom. Otherwise, the loom 56 may be entirely conventional.
The take-up roll 61 is especially shaped as hereinafter described to effect variations in the feed rates of selected ones of the warp ends to produce curvilinear shaping of the fabric according to the principles of the invention. The method of punching the Jacquard cards to produce tapering of the fabric by dropping selected ends, and to weave the fabric in either tubular or open form is sufliciently Well known not to require detailed discussion herein. The woven fabric is trained over the shaped take-up roll 60 and drawn down to a cloth beam 66. Both the take-up roll and the cloth beam are rotatively advanced in incremental steps in conventional fashion as the weaving progresses. The tensions on the individual warp ends may be controlled by any desired mechanism (not shown) such as Weights frictionally engaging the individual warp ends in a conventional manner.
The take-up roll 60 may comprise a series of separate cams all rigidly mounted in fixed relationship to each other upon a shaft 68, but preferably the cams are faired together to form a smoothly tapered roll as illustrated. The chart shown in FIG. 5 illustrates the first step in the determination of the shape of the take-up roll 61) for weaving a fabric conforming to a surface having a plane of symmetry. As an illustrative example, the surface of the object 3i) may be considered. Cam-shaped take-up rolls according to the invention may be used for weaving fabric to conform closely to any surface having a plane of symmetry, but the principles of the determination of the roll shape may be fully understood from the following example in which the surface to be considered is symmetrical about an axis.
The determination of the shape of the take-up roll 60 for weaving a curvilinear fabric is based on a polyconic principle. The surface to be fitted by the fabric is thought of as being made up of a series of conic frustums, which may be made sufiiciently short to approach the actual'surface as closely as desired. The take-up roll 6% is shaped to impart curvature to the fill threads substantially as if weaving a fabric to conform to a series of conic frustunis, each frustum having a different slope.
Referring now to FIG. 5, the curved surface 70 shown therein represents one half of the surface of the object 30, being all of the surface lying on one side of an arbitrarily selected plane of symmetry. Reference coordinates are drawn upon this plane including a longitudinal axis 101 coincident with the axis of the surface 70, and a transverse axis 81 lying in the plane of the base 81" of the surface. Uniformly spaced transverse grid lines 82 to 99 are drawn parallel to the transverse axis 81 in the plane.
The peripheral dimensions of the surface 70 are translated to the plane of symmetry, to'produce what may be termed a true length diagram of the surface 70. Transverse measuring lines 82' to 89 are drawn on the surface 70 in planes parallel to the plane of the base d1. These measuring lines 82' to 89 are spaced apart equal distances as measured along the curved surface 70, and the spacings are, for convenience, made equal to the spacings bebtween the transverse grid lines 81 to 99. The length of the base 81' and of the measuring lines 82' to 89, as taken along the curved surface '70, are transferred to corresponding ones of the transverse grid lines 81 to 89, centering each length upon the longitudinal axis 101, and appropriately marking its end points (not designated); The procedure may be thought of as a flattening of the curved measuring lines upon the plane of symmetry without any decrease in their length. Their spacings, too, are flattened and reproduced upon the plane.
. The end points of the lengths so laid out are then conneoted by a smoothly curved line 74, which may be said to define the flattened shape of the surface 70, or to constitute its true length diagram. It will be appreciated that although the arcuate lineal dimensions of the surface 70 may be transferred accurately to the plane, the curve 74 does not represent a development of the surface 70 in the geometrical sense, and the area enclosed within the curve 74 differs substantially from the area of the surface 70.
Since the fabric to be woven must conform to the surface 70, the next step in the determination of the required shape of the cam-shaped roll 60 provides correction factors, which indicate the required differential advance of the warp as a function of both the progress of the weaving and the positions of the different respective warp ends across the width of the warp. In effect, Weaving according to the present embodiment of the invention is done as though one were weaving a flat fabric shaped to conform to the true-length diagram, except that the warp is differentially advanced to draw the full threads into arcuate posit-ions to impart curvature to the fabric. The Jacquard cards are punched on the basis of the truelength diagram, as though for weaving a fiat fabric conforming to the true length diagram. The warp runs parallel to the longitudinal coordinate axis 101, and" the fill threads are laid parallel to the transverse lines 81 to 98.
The principles of curvilinear weaving the camshaped roll 60 may perhaps be most simply described in connection with a night-circular cone, a true-length diagram 91 of which is illustrated in FIG. 6. This truelength diagram 91 rnay be constructed in [an exactly analagous manner-to the construction of the true-length diagram 74 of the surface 70. The true-length diagram 91, it will be seen, is an isosceles triangle having. a height 92 equal to the slant height of the cone. The developed shape of the cone includes that portion of the truc-length diagram 91 bounded by the mo 83, which is drawn on a radius equal to the height 92 of the triangle and centered on the apex 94. Now, in weaving with a cam-shaped roll 60 according to thepresent embodiment of the invention, the warp is laid parallel to the height Q2 of the triangle and the first fill thread is laid in the warp along a straight line corresponding in length and position to the base 95 of the triangle. As successive fill threads are Woven into the Warp, (the warp is differentially advanced to draw the first fill thread out of linearity and into an arcuate position approximately conforming to the position of the arc 93. In the case of the right circular cone, the successive fill threads are drawn \to arcuate positions having successively smaller radii of curvature, so that when'the fabric is completed it approximates the developed shape of the cone and does not conform to the true-length diagram. Moreover, each one of the fill threads lies approximately on an arc concentric with the base are 93, so that when the fabric'is extended to its true shape the fill threads lie substantially in single circles.
The differential advance of the Warp required to draw the first fill thread .tlIlIlO position along the arc 93 is such that "the central warp end, lying along the height line 92, is advanced a substantial distance While the edge warp ends are advanced to a lesser degree. The differential in travel between the central and the edge warp ends is equal to the distance along the height line 92 between its intersection with the are 93 and the chord 96 of the arc, which chord is drawn between the intersections of the are 93 with the legs 97 of the triangle. The warp advance 7 differentials applicable to subsequent fill threads are analogously derived, based on successive arcs concentric with the arc 93.
Thus, inthe case of the first woven fill thread in the cone, the differential between the advance of the central 'warp end the edge warp ends may be represented by the distance along the height line 92 between its intersection 98 with the fill thread, and its intersection 99 with the chord 96. Similarly, a like measurement may be made for any desired fill thread along the length of the fabric. Also, for any given fill thread, the differential between the central warp end and any other desired warp end intermediate between the central one and the edge ones may be found by drawing successively shorter chords of the are involved. For example, for the intermediate warp end indicated by the dotted line 92', the correction factor, or differential at the first pick may be found by first drawing a line 97 from the apex 94 of the triangle to the intersection of the end 92' and the base 95. The chord 96' passing through the intersection of the line 97' and the arc 53 determines the correction factor, or differential for the intermediate warp end 92'. This differential is the distance between the point 98 and the intersection 99' of the chord 96' with the height line 92.
The cam-shaped roll 69 is shaped to accomplish the curvature of successively laid fill threads by differentially advancing the warp after each fill thread is beaten up When weaving fabrics shaped to conform to surface contours other than right circular cones, the roll shape required for properly advancing the warp is determined on a polyconic principle, i.e., as if the surface were made up of a plurality of conic frustums, each frustum having a difierenrt slope.
Returning now to FIG. 5, and assuming that the surface 76 is of circular cross section throughout its length,
tangents 114 to 119 to the surface 7 i) are drawn on the reference plane. These tangents meet the surface 70 at the measuring lines 84 to 89' and are extended to the longitudinal axis 191. They may be thought of as representing slant heights of cones, frustums of which constitute the surface 70. These tangents 114 to 119 are used as radii to construct arcs 134 to 139 on the true-length diagram 74, as shown in FIG. 7. The tangent 114 drawn to the surface 70 at the measuring line 84 serves as a radius for the are 134 drawn tangent to the transverse grid line 84 and centered on the longitudinal axis 101. Similarly, the other tangents 115 to 119 are used as radii to draw arcs 135 to 139 tangent to the respective grid lines 85 to 89 corresponding to the respective measuring lines 85' to 89' to which tangents were originally drawn.
These arcs 134 to 139 correspond to bases of developed cones, each cone having a different slope because of the compound curvature of the surface 70. Chords 144 to 149 are drawn across these arcs as hereinabove described in connection with the right circular cone shown in FIG. 6. The correction factors, or differentials in the warp advance between the central warp end lying along the axis 101, and the ends passing through the edge of the fabric are the maximum spaces between the chords 144 to 14? and the respective arcs 134 to 13-9. The correction factors for the intermediate warp ends may be readily determined analogously to the determination of the intermediate correction factors hereinbefore described in connection with FIG. 6. All of the correction factors may be approximated sufficiently accunately for most commercial purposes by taking the longitudinal distances be tween the transverse grid lines 84 to 89 and the respective arcs 134 to 139 along the different warp ends. This approximation is relatively close in those portions of the fabric where the slope of the surface contour is not steep. As the apex of the fabric is approached, however, the slope steepens and the approximation produces relatively large proportionate errors. For many practical purposes, however, even such relatively large errors may be toler- 8 ated, since the actual physical dimensions near the apex are small.
Correction factors are measured for each of several selected warp ends spaced from the central end. Although in practice a relatively large number of such warp ends would 'be selected, only three 101a, 1911), and 1010 are illustrated herein. Correction factors are determined for each of the warp ends 101a, 101b, and 101a at each of the transverse grid lines 81 to 9d that they intersect within the curve 74. The correction factors so determined are transferred tllO circular diagrams such as those shown in FIGS. 8, 9 and 10, which may be used as templates for making separate cams to be incorporated in the take-up roll 69.
The central cross section of the take-up roll 60 is circular and has a circumference equal to the height of the true-length diagram 74 plus a desired length of overweave, so that each revolution of the take-up roll corresponds to the weaving of one complete length of shaped fabric plus a desired length of overweave. The circles 152, 153 and 154 shown in FIGS. 8, 9 and 10 are each drawn to be equal in size to the central cross section of the roll 60. Each one of these circles represents a respective one of the intermediate warp ends 101a, 101b, and 1010.
Each of the circles 152, 153 and 154 is divided into segments (not separately designated) the arc of each one of the segments being equal in length to the spacing between the transverse grid lines 81 to 90, and an additionel segment 158 of arbitrarily selected size being provided for the overweave. In each of the circles, one radius R81 bounding the overweave segment 158 is selected as a starting point, and corresponds to the base grid line 81. Proceeding clockwise around eachcircle, successive ones of the radii R81 to R that separate the individual segments correspond to successive ones of the transverse grid lines 81 to 90.
The correction factors, as determined from the chart shown in FIG. 7, are converted by dividing them by Zr, and, thus converted, are transposed to the corresponding radii. The converted correction factors are measured along the radii inwardly from the circumferences of the circles. In elfect, the radii are reduced in length to a degree where they are equal to radii of circles whose circumferences are less than the full circumference of the circles 152, 153, and 154 by the unconverted correction factors. The outer ends of the radii as corrected are connected by smoothly curved lines 152a, 153a, and 154a to define the contours of the templates for the take-up roll cam sections. Each one of the curves 152a, 153a, and 154a defines the cross section of the take-up roll 60 in the plane of the corresponding warp end 101a, 19115, and 1010. The curves 152a, 153a, and 154a may be used as templates to cut separate cams (not shown), each one of which is used as a portion of the take-up roll 69.
The principle of the construction of the template curves 152a, 153a, and 154a may perhaps be best understood by a specific, detailed description of the construction of the first such curve 152a. This curve 152a represents the cross section of the roll 60 in the plane of the Warp end 101a. In order to achieve fabric shaping according to the invention and to draw the fill threads into their desired arcuate positions, this warp end must be taken up at a slower rate than the central warp end during a portion of the weaving. The rate of take up for this warp end 101a must also be varied in a controlled manner as the weaving progresses to weave the fabric to conform accurately to the surface 70.
Now, the radius R81 of the circle 152 represents the starting point of Weaving, i.e., the fabric will come off the loom from right to left as viewed in FIG. 2 and the curve 152a may be thought of as a cross section of the roll 60, rotating in a counterclockwise direction with the fabric being trained overit. When the filling is laid in 9. the warp in the position of the base grid line 81, the takeup roll will be oriented so that its line of tangency with the fabric intersects the radius R31. During the first portion of the weaving all the warp ends are taken up evenly to weave the cylindrical portion 34 of the fabric. The first portion of the curve 152a, accordingly, coincides with the c rcumference of the circle 152. At a point between the transverse grid lines 83 and 84, however, the fabric starts to taper, and correction is needed. The first correction factor to be encountered is the one approximated by the distance between the transverse grid line 84 and the arc 134 (FIG. 7) all the correction factors for the curve 152:: being taken along the warp end 1131a. A point 174 is then marked on the radius R84 that corresponds to the grid line 84. This point 174 is spaced inwardly from the circumference of the circle 152 a distance equal to the first correction factor divided by 2n.
A second point 175 is marked on the next radius R85 spaced inwardly from the circle circumference a distance equal to /211- tirnes the next correction factor, which is the distance from the line 85 to the arc 135. Other points 176, 177, and 178 are similarly established on the succeeding radii R86, R37, and R88, respectively. No correction factor need be taken at the grid line 89 since the Warp end lilizz is dropped from the fabric before that grid line 89 is reached. All of the points 174 to 178 are then connected together by the smoothly curved template line 1512a. This curve 152a is extended either by approximation or by appropriate measurement to a length equal to the complete length of the warp end 191:: included in the fabric. It is then extended as directly as desired to the outer end of the starting radius R81.
Separate templates 153a and 154a are similarly made for each of the selected intermediatewarp ends 1411b and 11110, the longitudinal axis 191 being translated, as heretofore stated, to a full circle. If the fabric to be woven is not symmetrical about the longitudinal axis 161, diiferent templates are required for the warp ends on opposite sides of the axis 101. In the instant case, however, the curved surface 70 illustrated has axial symmetry, and, therefore, two cam sections may be made from each of the templates, one to be disposed on each side of the roll center, and symmetrically spaced therefrom with respect to its matching member. W v
Cam sections (not separately shown) conforming in shape to the template curves 152a, 153a, and 154a are secured together in alignment upon a common shaft 68 (FIG. 11) and are preferably faired together to form a smoothly curved roll 61) as illustrated. If the surface to be fitted by the woven articles is relatively gently curved, relatively few templates may be required. If it is sharply curved, however, or of irregular character,
the grid spaces are preferably made relatively small and a larger number of templates are made to provide a relatively higher degree of correction accuracy and precision. The roll 65 is preferably covered with card clothing 61, sandpaper, or the like for positive driving engagement with the fabric 36. 1
During Weaving with a shaped take-up roll, such as the roll 60 shown in FIG. 11, the entire warp of the fabric is taken up evenly and at a uniform rate as long as it is drawn against the cylindrical portion of the take-up roll 61). When, however, the roll 60 is angularly advanced sufiiciently to bring tapered portions of its contour to bear against the fabric, warp ends spaced from the center of the fabric are taken up at a slower rate than the central end, and a curvilinear character is imparted to the fabric.
In the foregoing discussion, the assumption was made that the surface 711 to be fitted by the woven fabric was of circular cross section throughout its length. If this is the case, as it is in many practical instances, cam-shaped rolls shaped according to the method described provide relatively close curvature corrections. 1f, however, the
surface 70 is non-circular in cross section, the correction factors must be multiplied in each case by a further factor, which may be called for convenience the compensating factor. The compensating factor is a measure of departure from true circularity and may be defined as the ratio between the actual transverse grid line length and Zn times the orthographic projection ofthecorrespending measuring line on the plane of symmetry. If the true-length diagram of a surface of non-circular cross section is symmetrical about its longitudinal axis, the compensating factors are the same on both sides of the But if the true-length diagram is unsymmetrical with respect to its longitudinal axis the compensating factors must be computed separately for the two opposite sides.
The cam-shaped take-up roll may, alternatively, be made so that its entire circumference corresponds 'to only the tapering portions of the fabric to be woven such as the puckered portions 48 of thefabric 36 (FIGS. 2 and 2a) and an auxiliary, cylindrical take-up roll 18% may be used during weaving of the straight, or nontapered portions, as illustratively shown in FIG. 12-.
In FIG. 12, there is illustrated a loom 56' which may be exactly similar to the loom 56 shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, except that in place of the single take-up roll 61 two takeaup rolls 60" and 1 are provided, arranged to be alternately brought into engagement with the fabric 35 being woven. The take-up roll 6i)" is'cam-shaped, and of tapering. longitudinal section. Its complete circumference corresponds to the tapered, ogive-shaped portions 38 of the fabric 36. The cylindrical portions '44 of the fabric, are woven using the cylindrical take-up roll 180. This arrangement allows greater flexibility in weaving since the lengths of the cylindrical portions of the fabric may be varied as desired without going to the trouble of making up new cam-shaped rolls.
The two rolls 60 and may be mounted upon separate shafts '68 and 18 2, respectively,journalled in a pair of end plates 184 and 1 86, which may be rotated to bring one or the other of the rolls 60" and 180into position to engage the'fabric 36-. The end plates 18-4 and 186 may be rotatably mounted upon any convenient supports upon the loom 56 and may be controlled by means of a hand crank 188. Rotational drive for the take-up rolls 60' and 180 may be provided by a chain and sprocket arrangement (not generally designated) mounted upon one of theend plates 186. This drive may, illustratively, comprise a central sprocket 190 fixed upon a shaft 192 driven by the conventional roll drive chain 194." The central sprocket 190 engages and drives a chain 196 which is trained around sprockets 198 and 290 fixed upon the shafts 68 and 132, respectively.
- During weaving of the developable, or non-tapering portions of the fabric, the cylindrical roll 1811 may be usedto take up all of the warp ends evenly and at a uniform rate When weaving of the tapering sections of the fabric commences, the crank 188 is operated to reverse the positions of the rolls 60' and 1-80, bringing the shaped take-up roll 60 into engagement with; the fabric 3 6 to take up the dilferent warp ends at different varying rates to shape the fabric. Latch dogs such as the dog ZhZ'may beprovided, if desired, to engage one or both of the end plates 184 and 186 to prevent accidental movement of the two rolls 60- and 186 about their common axis.
It will be appreciated that, particularly for Weaving articles of relatively complicated shapes, a second shaped take-up roll' may be substituted in place of the cylindrical roll 18%. Also, more than two take-up rolls may be mounted upon the end plates 184 and 186 for selective alternateuse. I
Bent Bar Weaving ventional bent bar take-up roll assembly as illustrated in FIGS. 13 to 15. These take-up rolls 220 and 222 may be similar to those used in the textile industry as an expander preceding a squeeze roll or padding operation. They are geared together, as schematically indicated, by the gears 224 and 226, and mounted for rotation, each roll about its own arcuate axis. The rolls 220 and 222 may be driven from both ends by any convenient means such as a pair of synchronized electric motors 223. They may be made of separate, interlocking cylindrical sections 225 mounted upon fixed, arcuate bars (not separately designated) and covered with padding material and a flexible, elastic cover 227 capable of maintaining its surface characteristics under the continual flexing imposed by the roll rotation.
According to the present invention, the pair of rolls 220 and 222 are mounted upon a rigid frame 23%, which is pivoted uponfixed supports 232 and 234 so that the rolls 220 and 222 may. be swung about a straight axis, as indicated by the dot-ted line 236, independently of and simultaneously with their rotation about their own arcuate axes.
Weaving of curvilinear fabrics having an axis of symmetry may be accomplished with the bent bar take-up roll assembly, using the same basic principles hereinabove described for varying the take-up rates of difierent warp ends as the weaving progresses. The straight axis 236 passes through the apex 238 of the meeting line 239 of the rolls 226 and 222. During weaving, the rate of rotation of the rolls about their arcuate axes is maintained constant (with respect to the picking rate), and, therefore, the center of the warp, which is drawn through the apex point 238 is advanced at a constant rate regardless of the rotation of the rolls about their straight axis 236.
The diameter of the rolls 22d and 222, and their curvature may be varied as desired, and are not critical in the practice of the invention, except that the curvature of the roll axes is preferably sufficient to accomplish the full required shaping correction with a minimum angular travel of the rolls about their straight axis 236. If too much angular travel about the straight axis 236- is used, shaping accuracy may be adversely afiected since the fabric may then be drawn too far along one of the rolls 220 or 222 away from the meeting line 239.
FIG. illustrates a pin type bent bar take-up I011 240, which may be used in place of the roll assembly 220 and 222 shown in FIG. 13 and in an exactly similar manner thereto. The pins .244 projecting radially from the roller 240 grip the fabric and advance it at a controlled rate similarly to the squeeze action of the pair of rollers 220 and 222. The roll 24% may, alternatively, be covered with card clothing to grip the fabric in place of the pins 244.,
The rotation of the take-up rolls 22b and 222, or of the take-up roll 240 about the straight axis 236 that is required to shape a fabric being woven to a desired con tour may be determined from the true-length diagram of the contour, using correction factors determined as hereinab-ove described in connection with the determination of the shape of the cam-shaped take-up roll 60. Referring again to FIG. 7, the curvature corrections required to shape a fabric using the bent bar take-up device are exactly the same as those heretofore described, except that only the correction factors along the drop line need be used, i.e., only the correction factors taken at points along the curve 7-4. The rotation of the bent bar rolls 220 and 222 about the straight axis 236 is adjusted to provide the needed corrections along the drop line as the weaving progresses, and when this is done the axial curvature of the rolls 220 and 222 automatically producesthe proper curvature correction in the body of the fabric, i.e., in that portion of the fabric represented by the area enclosed within the curve 74. v
I The correction factors are determined as heretofore described, and in operation the rolls 22b and 222 are rotated about their straight axis 236 to vary the rates of take-up of all the warp ends except the center end represented by the longitudinal axis 101, which end extends through the apex 238 of the meeting line 239 of the rolls, and passes through the straight axis 236. The rolls 220 and 222 are not rotated about their straight axis 236 during :Weaving of cylindrical, or non-tapering portions of the fabric. Thus, when weaving from left to right as viewed in FIG. 7, no rotation of the rolls about the axis 236 is required until the pick represented by the transverse grid line '84 is approached.
Between the point at which the fabric first startsto taper and this pick (grid line 84) the rolls are rotated sufficiently to permit the warp end 1010 that passes through the intersections of this pick with the drop line (the curve 74) to lag a distance equal to the correction factor for that end at that pick. As hereinabove described, this correction factor is equal to the distance between the line 84 and the chord 1%. As the weaving continues, the rotation of the rolls 220 and 222 about their straight axis 235 is continued at an accelerating rate so that as each end is dropped from the weave it has lagged with respect to the center end (the axis 1G1) a distance equal to the full correction factor taken at the drop line 74. For example, taking the warp end represented by the broken line ldld, it will be seen that it is dropped from the weave approximately at the pick represented by the transverse grid line 88. The correction factor for this end at the drop line 74 is represented by the distance between the line 88 and the chord 148. The total, cumu lative rotationof the rolls 220 and 222, about their straight axis 236 is made sufficient to permit this end 101d to lag behind the center end by the full correction factor at the time that the pick represented by the line .88 is woven. The total length of the warp end 101d from the base 81" of the fabric to the drop line 74 is less than the corresponding length of the center warp end 10-1 by an amount equal to this correction factor (the corresponding length of the center warp end 10 1 being taken in this case from the base 81 to the pick represented by the grid line 88).
Any .convenient means may be provided to accomplish the desired rotation of the roll assembly frame 230 about the straight axis 236 in conformity with the correction factor system described. I-llustratively, this'means may comprise a hand crank 241 attached to the shaft 243 of the frame 230, so that the rotation may be accomplished manually. For convenience, a dial and pointer 24-5 may lac-provided to indicate the angular position of the rolls 220 and 222 about the axis 236. In this event, the correction factors would be converted to angular displacement factors and the weaver should be provided with a chart indicating desired angular correction factors as a function of the weaving progress. In most instances, however, a variable speed transmission device (not shown) may be connected between the take-up drive chain 194' (FIG. 4) and the shaft 243 of the roll assembly frame 230. The driving ratio of the transmission may then be varied in response to the operation of the Jacquard head, the pertinent information being punched upon the cards. The connection between the drive chain 194 and the shaft 243 may comprise any of many known, continuously variable speed transmission devices, such as, for example, a wheel and disc transmission in which the of a driving wheel frictional-1y engages the face of a driven disc, the wheel being radially movable across the face of the disc to vary the drive ratio. Other equivalent variable speed drive structures may be used according to choice.
It is appreciated that the curvature corrections achieved the bent bar take-up method of weaving diifer from the curvature corrections accomplished by the cam-shaped take-up roll. The differences arise because in the bent bar method the curvature correction for each warp end 2 is the full, cumulative correction factor, while in the cam-shaped take-up roll the curvature correction is slightly less than this amount. The differences, however, are relatively small and in bothcases sufficiently accurate shaping is accomplished to achieve the principal objects of the invention and to weave fabrics conforming closely to predetermined surface contours. The cam-shaped takeup roll method is more versatile than the bent bar method, since such rolls may be shaped for weaving curvilinear fabrics having no axial symmetry. On the other hand, the bent bar method has the advantages of structural simplicity, and flexibility in that one bent bar assembly may be used for weaving fabrics of many different sizes and shapes.
As shown schematically in FIG. 16 (sheet 2), the bent bar take-up system readily lends itself to weaving from a yarn beam 280 in place of the creel 58 hereinabove described. Ordinarily, variat-ions in the rates of take-up of different warp ends require the use of a variable le out device, such as a creel, or a multisection yarn beam of relatively great flexibility in order to insure proper tensioning of the warp. According tothe present invention, however, the slack created by the variable take-up rolls 220 and 222 may be taken up by a set of auxiliary take-up rolls 282 and 284 mounted between the warp beam 280 and the lay of the loom, which in FIG. 16 is indicated by the broken line 286. The aux liary bent bar rolls 282 and 284- are rotated about a straight axis similarly to the take-up rolls 220 and 222, but in the opposite direction. The auxiliary rolls 282 and 284 are driven synchronously with the take-up rolls 220 and 222, taking up slack in the warp that otherwise would be developed by the take-up rolls 220 and 222, and maintaining an even tension across the width of the warp :as it is let out from the beam 280.
Pivoted Dent Wire Reed Weaving of shaped fabrics may also be accomplished according to another embodiment of the invention, using a reed 409 as illustrated in FIGS. 17 and 18. The dent wires 402 of this reed 409 are pivoted at one end upon a header frame member 404 so that they may be swung through a vertical arc parallel to the direction in which the reed sweeps. The ends of the dent wires 402 opposite from the header 404 are extended through slots 406 formed in the shuttle track 408, and are connected to individual retracting springs 4&5. A shaped back-up roll 4-10 is mounted upon a shaft 412 immediately behind the dent wires 402. The shaft 412 is journalled in slidable supports 414 which ride on ways 416. The roll 410 may be driven into and out of engagement with the dent wires 402 by means of a pneumatic cylinder assembly 418 connected to the shaft 412 and mounted upon a fixed bracket 417 on the lay of the loom. The cylinder 418 is energized to advance the roll 410 into engagement with the dent wires 4% when the reed sweeps to its beat up position (as shown in solid lines in FIG. 18), and is reversed to retract the roll 410 when the reed is retracted.
The roll 410 is shaped to selectively position the dent wires 402 to beat up the fill threads of a fabric to controlled curvilinear positions. The roll 410 is rotatively driven by any desired mechanism such as a ratchet 419 driven by a pawl (not shown) pivoted on the loom frame,
to present a new line of contact to the dent wires 4&2
the roll 410 may be varied. For example, if the warp to be woven is threaded through the reed 400 immediately adjacent to the shuttle track 498, and the roll 41% is 1d placed half-way between the header 4% and the track 408, the radial dimensions of the roll 410 may be half as great as those of the roll 6%} heretofore described. The slots 406 are made sufliciently long to accommodate the full travel of the dent wires 402 required for the largest correction factor.
Weaving in Open Form A novel fan-shaped reed 300 for weaving curvilinear fabrics in open, or extended form is illustrated in FIG. 19 and includes curved upper and lower dent Wires 302 and 304, respectively. The determination of the exact curvatures of the dent wires required for weaving fabrics to conform to difierent contours will be described hereinafter, but for the present it should be noted that such curvature is necessary in this method of weaving in order to maintain a uniform Warp density in the woven fabric. In operation, a warp is threaded through the reed 300 in the usual manner, and means are provided to shape the warp to conform to a desired surface contour when the reed sweeps forward to beat up a fill thread. When the reed isretracted, the shaping means are de-energized or otherwise made ineffective, and a shed is formed in the warp for-the laying of another fill thread. The dent wires 392 and 304 of the reed 300 are curved in such a Way that when the shaping means shape the fabric to a desired surface contour, the wrap ends are always uniformly spaced one from another. The curvatures of the dent wires 392 and 304 are coordinated with the'shaping means.
According to one specific embodiment of this feature of the present invention, as shown in FIGS. 20 to 24, a fan reed 391 of double construction is provided, including front and rear dent wires 302 and 304, and 302" and 304", respectively, all mounted in a generally cuboidal frame 306, and preferably reinforced by central transverse members 303 and 310. The front transverse member 310 is preferably wedge shaped, as best shown in FIG. 23 to minimize any tendency it may have to form gaps between the upper and lower halves of a fabric woven in tubular form. The fill thread tension tends to close such gaps automatically, but the fabric uniformity may be somewhat improved if the gaps are minimized to start with.
Each one of the dent wires 392', 304', 302 and 304", except the central ones at the middle of the reed, is of L-shaped horizontal section, having aforwardly facing web portion 312 and a transverse flange 314. The transverse flanges 314 are shaped so that'their edges lie equidistantly from the next adjacent wires, forming warp guide slots, or dent spaces 316 of uniform width but curved disposition. The rear dent wires 302" and 304 are arranged similarly to the front ones and in opposition thereto. The Warp ends (not shown) are individually threaded through upper and lower tubes 320 and 322, which are slidably mounted between the front and rear dent wires for vertically travel in the dent spaces 316. The tubes 3 20 and 322 are provided with out-turned annular flanges 324 near their ends, which flanges bear against the dent Wires for positive guiding action.
The tubes 32% and 322 are individually supported upon flexible heddles 326 and 328 which function to position the tubes vertically during weaving. The heddles 326 and 328 extend through a perforated spacer plate 329 fixed at the top of the reed, and are slidably attached to guide rods, or bars 330 and 332 which extend over the reed and span its sweep. At the rear (to the left as viewed in FIGS. 20 and 21) these guide bars 330and 332 are suspended on Jacquard cords 336, which may be actuated in a conventional manner to raise and lower the rearward ends of the bars 330 and 332. Forwardly, the bars 339 and 332 extend over a pair of shaped rolls 340 and 342, respectively, and through a comb, or slotted guide 344, which retains the bars in their desired transverseiy spaced relationship. Individual biasing weights 346 are suspended from the bars 330 and 332 to assist