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Publication numberUS3135215 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 2, 1964
Filing dateMar 5, 1963
Priority dateMar 5, 1963
Publication numberUS 3135215 A, US 3135215A, US-A-3135215, US3135215 A, US3135215A
InventorsSmith Lewis F
Original AssigneeMechanical Tech Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Regenerative devices
US 3135215 A
Images(3)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 2, 1964 SMITH 3,135,215

REGENERATIVE DEVICES Filed March 5, 1963 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 June 2, 1964 L. F. SMITH 3,135,215

REGENERATIVE DEVICES Filed March 5, 1963 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 June 2, 1964 1.. F. SMITH 3, ,2 5

REGENERATIVE DEVICES Filed March 5, 19 3 Sheets-Sheet :5

9 30G J 3o Is r 2 I2 "12 l2 3| 28 a u is g 20 H a 29 I I 3 I" I4 I I M: n 3e I I -a K 4 '6 t F l G. 6. I I j\\ GAS BEARINGS x I GAS BEARINGS /H 1" 1" r' I United States Patent 3,135,215 REGENERATIVE DEVICES Lewis F. Smith, Schenectady, N.Y., assignor to Mechanical Technology Incorporated, Latham, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Mar. 5, 1963, Ser. No. 262,881 12 Claims. (Cl. 103-87) This invention relates to regenerative devices which may be used as fans, pumps, turbines and regenerative compressors. Prior devices of this type have been quite cumbersome, bulky, and formed of a relatively large number of different parts which make such devices un duly expensive.

An object of this invention is to provide a device of this type which is regenerative, may be made of a minimum number of different parts to keep the cost to a minimum, which will have a minimum height, Width and overall length, with which the direction of flow through it may be reversed by reversing the direction of rotation of its rotor, with which the sections of each of its casings may be molded or cast in simple molds, with which its parts may be rearranged and modified in simple manners to operate selectively in series or parallel, which will require a minimum of operating power, and which will be relatively simple, practical, efficient, durable, compact and inexpensive.

Other objects and advantages will appear from the following description of several embodiments of the invention, and the novel features will be pointed out in connection with the appended claims.

'In the accompanying drawings:

FIG. 1 is a half sectional elevation of a regenerative compressor constructed in accordance with this invention and' arranged as a two stage compressor, the section being taken approximately along the line D--D of FIG. 2;

FIG. 2 is a partial sectional elevation of one section of one of the casings, as viewed approximately along the line 2--2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a partial sectional elevation of part of one of the casings and the impellers; the section being taken approximately along the line'3-3 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a plan of part of a casing section as shown in FIG. 2 and viewed from the line 44 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 1 but with the casing sections rearranged for parallel operation;

FIG. 6 is a longitudinal, sectional elevation of another embodiment of the invention, with the casing sections arranged for two stage, series operation; and FIG. 7 is a view similar to FIG. 6, but illustrating the use therein of gas radial and thrust bearings.

In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 1-4, a pair of annular casings 1 and 2' are disposed in aligned end to end abutting and sealing relation to one another, and a motor housing 3 abuts and is disposed in sealing contact against one exposed end face of the pair of abutting casings, with a rotor or shaft 4 of the motor extending axially intoand along the cylindrical space 5 that is encircled by the casings 1 and 2. A plate 6 is disposed insealing contact against the other exposed end face of the pair of abutting casings, and extends across and closes the adjacent end of the space 5. Bolts 5A pass through apertures 5B in the plate 6 and corresponding passages in the casings to clamp them all together as a unit. Each casing 1 and 2 has an annular chamber 7 within it that opens into the space 5 through an annular slot 8 in the inner peripheral wall of the casing. A pair of discs 9 and 10 are fixed centrally of themselves on the shaft or rotor 4 in space 5 by spacers 11 also fixed on the rotor or shaft so as to rotate with the shaft or rotor. These discs 9 and 10- are spaced apart axially along the shaft or rotor as shown, with their marginal portions extending, with close clearances, through the annular slots 8 aligned therewith into the annular chambers 7 and there they carry a plurality of impeller vanes 12 that are spaced apart in a circular row along the peripheral portion of the discs and have radial impeller walls or faces that extend sidewise from the discs.

The casing 1 has a port 13 opening through its outer peripheral wall into its said annular chamber 7 and another port 14 opening through its inner peripheral wall from its chamber 7 into the space 5. The casing 2 has similar ports 15 and 16 in its outer and inner peripheral walls respectively. The annular chamber in each casing has a short portion 17 along it of restricted crosswise and radial dimensions, with which the impeller vanes have close clearance to create a stripper or stripper portion, and

the ports 13 and 14 of casing 1 are located closely adjacent to the ends of the stripper portion in the annular chamber of casing 1, and the ports 15 and 16 of casing 2 are similarly located closely adjacent to the ends of the stripper portion in the annular chamber of casing 2. The annular chamber of each casing'in the longer annular distance between the ends of the stripper portion has the usual or any suitable regenerative clearance which is of greater crosswise and radial dimensions from the vanes than for the stripper portion, as usual in regenerative compressors. The face area of each disc 9 and 10,

which is within the pace..5 between the spacers 11 and the casings 1 and 2, is apertured from face to face such as by a plurality of apertures 18A (FIG. 3), arranged in spaced apart relation to one another.

Each casing 1 and 2, is formed of two sections 18 and 19 which abut face to face in sealing contact along the line 20 and the slot 8, and the sections 18 and 19 of each casing have in their abutting faces complementary recesses 21 and 22 respectively, which together form the annular chamber of each casing. To reduce the number of stock parts necessary, the sections 18 and 19 of each casing have their complementary recesses 21 and 22 mirror duplicates or images of one another, that is, identical of shape and size if the recess of one is viewed in a mirror and compared with the other. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1, the part 19 of casing 2 abuts the part 19 of casing 1, which makes the vanes in the two casings propel a gas passing through it in opposite radial directions while the vanes which are fixed on the shaft 4 move in the same circular directions in both casings 1 and 2.

The device as shown in FIGS. 12 is arranged for series operation, such as a two stage gas compressor. The gas to be compressed is supplied to the inlet port 13 of easing 1 and removed from outlet port 15 of easing 2. When the motor in the housing 3 is operated, it will rotate the shaft 4 in the direction shown by the arrow in FIG. 2, and it will in turn rotate in the same direction both of the discs 9 and 10 which are fixed on the shaft 4 by spacers 11. The gas will enter the annular chamber of casing 1 at the left end of the stripper area 17 in FIG. 2 and be forced by the vanes to the other end of the stripper area and there discharge it through port 14 into the space 5. This gas may pass through apertures 18 in the disc 9 when necessary to move to the casing 2 and there it passes through the inlet port 16 of casing 2 in the annular chamber of casing 2, some of the gas passing through apertures 18 in the disc 10 when necessary. In the annular chamber of casing 2, the gas is forced from one end to the other of the stripper area in casing 2, in the nonrrestrictive portion, and there expelled through the port under a two stage compression. Each annular chamber, in the portion thereof between the ends of the stripper area, have shapes and sizes that provide for regenerative compression, and for that purpose the clearance of the chamber walls with the edges of the vanes will be designed according to the usual engineering practice to provide the desired regeneration during the compression.

In the example of the invention shown in FIG. 5, the parts are of the same construction as in FIG. 1, except that the closure, plate 6, which is unapertured across the space 5, is replaced with a plate 6A which has an aperture 26 and a tubular projection 27 aligned and communicating with the aperture 26, through which a gas to be compressed may enter the space 5. Also, the casing 2 is reversed in its face to face relation with the casing 1 and the section 18 of casing 2, whose recess is identical with that of section 18 of casing 1, is now directly abutting and sealed against the section 19 of casing 1, so that the relative arrangements of the sections will be the same in both casings 1 and 2 and not reversed in respect to one another as they were in FIG. 1. With this rearrangement of the sections of easing 2, and the replacement of plate 6 with plate 6A, the device is set for parallel compression in which the flow capacity of the device is approximately doubled, but only operates in one stage of compression when the motor in housing 3 is operated, the shaft 4 and discs 9 and 10 will be rotated. Gas to be compressed is supplied, through tubular projection 27 and aperture 26 of plate 6A, into space 5, and some of this supplied gas will pass through the apertures 18A of the discs 9 and 10 in order that the gas can reach all inlets to the annular chambers of casings 1 and 2. The inner ports 14 and 16 now function as both inlet ports that pass gas from space 5 into the annular chambers 7 of both casings 1 and 2. The outer ports 13 and 15 now both function as outlet ports and deliver the gas compressed in both annular chambers into a common duct, not shown, or to different ducts for delivery to diiferent receiving apparatus, as may be desired.

In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7, the casings 1 and 2 directly abut in sealing end to end contact with one another in the same section arrangement as explained in connection with FIGS. l-4, and plates 28 and 29 abut against and are secured by screws 29a to the exposed end faces of the assembled casings 1 and 2. Bolts 30 pass through aligned passages 30a in the margins of the casings 1 and 2 to detachably couple them together in a complete unit. The plates 28 and 29 at their centers are bulged outwardly to increase the axial length of the space 5 which is encircled by the casings 1 and 2, and provide for disposition of the operating motor 31 centrally within the space 5. In this embodiment the shaft 4 and its motor that were provided in FIGS. 1 and 2, are replaced by this motor 31 which has a rotor 32 and a. stator 33. The stator 33 is cylindrical in shape and fixed centrally of itself on a stationary shaft 34 that extends between, and at its ends is detachably mounted in, the end plates 28 and 29. One end of this stationary shaft 34 has a passage 35 leading to the stator from the free end of the shaft, which passage 35 is aligned at such free end with a central aperture 36 in the plate 29. Through this passage 35 and aperture 36, conductor wires 37 may be disposed to connect a source of electric current (not shown) to the windings of the stator for causing rotation of the rotor.

The rotor 32 is secured by screws 38 to the inside of a tubular shell 39, which at its ends is rotatably supported by ball bearings 40 on the end portions of the fixed shaft 34. Fixed centrally of themselves on the exterior periphery of the shell 39 are two discs 41 and 42 which correspond in function to the discs 9 and 10 of FIG. 1, and are spaced from one another lengthwise along the shell 39. The outer marginal portions of the discs 41 and 42 extend through the slots 8 into' the annular chambers of the casings 1 and 2 respectively, as in FIGS. 1 and 5, and within the casing chambers they carry a peripheral row of impeller vanes 12 as in FIGS. 1 and 5. The discs 41 and 42 and the vanes 12 are preferably formed of discsof sheet material, usually sheet metal. Each disc 41 and 42, in its portion exposed in space 5, is provided with a plurality of apertures 43 (FIGS. 6 and 7) from face to face so that any gases in the space 5 may pass through the apertures 43 in both discs, and in both directions.

Each casing 1 and 2 is formed as explained and illustrated in connection with FIGS. 14 with a stripper area 17, a port 13 or 15 through the outer peripheral casing wall into the annular chamber, and another port 15 or 16 from the annular chamber through the inner peripheral wall of the casing into the space 5. In FIGS. 6 and 7, the casing sections are arranged in the same order as in FIGS. 1 and 2, for series operation, that is, as a two stage compressor, but if they are to be arranged in the order shown in FIG. 5 for parallel operation, one of the end plates should be provided with an aperture and tubular inlet, like 26 and 27 respectively of FIG. 5. With the arrangement of the casing sections as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, the operation will be similar to that explained for FIGS. 1 and 2, the gas going in through an inlet port 13 (FIG. 6) of the casing 1, then expelled under pressure through outlet port 15 into space 5, then into the annular chamber of easing 2 through the port 16 and expelled under further pressure by port 15 of casing 2. Suitable conduit connections, not shown, are made to the exterior ports of casings 1 and 2 to direct gas to be compressed into the compressor and to receive and conduct away the gas from casing 2 under the two stage compression.

Referring next to FIG. 7, the construction is the same as explained for FIG. 6 except that instead of the ball bearings 40 of FIG. 6, a suitable gas bearing is provided between the outer periphery of the stator and the inner periphery of the rotor. Gas bearings are well known and hence, are not shown. Also, gas thrust bearings are provided at opposite sides of each slot 8 of each casing 1 and 2 where the discs enter into the annular chambers, acting between the slot walls and the discs.

The sections 18 and 19 of each casing 1 and 2 are easily and accurately molded, with their recesses being mirror duplicates of one another, by any of the available molding methods, including injection molding and die casting. Cores for the molding or casting may be used to provide for the parts of the ports in each section leading to each annular chamber, but preferably each section 18 and 19 is cut away as shown by the dotted line 44 (FIG. 1) at each inner port, so that the inner port half in each section of the casing opens into the annular slot 8 which makes the use of cores to form the inner ports unnecessary. The outer ports are formed half in each section of a casing and meeting one another at the abutting faces of the sections of eachcasing. It will be observed that by making the sections of each casing mirror duplicates of one another, only two dies are required to mold or cast both sections for each casing, which greatly reduces the cost of manufacture, and by selective arrangement of the sections in their abutting relation, the device can be set up for series or parallel operation. The device is exceptionally eflicient for the compression of gases and can function as a pump either one or two stages, and if gases are forced through this device, the discs will be rotated, and if the motor is replaced by an electric generator, this rotation of the motor shaft, or rotor in FIG. 6, will cause generation of current. This device would thus operate as a turbine driven generator. If air or gases are forced through one of the casings, the rotor will turn and operate the shaft, and hence, function as a turbine. When the direction of flow of gas through the casings is reversed, the discs will rotate in the opposite direction. The overall dimensions of the device for a selected capacity are relatively small and hence, the device is very compact. It is made of a minimum number of difierent parts, the parts are relatively simple and inexpensive, and the device is very eflicient. The casings may be rearranged and modified in simple selected manners to serve different functions.

In FIG. 6, the motor disposed as shown reduces the volume of the package by using more efficiently the hub space and thereby reduces the overall length. This is true whether rolling or gas bearings are used. In FIG. 7 the volume of the package is reduced to a minimum by utilizing the motor gap as the gas bearing space for the radial bearing. The gas bearings give long life and require minimum power. In fans, most of which have low horsepower, the bearing loss is an appreciable portion of the power loss and gas bearings reduce this power loss.

Devices of the type herein disclosed as arranged for series operation develop more than twice the pressure of a single stage centrifugal compressor at the same tip speed. By making inlet and outlet ports, stripper section and impeller vanes completely symmetrical about a radial plane through the center of rotation, the flow direction can be reversed by reversing the direction of rotation of the vanes, and identical pressure rise versus flow characteristics results. The unique use of inlet and outlet ports in the inner and outer peripheries of the casings, allows more efficient use of the full periphery for generating pressure rise.

It will be understood that various changes in the details, materials and arrangements of parts, which have been herein described and illustrated in order to explain the nature of the invention, may be made by those skilled in the art within the principle and scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims.

I claim:

1. A regenerative device for use as a fan, turbine pump, compressor and the like comprising:

(a) a rotating disc support member,

(b) a pair of identical parallel, spaced discs mounted for rotation on said disc support member,

() an annular impeller section on said discs including vanes extending radially outward from either side of the marginal area of said discs,

(d) said vanes having like configuration,

(e) a pair of identical abutting annular casings each housing one of said discs,

(1) each of said casings including a pair of disc housing members,

(g) each disc housing member in a pair having its inside face the exact opposite of the inside face of the other disc housing member in said pair and abutting said other member in face to face contact,

(h) said casings forming with said supporting disc member a central annular chamber about said supporting disc member,

(i) each disc housing member including an annular internal flange and an annular external flange,

(j) each pair of disc housing members having their external flanges in aligned abutting face to face relationship and their internal flanges in aligned spaced relationship,

(k) each pair of said disc housing members forming an annular recess between said flanges,

(I) each of said discs extending from said disc member support through said central annular chamber and between the internal flanges of a pair of said disc housing members and spaced slightly from said internal flanges and projecting into said annular recess,

(m) said discs having their impeller section lying Wholly within said annular recess and spaced from the walls thereof,

(n) the cross-sectional area of said impeller section being slightly less than the minimum cross-sectional area of said annular recess,

(0) said annular recess including a short restricted area slightly greater in cross-section than the cross-sectional area of said impeller section,

(p) said annular recess including an enlarged arcuate chamber extending from one side of said restricted area to the other side of said restricted area,

(q) each casing having an inlet port adjacent one side of said restricted area leading from outside said casing into said arcuate chamber and a pair of ports on either side of said impeller section adjacent the other side of said restricted area and extending from said arcuate chamber into said central annular chamber,

(r) said discs having in the region of said central a11- nular chamber fluid transfer ports to permit fluid flow to either side of said impellers,

(s) said casings in said regenerative device being reversible to two operable positions, one for directing fluid flow in a clockwise direction when in its first position and in a counterclockwise direction when in its second position,

(t) and means for controlling and directing flow of fluid within said central chamber.

2. A regenerative device as in claim 1 and wherein:

(a) said casings are mounted in reverse order with respect to each other for series operation.

3. A regenerative device as in claim 1 and wherein:

(a) said casings are mounted in similar order with respect to each other for parallel operation.

4. A regenerative device as in claim 1 and wherein:

(a) said means for controlling and directing flow of fluid within said central chamber includes a pair of housing plates,

(b) said housing plates being spaced from each other the distance of said annular central chamber and defining with said disc support member and said supporting disc members said annular central chamber.

5. A regenerative device as in claim 4, and wherein:

(a) one of said housing plates includes a fluid passageway therethrough.

6. A regenerative device as in claim 1 and wherein: (a) said casings are mounted in similar order with respect to each other for parallel operation, and (b) wherein said means for controlling and directing flow of fluid within said central chamber includes a pair of housing plates,

(0) said housing plates being spaced from each other the distance of said annular central chamber and defining with said disc support member and said supporting disc members said annular central chamber, and

(d) one of said housing plates including a fluid intake passageway therethrough.

7. A regenerative device as in claim 1, and wherein:

(a) said means for controlling and directing flow of fluid within said central chamber includes a pair of housing plates,

(b) said housing plates supporting a motor mechanism for driving said disc support member.

8. A regenerative device as in claim 1 and wherein:

(a) said means for controlling and directing flow of fluid within said central chamber includes a pair of housing plates,

(b) said housing plates supporting a motor mechanism for driving said disc support member,

(0) said motor mechanism being positioned between and within the area between said plates.

9. A regenerative device as in claim 8 and wherein:

(a) said device includes air bearings for said discs and said disc support member.

10. A regenerative device as in claim 1 and wherein:

(a) said discs are thin plates having a flat continuous planar surface on either side thereof.

11. A regenerative device as in claim 1 and wherein:

(a) said pair of ports on either side of said impeller of each casing lie directly beneath said arcuate chamber and lie within the area bounded by said arcuate chamber.

12. A regenerative device as in claim 1 and wherein:

(a) said inlet port and said pair of ports of each casing are spaced apart along the linear length of said annular recess an angular distance less than 180.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Kane Feb. 13, Claypool Sept. 6, Hollander Nov. 6, Abrarnson Oct. 6, Wislicenus June 24, Font Apr. 17, Perry Dec. 2, Anderson Dec. 16,

FOREIGN PATENTS France Mar. 13,

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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US1979622 *Jan 20, 1933Nov 6, 1934Aladar HollanderRotary hydraulic machine
US2056553 *Jun 11, 1934Oct 6, 1936Micro Westco IncPump
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3315607 *Jun 4, 1965Apr 25, 1967Trw IncMulti-stage drag pump
US3336876 *Sep 27, 1965Aug 22, 1967Siemen & Hinsch GmbhPump
US3915589 *Mar 29, 1974Oct 28, 1975Gast Manufacturing CorpConvertible series/parallel regenerative blower
US4325672 *Dec 11, 1979Apr 20, 1982The Utile Engineering Company LimitedRegenerative turbo machine
US4363598 *Jun 9, 1980Dec 14, 1982Siemens AktiengesellschaftMultistage side-channel compressor
US4948334 *Apr 19, 1989Aug 14, 1990Esam S.P.A.Displacement type rotary induction-blower machine
US5217348 *Sep 24, 1992Jun 8, 1993United Technologies CorporationTurbine vane assembly with integrally cast cooling fluid nozzle
US5352087 *Jun 23, 1993Oct 4, 1994United Technologies CorporationCooling fluid ejector
US6688844 *Oct 29, 2001Feb 10, 2004Visteon Global Technologies, Inc.Automotive fuel pump impeller
US20110150629 *Aug 25, 2009Jun 23, 2011Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum GmbhStator-rotor arrangement for a vacuum pump and vacuum pump
EP0459269A1 *May 21, 1991Dec 4, 1991Siemens AktiengesellschaftSide channel compressor
WO2010133866A1 *May 18, 2010Nov 25, 2010Edwards LimitedSide-channel pump with axial gas bearing
Classifications
U.S. Classification415/99, 415/111, 415/55.6, 415/112, 415/167.1
International ClassificationF04D25/06, F04D25/02, F01D25/22, F01D25/00, F04D23/00
Cooperative ClassificationF04D25/0613, F04D23/008, F01D25/22
European ClassificationF04D25/06B2, F04D23/00R, F01D25/22
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Mar 30, 1981ASAssignment
Owner name: TURBONETICS, INC., 968 ALBANY-SHAKER ROAD, LATHAM,
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATED;REEL/FRAME:003841/0866
Effective date: 19800306