US 3134746 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 3,134,746 BLENDS 0F EPSILON CAPROLACTAM POLYlVIER AND CRAFT COPOLYMER ALKENYL CYANIDE AND ALKENYL SUBSTITUTED AROMATIC HY- DROCARBON 0N POLYBUTADIENE Thomas S. Grabowski, Vienna, W. Va., assignor to Borg- Warner Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois No Drawing. Filed June 9, 1961, Ser. No. 115,897
Claims. (Cl. 260-455) The present invention relates to synthetic resins having new and unique properties and more particularly to a synthetic resin blend which is easily processed into structural shapes and which has overall physical properties desirable for many applications.
The polymer of epsilon caprolactam has many desirable properties for the fabrication of structural shapes, such as tensile strength, elongation, hardness,vand stability in the presence of solvents. However, the polymer has a relatively low impact strength, especially at low temperatures, and a low heat deflection temperature. Graft copolymers of acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene also have many desirable physical properties making them useful for many structural shapes, such properties being high impact strength at both room and low temperatures, 73 F. and 40 F. respectively, and a relatively high heat deflection temperature. These graft copolymers are also diflicult to process by the injection molding technique.
One of the objects of the present invention, therefore, is to improve the injection moldability of acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene graft copolymers.
Another object of the invention is to improve the impact strength of polymerized epsilon caprolactam.
Still another object of the invention is to improve the heat deflection temperature at high loads of polymerized epsilon caprolactam.
Another object of the invention is to improve the tensile strength of the graft copolymer.
These and other objects are obtained by the blending of polymerized epsilon caprolactam with a graft copolymer prepared by polymerizing an alkenyl cyanide and an alkenyl substituted mono nuclear aromatic hydrocarbon in the presence of polybutadiene or a copolymer of butadiene and styrene.
THE CAPROLACTAM POLYMER The polymerized epsilon caprolactam utilized in the blends of the present invention has the following physical properties.
Tensile strength, p.s.i. at 73 F. 9000 Elongation, 73 F. percent 250 Izod impact strength, 73 F. 2.3' Izod impact strength, 40 F. 0.7 Heat deflection temperature, F., /2" x /2" X 5 264 psi 122 Hardness (R scale) 104 The caprolactam polymer is easily processed by the injection molding technique due to its transition to a liquid at temperatures of 390 to 450 F.
THE GRAFT COPOLYMER Within recent years it has become increasingly common practice to prepare polymeric products by the so-called graft copolymerization technique. As may be determined by reference ot the Report on Nomenclature of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (published in the Journal of Polymer Science, volume 8, page 260, 1952), the term graft copolymerization is employed to designate the process wherein a polymerizable 3,134,746 Patented May 26, 1964 monomer (or mixture of polymerizable monomers) is reacted, under polymerizing conditions, in the presence of a previously formed polymer or copolymer. A graft copolymer is a high polymer, the molecules of which consist of two or more polymeric parts, of difierent composition, chemically united together. A graft copolymer may be produced, for example, by polymerization of a given kind of monomer with subsequent polymerization of another kind of monomer onto the product of the first polymerization.
Graft polymers suitable for use in the production of the blends of this invention may be prepared by the interaction, under polymerizing conditions, of a mixture of an alkenyl cyanide and an alkenyl substituted mono nuclear aromatic hydrocarbon exemplified, respectively, by acrylonitrile and styrene, with a polybutadiene latex. The graft copolymer comprises about 40%90% by weight combined acrylonitrile plus styrene and about 60% to 10% by weight (dry basis) polybutadiene. The acrylonitrile preferably comprises from 5%30% by weight of the three component graft copolymer (acrylonitrile plus styrene plus polybutadiene), the styrene 30%80% by weight and the polybutadiene, corresponding, 10%-60% by weight of the three component graft copolymer.
For the better understanding of this invention, the following example sets forth a description of the preparation of two representative graft copolymers suitable for use in forming the new and improved blends of this invention.
Recipe X was introduced intoa glass reactor which was scaled and tumbled for six hours in awater bath heated to 65-85 C. At the end of this time, reaction was essentially complete. The copolymer formed was recovered as follows: The final reaction mixture was coagulated with dilute brine and sulfuric acid, heated to 95 C. to produce partial granulation of the coagulated product to facilitate subsequent filtration and washing op erations, filtered, washed and finally dried to' constant weight at 110 C.
Recipe Y was charged into a pressure tight. reactor. The reactor was placed in a water bath and heated to a temperature of about 50 C. and maintained at this temperature under autogeneous pressure for a period of minutes. At this time, the reaction was essentially complete.
The graft copolymer Y was recovered as follows: The final latex was coagulated with dilute brine and sulfuric acid, heated to C. to produce partial granulation of the coagulated product to facilitate subsequent filtration and washing operations, filtered, washed and finally dried to constant weight at C.
CB Certain physical properties of the graft copolymers prepared as above described are tabulated below:
Graft copolymer X Y Izod Impact Strength, 73 F. ft. lb./incli notch V 8.5 6. 9 Izod Impact Strength, 40 ft. lb./inch notch V. 2. 6 7. 3 Tensile Strength, p.s.i., 73 5,100 2, 700 Tensile Elongation, 73 F percent 25 155 Deflection Temperature, F., x x bar, 264
p s i 192 170 Hardness Rockwell R 87 25 Example 2 TABLE I Sample A B O D Epsilon caprolactam polymer 5 30 50 Graft copolymer X 90 70 5O Tensile Strength, p.s.i., 73 F 4, 800 5,100 6, 500 Elongation, 73 F percent 35 35 165 205 Izod Impact Strength, 73 F., ft. 1b.]
in. notch 6. 3 6. 8 2.3 2.0 Izod Impact Strength, --40 F., ft.
lb./in. notch V, 1.7 1. 5 1. 4 1. 2 Heat Deflection Temperature F.,
)6" x x 5", 264 p.s. 182 180 171 162 Hardness (R Scale) 89 89 95 82 Example 3 Seventy (70) parts by weight of graft copolymer Y, prepared as set out hereinabove, was blended with 30 parts by Weight epsilon caprolactam polymer. In making the blend, the same procedure of Example 2 was followed. The resultant blend had the following physical properties:
Blends prepared in accordance with this invention may contain additional components, such as pigments, fillers, and the like, which are frequently incorporated into resins and resin blends in accordance with conventional practices Well known to those skilled in the art.
While the blends of the present invention may range, in parts by weight, from 5 to 95 parts caprolactam polymer and correspondingly from 95 parts to 5 parts of graft copolymer, the preferred ranges are in the neighborhood of 50 parts by weight of each polymer.
An additional advantage obtained from the present invention is that if the blends contain as much as 30 parts by Weight caprolactam polymer, the composition is practically insoluble and unaffected by solvents that normally dissolve the graft copolymer component, e.g. methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and the like. The blends also have much greater stress corrosion than the graft copolymers alone.
In the preparation of the graft copolymer blending component of this invention, the styrene may be replaced, in part or entirely, by alpha methyl styrene, vinyl toluenes and alpha methyl vinyl toluene, including mixtures of two or more such hydrocarbons. Also, the acrylonitrile may be replaced, in part or entirely, with other alkenyl cyanides such as methacrylonitrile and ethacrylonitrile.
The blends of the present invention find their greatest usefulness in the fabrication of shaped articles which are subject to shock and extremes of heat or cold, such as for example, radio and television cabinets, pipe, luggage, industrial and sports helmets and the like articles.
While this invention has been described in connection with certain specific details and examples thereof, these details and examples are illustrative only and are not to be considered limitations on the spirit or scope of the invention except insofar as these may be incorporated in the appended claims.
1. A composition comprising a blend of (a) polymerized epsilon caprolactam and (b) a graft copolymer of (l) 60 percent to 10 percent by weight polybutadiene and correspondingly (2) 40 percent to percent by Weight of a mixture of an alkenyl cyanide and an alkenyl substituted mono nuclear aromatic hydrocarbon.
2. A composition comprising a blend of (a) polymerized epsilon caprolactam and (b) a graft copolymer of (l) 60 percent to 10 percent by weight polybutadiene and correspondingly (2) 40 percent to 90 percent by weight of a mixture of acrylonitrile and styrene.
3. A composition comprising a blend of (a) from about to 5 parts by weight of polymerized epsilon caprolactam and (b) correspondingly from about 5 to 95 parts by weight of a graft copolymer of (l) 60 percent to 10 percent by weight polybutadiene and correspondingly (2) 40 percent to 90 percent by weight of a mixture of an alkenyl cyanide and an alkenyl substituted mono nuclear aromatic hydrocarbon.
4. A composition comprising a blend of (a) from about 95 to 5 parts by weight of polymerized epsilon caprolactam and (b) correspondingly from about 5 to 95 parts by weight of a graft copolymer of (1) 60 percent to 10 percent by weight polybutadiene and correspondingly (2) 40 percent to 90 percent by weight of a mixture of acrylonitrile and styrene.
5. A composition comprising a blend of (a) about 50 parts by weight of polymerized epsilon caprolactam and (b) correspondingly about 50 parts by weight of a graft copolymer of (1) 60 percent to 10 percent by weight polybutadiene and correspondingly (2) 40 percent to 90 percent by weight of a mixture of acrylonitrile and styrene.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,249,686 Dykstra July 15, 1941 2,802,808 Hayes Aug. 13, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 533,879 Canada Nov. 27, 1956 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE ,QFCORRECTION" $134,746
Patent N0a May 26 1964 Thomas S, Gnabow ski It is hereb y certified that err ent requiring co or appears in the rrection and that th corrected below.
above numbered pate said Letters'Pa tent should.=read as I Column 2 Example l fi'rst column fourth line thereof for "hydnopenocide read ---hydr 0penoxio1e column 4 line 5,, after f'corrosion insert re-:
zr'esis tan'cew Signed and sealed l this 10th day of November 1964a;
ERNEST W. SWIDER' EDWARD J. BRENNER ttesting Officer Commissioner of Patents