US 3135553 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 2, 1964 oc s -u 3,135,553
CHAIR CONSTRUCTION Filed Nov. 2, 1962 Fig/5'1 YEW 2/ 2 .2 27/5/ INVENTOR. SAMUEL D. LOCKSHIN ATTORNEY.
United States Patent 3,135,553 CHAIR CONSTRUCTION Samuel D. Lockshin, Baker Hill, Northampton, Mass, assignor to Hampden Specialty Products (lorporation, Easthampton, Mass.
Filed Nov. 2, 1962, Ser. No. 235,084 1 Claim. (Cl. 297452) This invention relates to a novel seating construction of the kind composed basically of wooden or plastic strips or slats secured between transverse metallic supporting frame members, and has for its primary object the provision of improvements in means for elfectuating, initially, the securement together, of wooden and metal members or plastic and metal members to produce a generally rectangular composite structure so securely joined together as to preclude the unwanted separation of slats from frame at the point of jointure, with said rectangular composite structure being subsequently integrated into a tubular framework to provide a seating structure of unusual strength and beauty.
With the advent of modern, outdoor, collapsible garden furniture, where conjoint use of metal and wood and metal and plastic has been introduced into a variety of furniture items for the esthetic appeal which such use provokes, problems have arisen, in the joining of a metal component to a wooden or plastic component and/or vice versa. It has been proposed to fix the slats to transversely-extending stringers as by rivets or screws or the like, but these screws or rivets present an unpleasant appearance, Weaken the slats, and are oftentimes uncomfortable to the chair occupant.
Herein I solve these problems by the technique of first joining metal to wood or plastic by means of a channel-shaped metallic member, formed from aluminum or equivalent light and strong and pleasing-to-look-at metal and having novel locking means integral therewith, and a slatlike wooden member, formed from red wood or equivalent strong, colorful and attractive wood or a plastic member and, finally, the successful integration of this structure into a framework of tubular metal. In the instance of a chair or chaise construction, as herein illustrated, the parallel-disposed slats of the seat or fan-shaped, spaced slats of the back may be formed of any pleasing-in-appearance wood or plastic, and the end frame instrumentalities of said component, adapted to support said slats, may be formed of any pleasing-inappearance metal, and the outer framework may be.
formed of a suitable lightweight tubular metah Accordingly, it is a chieflobject hereof to provide a new and novel means adaptable for use in seating constructions of the outdoor or garden types, and inclusive of seat and back components, which components are each comprised of a plurality of spaced-apart rails or slats arranged in parallelism as to each other or arranged in a fan shape and being interconnected and held stationarily at their opposite ends by a frame member extending in a direction generally transverse to the axes of the slats and having slat loc kin g means integral therewith;
The invention provides means for attaching a slat to an end frame member in the construction of a seating or backing subassembly of furniture of the kind specified, wherein the end frame member is so configured as to be slotted longitudinally to receive the rough-cut slat end and is provided with spaced, parallel, longitudinally-extending V-shaped grooves in its side walls, which grooves form serrations adapted to impinge the slat whereby it is held fixed in an operational plane relative to the chair structure, the arrangement being such that the slat will be virtually Welded to the frame member and, when subjected to normal operational tension, will not twist.
As an important feature hereof, such attachment between frame members and slats may be accomplished using so-called rough-cut slats, it not being necessary to finish the slat ends. In fact, as contemplated herein, the roughened or burred ends of the slats are used advantageously and contribute to a more secure bond between the metal and the wood. 1
A further object of the invention is to facilitate the attachment of the ends of such slats to the respective chan nel-shaped end frame members, Without weakening the slats or otherwise damaging the members in the attachment area. I
The end frame member is so configured as to be channel-shaped or U-shaped in cross-section throughout the greater portion of its length and to receive, through the mouth defined by the extremities of the oppositely-facing side walls thereof, one end portion of each of a plurality of slats designed to be held thereby, with the inner planar surfaces of said oppositely-facing side walls being provided with spaced longitudinally-extending, V-shaped pr0. jections' adapted to penetrate the adjacent planar surfaces of the slats, to firmly hold the slats of the plurality thereof in either confronting or side-by-side parallel relationship as to each other or to hold said slats in spacedapart parallel relationship as to each other.
The channel-shaped end frame member will be fabricated from a strong but resilient metal, wherefore the oppositely-facing side walls thereof Will readily deform or spread outwardly to accept the end of a slat therebetween, but, once the slat has been inserted to the full depth of said frame member as defined by said oppositely-facing side walls, the inherent tension in these same side walls Wlll urge them inwardly to cause the serrations or V- shaped projections to impinge and grip the opposite planar faces of the slat so as to produce an integral unit. In one modification of the invention, a plastic ,slat. member, so related to a metallic frame member in a nesting manner, may thereafter beadditionally secured relative thereto as by a system of dimpling the outer planar surface of one of the side walls of the frame member, preferentially that surface least to be observed by the human eye, in manner to press the mass of metal thereat inwardly, in the form of a conical cleat or cleats, sufficiently to extend inwardly of the plane of the inner planar. surface of the said side wall wherefore the woodenslat inwardly thereof is impinged not only by the said V- shaped projections, but also by the inner end of the soformed cleat or cleats. i
This latter method of impingement, above described, while not a prerequisite to the establishment of a firm bond between metal and the slat, gives an added measure View of one of the end frame members of the invention in cooperative engagement with a pair of slats, portions of the end frame member having been broken away for purposes of clarity;
. FIG. 3 is an exploded, fragmentary and sectional elevational view of one of the end frame members and slats of the invention before assembly;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary and sectional elevational view of one of the end frame members and slats of the invention following assembly;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary and enlarged rear elevational view of one of the side walls of the end frame member of the invention, with the top wall and opposite side wall of the end frame member having been omitted;
FIG. 6 is a sectional view on the line 66 of FIG. 7; and
FIGS. 7 and 8 are fragmentary and enlarged rear elevational views showing the connecting means between a frame member and a slat of the chair back illustrating variations of the invention.
In the description here following, and in the drawing, a chair, shown in FIG. 1 as being of the collapsible type, is illustrated as being constituted by a seat and back, generally indicated by '10 and 12, respectively, front and rear U-shaped leg frames 14 and 16 respectively, and arm rests 18, said leg frames supporting said arm rests, in known manner, and said seat and back being articulately interconnected with said leg frames and arm rests, also in known manner, whereby the chair may be adjusted between the shown erected position and the conventional collapsed position (not shown, same not being pertinent to this disclosure).
Seat is comprised of a pair of oppositely-spaced, parallel side members 20, which will preferably be of tubular configuration, joined together at their opposite extremities by a pair of oppositely-spaced, parallel, transversely-extending end frame members 22, with the composite structure forming a generally rectangular or square outline.
A plurality of slats or rails 24 are disposed in parallelism as to each other and as to tubular side members 20 within the said rectangular or square outline of the seat 10 and may be disposed in close confronting, parallel, coplanar relationship as to each other, if a closed network is desired in the chair seating, or in spaced, parallel, coplanar relationship as to each other, if an open network is desired, all so as to provide the usual and known bodysupporting function.
Back 12 is similarly comprised of a pair of oppositelyspaced side members 40, which also will preferably be of tubular configuration, joined together at their opposite extremities or near extremities by a pair of oppositelyspaced parallel, transversely-extending end frame members 42, with the composite structure forming a generally rectangular or square outline.
In the case of the back, however, a plurality of slats or rails 44 are so related to the side members 40 as to de fine a fan-shaped configuration within the said rectangular or square outline, with the lower ends of the slats being in close-abutting relationship as to each other, and with the upper ends of the slats being in spaced relation as to each other. This angularization of the slats produces a pleasing and attractive appearance which departs from the conventional chair construction. Of course, the slats 44 may be disposed in parallel relationship as to each other, if desired.
To receive the ends of the slats above described, the frame members 22 and 42, which are of identical construction, are in the form of a rectangular-section metal bar, provided with a groove or socket exending longitudinally of the frame member and opening through one side edge thereof. Said frame members function in pairs and are each generally channel-shaped or U-shaped in configuration and are so related as to each other that their open sides or mouths are each inwardly-facing.
Frame members 22 and 42 being substantially alike purposewise, functionwise, and constructionwise, only frame members 22 will now be discussed as to their interengagement with their related slat or slats.
Each channel-shaped frame member 22 is constituted by a so-called outboard connecting wall and a pair of spaced parallel side walls 32, 32 each connecting to said outboard connecting wall 30 and defining a slat-receiving mouth opposite from said connecting wall.
The inner planar surface of each said side wall 32 is provided with integral locking means in the form of serrations formed by a plurality of spaced, parallel, longitudinally-extending, inverted V-shaped projections 34, said projections defining thcrebetween a plurality of spaced, parallel, longitudinally-extending, V-shaped declivities 36.
As clearly depicted in FIGS. 3 and 4, one free extremity of each rail member 24 is slidably received through the slat-receiving mouth of frame member 22 so as to be nested therewithin with its outermost end wall abutting the inner surface of outboard connecting wall 30 and with the portions of the side walls of each rail member received through said slat-receiving mouth being impinged by the projections 34 on the inner surface of the respective adjacent side wall 32, each rail member being of a certain thickness, designated by the letter X in FIG. 3, said certain thickness being slightly greater than the distance between the inner surfaces of the side walls 32, which dimension is designated by the letter Y in FIG. 3.
The frame member 22, will be fabricated from a strong, resilient metal of the nature of aluminum or the like, as aforesaid so that, as the slat end is moved between the spaced side walls 32, the side walls yield to allow the ingress of the slat; however, with the abutment of the slat end with the inner surface of connecting wall 30, the said side walls 32 will have resumed their original positions wherefore the projections 34 are engaging and impinging the side walls of the slat.
The ends of the slats are not finished, but are used in a rough-cut state wherefore the edges are rough or burred as indicated at 58. These rough edges contribute to a firmer jointure between the metal frame and wooden slat.
It should be appreciated that the opposite ends of a slat or rail member are attached to the opposite frame members in a substantially similar manner and that the remaining strips which make up the foundation of the chair seat or back are also similarly secured between the rail frame members so that the operational plane of the slat may be held in fixed body supporting position relative to the seating structure, the term operational plane of the slat being intended to identify the plane in which the greater part of the slat is located when the slat is operatively positioned between frame members. The slat will be firmly secured across the frame members since tension therein, or weight applied normally thereto, will have the effect of tending to angularly displace or twist the frame member so as to set up a positive impingement of the slats by the integral projections of the frame members which will ensure that the slats will be retained against withdrawal, with the burred or rough end 58 of the slats aiding in this binding or wedging action. The effect of a weight applied to the supported slat will, of course, be to further set the projections in the slats to positively insure against any accidental separation of the members.
In the modified form of the invention shown in FIGS. 6 through 8, a frame member 122, which is conveniently in the form of a rectangular-section metal bar, is provided with a socket extending longitudinally of the frame member and opening through one side edge thereof to receive the end of a plastic slat 124, is generally channelshaped or U-shaped in configuration and is provided with integral locking means as with the preferred embodiment of FIGS. 1-5.
Although only one slat is shown, it will be understood that a plurality of slats or rails 124 are disposed in parallelism as to each other or are angularly related as to each other to produce the aforedescribed fan-shaped pattern, in a rectangular or square outline, all so as to provide the usual and known body-supporting function.
Each channel-shaped frame member 122 is constituted by an outboard connecting wall and a pair of spaced parallel side Walls 132 each connecting to said outboard connecting wall 130 and defining a slat-receiving mouth opposite from said connecting wall, with the inner surface of each said side wall being provided with integral locking means in the form of a plurality of spaced, parallel, longitudinally-extending, inverted V-shaped projections 134, said projections defining therebetween a plurality of spaced, parallel, V-shaped declivities.
One free extremity of each rail member 124 is slidably received through the slat-receiving mouth of frame member 122 so as to be nested therewithin with its outermost end wall abutting the inner surface of outboard connecting wall 130 and with the portions of the side walls of each rail member received through said slatreceiving mouth being impinged by the projections 134, the inner surface of the respective adjacent side wall 132, each rail member being of a certain thickness slightly greater than the dimension delineating the distance between the inner surfaces of the side walls 132.
A portion of one side wall 132 of frame member 122 will be unserrated and Will be provided with strategicallyspaced cleats or inwardly extending projections 154 to engage and extend into the adjacent planar surface of the slat 124.
The plastic slat 124, related to a metallic frame member 122 in a nesting manner, is accordingly, stationarily secured relative thereto as by a system of serrating the inner surface of each side wall and, additionally, of dimpling the outer planar surface of one of the side Walls 132 of the frame member, preferentially that surface least to be observed by the human eye, in manner to press the mass of metal thereat inwardly, in the form of a generally conical cleat, and sufficiently as to extend inwardly of the plane of the inner planar surface of the said side wall wherefore the wooden slat 124 inwardly thereof is impinged by the inner end of the so-formed conical cleat 154.
Alternatively, with the slat or rail member in said nested position, the frame member is then struck or spanked by an appropriate tool at the outer planar surface of one of the side walls 132 so as to deform a portion of said one side wall inwardly thereby forming the generally conical-in-shape cleat 154 which impinges the said rail thereadjacent by extending through the surface thereof and into the interior thereof.
One or two or more of said cleats may be employed, depending upon the degree of added security desired.
In FIG. 7, one cleat is provided and is disposed so as to be positioned on the longitudinal center line of the slat 124.
In FIG. 8, two cleats are provided and are disposed longitudinally-extending so as to be positioned adjacent the vertical edges of the rail 124.
It will readily be appreciated that the attachment means of the embodiments as described and illustrated may be further modified in various other ways to meet convenience of manufacture. The provision of such means makes the attachment of slats extremely simple since nails, screws, rivets or equivalent are no longer required Wherefore slat renewal is facilitated, and the possibility of damage to the supporting framework is precluded. The invention has been described as applied to a chair and/ or chaise, but it will be appreciated that it is equally applicable to any other article of furniture or seating which normally employs slats or rails as a basis for a seating or reclining surface.
In an article of furniture, a tubular framework, a seating and backing body-supporting surface composed basically of slats mounted across spaced substantially rectangular end frames, said end frames each being constituted by a rigid rail having a relatively-deep substantially-rectangular section channel slot extending lengthwise of the rail and opening through a rail edge to define spaced side Walls substantially parallel to the plane of said slats and an outboard Wall substantially perpendicular to said plane, the slot having serrated side walls substantially perpendicular to said plane, inwardly projecting cleats in one of said side walls, the slat ends being projected into the slot so as to be impinged by said serrations and to be impinged by said cleats when the slats are subjected to normal operational tension.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 853,086 Jacquart May 7, 1907 2,182,761 Johnson Dec. 5, 1939 2,570,326 De Angelis Oct. 9, 1951 2,817,485 White et al Dec. 24, 1957 2,942,825 Trapp June 28, 1960 3,054,643 Militano Sept. 18, 1962 3,067,438 Degen Dec. 11, 1962 FOREIGN PATENTS 912,317 Germany May 28, 1954