US 3133411 A
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May 19, 1964 M. MccoRKLE ROCKET Nozzm WITH EXPANDIBLE JoNTs INVENToR. /Vez v/Vf/Wvf TTORNE YS `Y "ROCKET ozzLE wirr-r nxPANninLE torNrs Y Max McCorkle, Willoughby, Ohio, assigner to Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio YFiled Feb. 23, 1961, Ser. No. 91,27?)V S Claims; (Sl. Vdil- 356) This invention relatesrto air and space borne vehicles and is 'more particularly concerned with improved methods fandmeans permitting,thermalrexpansion of two or more materials, one of which 'provides support for the Y zle inserts, such as throat inserts, particularly in the method; fincwhichg-'the insert Yor liner was supported in the associated structure. High temperature bonding matef rials must be employed for such applications. However,
utilization of such bonding materials in addition to sup- Y port-arms andspiders required the selection of materials on theAbasis of the' similarity of thermal expansion ratios, since the supported structure and supporting structure were subjected to high temperatures in the reaction motor, nozzle, and other high temperature apparatus.` Thus,the materials of construction which could be employed to support inserts, liners and sleeves were limited by the thermal expansion coeiicients of the supported and supporting structures.
In addition, the stresses imposed by such thermal expansion on the supported and supporting members had to -,be -taken into consideration in their design as well as the degree of heat conducted through such members. Another problem associated with high temperature applications' involve the possibility of leakage of the-high temperature medium between the-supported and supporting structuren.
By employment `of the present invention, I substantially eliminate the problems and difficulties of the prior art and afford a means of minimizing stresses induced by the diterential in thermal expansion or deflection under loadof two or more materials While maintaining the de- Sired amount of support therebetween.
It ,is therefore an object ofthe present invention to provide improved means for supporting membersl subjected to high temperatures.
- Itis another object of the present invention to provide improved means for supporting members constructed ofl differentmaterial and which are subjected to high temperatures.
`It is still anotherobject of the present invention to provide improved means including spaced shoulders for supporting a member subjected to high temperatures.` n
A,further object of the present invention is to provide an improved shoulder arrangement for supporting refractory inserts for reaction motors and the like of air and space borne vehicles.
yYet another object of the present invention is to provide improved means for supporting members subjected to high temperature ow of fiuids.
. '--These and other objects, features and advantages of parts throughout the several views.
. On the drawings:
FIGURE 1` is afragmentary view in longitudinal sec- 3,133,411 Patented May 19, 1964 ICE tion of a reaction motor nozzle having fa throat insert supported in accordance withrthe present invention.
FIGURE 2Y is an enlarged, fragmentary view in section illustrating the preferred support structure takenv along lines Il II of FIGUREI.
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary enlarged view in section illustrating the effect of thermal expansion of the supported member on the supporting member.
. As shown on the drawings:
Briey stated, the-present invention involves a relatively rigid snpport member having support-projections extending therefrom Whch Contact the supported member andwhich are constructed from a material having a low modulus of elasticity to thereby permit crushing thereof in response 'to thermal expansion of the supported member.v The supporting member or body isv grooved on each side of the projection to permit flow of the crushed projection therein and thereby preventing substantial translation of the supported member during thermal expansion thereof thereby minimizing the possibility of changes in the direction of flow in the high temperature uid flowing through the supported-mem-' ber. Such directional changes, become quite pronounced, particularly at high liow velocities, and, the effects of such changes, on the orientation of an air or space borne vehicle where the support member is employed in the reaction chamber or gas discharge nozzle of the vehicle,
are readily apparent.
Although the present invention has a variety of applications, the speciiic embodiment-appearing in FIG- URE 1 illustrates utilization of the invention in connection with the gas discharge nozzle assembly, generally indicated by the numeral 5, of an air or space borne vehicle.
The nozzle assembly 5 includes a gas entrance portion 6 communicatingwith the reaction chamber of the vehicle with Which'the nozzle is associated (not shown), an opposed gas exit portion 7 separated by a throat section, generally indicated by the numeral 8.
The Wall 5a of the nozzle assembly S adjacent the throat section 8 is provided with a supporting liner .9 of insulating material having tapered seat 10 at one-end and is generally recessed as at 11 toV receive a throat insert 12 constructed of refractory material, such as graphite. The insert 12, it will be appreciated, has a modulus of elasticity` or thermal expansion coeflicient greater than the insulating wall 9 of the nozzle assembly 5. The Wall 5a may be constructedV of a suitable material, such as 321 stainless steel; however, it will be appreciated, that depending upon the temperature of the exhaust gases flowing through the nozzle assembly in the direction indicated by the arrow, will be constructed of material and of a wall thickness suiiicient to withstand the temperatures involved and conducted thereto from the insulating member 9.
Thus, the throat insert, or supported member 12,' and the supporting member, the Wall 9, are constructed of different materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion.. It will also be appreciated that the deflection coeicients of the Wall and insert may also be different.
In accordance with the present invention, the support--k ing wall 9 is provided with a plurality of annular projections 13 which extend beyond the surface 14 of the support wall 9. The distance from the wall 14 which the projections 13 extend is dictated by the size of the insert 12.
The projections 13 are constructed of akmaterial which d the support or supported member. Thus, as the projections 13 are deflected or crushed, the elastic support provided by the projection minimizes the stresses imposed by the translation load of the insert l2 and by employing a number of projections 13, the deectionor translation will not effect high velocity flow through the nozzle throat chamber 15. i .Y
On each side of theV projections i3, the Wall 9 Vis provided with an annular groove l and 17 to receive the crushed projection and particles thereof. The spacing i8 ybetween the wall surface ld and wall surface 12a of thel insert .l2 permits thermal expansion of both the insert and v Wall 9 in the directions indicated by the arrows inFiG- URE 3.
The projections i3, it will be observed, also provides positive sealing means against leakage of exhaust gases through space '18. The. space 13 also provides a thermal barrier minimizing heat conduction into the supporting wall 9. The taperedfseat ltl of the wall@ is also provided with the projections i3 and grooves le and ll?.
rhus, the projection or shoulder 13 is readily adaptable for supporting members subjected to high temperature conduction and thermal expansion in addition to deflection of the supported member under applied loads.
Although minor modifications o the present invention will be readily apparent to those versed in the art, it will be appreciated that I 4wish to embody within the scope of the patentwarranted hereon all such embodiments as reasonablyand properly come within the scope of my contribution to the art.
l claim as my invention: y l. A supporting member adapted to permit the thermal expansion of a supported member relative thereto when said supported member is subjected to high temperatures comprising: Y
(a) a body portion, Y (Z2) a low modulus of elasticity projection on said body j sized for supporting engagement with a supported member permanently deformed by, and to permit, said thermal expansion of thersupported ,member relative to said supportingymember, and (c) a recess formed in said supporting member adjacent said projection to receive the portions of said proyjection permanently deformed by stresses produced byfsaid thermal expansion. f
2. An insulating supporting member adapted to permit Y the thermal expansion of a refractory supported member relative thereto when said refractory supported member is subjectedtto hightemperatures comprising:
(a) an insulating body portion,
said projection to receive said crushed Yportions of said projection.
4. An insulating and strength-supplying annular outer member adapted to support an annular throat insert of a gas discharge nozzle assembly of a 'reaction motor comprising:
(a) an annular,
sleeveV sized to receive and locate,
(b) athroat insert of refractory material thermally ex-V panded by firing of said motor, t (c) at least one low modulus of elasticity and crushable annular projection extending from said sleeve for supportingly engaging andtlocating contact with said throat insert and permanently deformed by the thermal expansion thereof, and t (d) at least one annular groove formed in said sleeve adjacent said annular projection to receive theY permanently deformed portions Vof said annular projection caused by stresses due to said thermal expansion. 5. An insulating and strength-suppling annular liner adapted to support and locate an inner annular member subjected to high temperatures and to permit thermal ex- Vpansion of said inner member relative to said liner com- (b) a low modulus of elasticity rib-like projection on and integral with said body sized for supporting engagementwith a refractory supported member and permanently deformed by, and to permit, said thermal expansion of the supported member relative vto said supporting member, and t (c) at least one -groove formed in the supporting member adjacent and along side of said rib-likeprojection to receive the portions of said rib-like projection permanently deformed by the stresses produced by said thermal expansion.
3. An outer annular and strength-supplying,supporting member adapted to permit the thermal expansion of a refractory supported member relative thereto when said refractory supported member is subjected to high tempera-l tures comprising: f
(a) a lbody portion, Y. Y (b) a plurality of spaced apart, low modulus'of elas ticity and crushable projections on said body portion sized for supporting engagement with a refractory supported member and crushed by, and to permit, Y
said thermal expansion'of the supported member' relative to said supporting'member, and (c) a plurality of recesses formed in the supporting member with at least one adjacent each body Vor said vprising:
' (a) a body portion'of insulating and strength-supplying material having a low modulus of elasticity relative to said inner member,
(b) a'plurality of integral, spaced apart, rib-like andY crushable projections on said body portion for supportingly engaging the inner member and crushed and spread by the thermal expansion of said 4inner member relative thereto when said inner member is subjected to high temperatures, and
(c) an annular'groove formed in said liner adjacent each side of each Vsaid rib-like projection to receive the portions of each said projection spread by said crushing. v
6. In the gas discharge nozzle assembly of a reaction motor, a high temperature insulating and strength-supplying assembly comprising:
(a) an inner refractory nozzle member subjected to v l high temperatures and expanded thereby,
(b) an outer sleeve-like strength-supplying and insulating member expanded less by said high temperatures than said nozzle member,
Y(c) projections on said Vsupporting member supportingly engaging and locating said nozzle member, at least` said projection portions of said supporting member having ka materially lower modulus of elas- Y ticity than said nozzle member to be crushed and spread by the thermal expansion of said nozzle member, and t (d) spaces between said projectionsV to receive said spread portions and insulatingly minimizing heat ing and supporting member.
77. The combination of claim 6 wherein said supporting member hasan axial end portion tapered inwardly with certain of said projections thereon and the corresponding axial end portion of said refractory nozzle member is correspondingly tapered and wherein said projections are rib-likerings around the inner surface of said supporting member and said spaces therebetween are ring-like grooves. j
8. The vmethod of permitting theydifferential thermal insulating and t strength-supplyingY Vconduction from said nozzle member to said insulat-` fae'of the supporting member adjacent said proje` tions.
References Cited in the file of this patent I.UNITED STATES PATENTS Andrus Aug. 17, ,1954 `Nicholson Jan. 11, A 1955,*- Nyborg Aug. 18, 1959 smith 1 1 Mar. 31, 1961