US 3136343 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 9, 1964 o. FIRING 3,136,343
NEEDLE LOOM FOR Y TAPES Filed April l2, 1962 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Osborne 757m :1 9
ATTORNEY June 9, 1964 o. FIRING NEEDLE LOOM FOR Y TAPES 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April l2, 1962 lNvENToR ATTORNEY Osborne 'Fifi June 9, 1964 o. FIRING NEEDLE LooM FOR Y TAPES 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed April 12, 1962 i mfw lNvENToF: Osborne 'Fir' BY @-/f/k wel ATTORNEY June 9, 1964 Q FIRING 3,136,343
NEEDLE LOOM FOR Y TAPES Filed April 12 1962 e sheets-sheet 4 June 9, 1954 o. FIRING 3,136,343
NEEDLE LOOM FOR Y TAPES Filed April l2, 1962 y 6 sheets-sheet 5 a O o: m g 'El ATTORNEY June 9, 1964 o. FIRING NEEDLE LooM FOR Y TAPES e sheets-sheet e Filed April l2, 1962 ///////////HHH I H||H\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ @lo @Dj E@ //////////l/HIHHIIIH\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ United States Patent O 3,136,343 NEEDLE LOOM FOR Y TAPES Osb'orne Firing, Sherman Hill, Woodbury, Conn. Filed Apr. 12, 1962, Ser. No. 187,090 3 Claims. (Ci. 139-424) My invention relates to needle looms and particularly to improvements in such looms which will make them useful for weaving a tape of Y-shaped cross-section.
My invention is shown as embodied in a needle loom of the type shown in my pending application Serial Number 826,667 tiled July 13, 1959, now Patent 3,066,703 dated December 4, 1962, but the invention herein is not limited to that or any other specific needle loom.
Needle looms using a continuous supply of weft yarn have come into common use in the manufacture of narrow fabrics and especially in the manufacture of tapes for zipper fasteners. Such looms have the well-known advantages of high speed and continuous operation. Heretofore, however, they have been considered feasible only in the manufacture of flat tapes, with or Without one or more cords Woven into one edge. k
A large number of zippers are now being manufactured from plastic filament which is shaped into a coil or other suitable shape, and then applied to a tape. A tape of Y-shaped cross-section with the continuous plastic fastener element inserted between the flaps of the Y, which aps can be switched -together through the plastic fastener element, has been found to produce a very satisfactory fastener assembly.
The manufacture of Y section tapes has heretofore been accomplished only .on shuttle-type looms involving costly complications and reduced speed of operation. The general object of my invention, therefore, is to provide relatively inexpensive modications in existing needle looms which will enable them to make tapes of Y-shape cross-section. Another object is to weave a Y-shaped tape without substantial loss in capability of speed of such looms.
In the accompanying drawings, I have shown for purpose of illustration, one embodiment which the invention may assume in practice. In these drawings:
FIG. l is a perspective view of a Y-shaped tape resulting from my improved loom;
FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic View showing four different positions of the weft laying needle and knitting needle with the corresponding variations in the shed;
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic view in perspective indicating one example of a weave in the finished product;
FIG. 4 is a plan view of my improved loom;
FIG. 5 is a vertical section taken along line 5-5 of FIG. 6;
FIG. 6 is a horizontal section on line 6-6 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a vertical cross-section on line 7 7 of FIG. 6;
FIG. 8 is a vertical cross-section on line S--S of FIG. 6;
FIG. 9 is a partial plan view on an enlarged scale of the central portion of the loom;
FIG. l0 is a partial perspective view showing the knitting needle in action;
FIG. 1.1 is a transverse section through the laying needle;
FIG. 12 is a detail in horizontal section showing the knitting needle drive;
FIG. 13 is a detail view in horizontal section showing one position of the wobble plate for oscillating the weft laying needle; and,
FIG. 14 is a similar view showing another position.
The working parts of the loom are supported by a boxlike casting or frame which is open at the bottom and which has a flat top wall 1, sidewalls 2 and 3 and front and back walls 4 and 5, respectively. Journalled in suit- Mice able bearings in the sidewalls 2 and 3 is the main drive shaft 6 which is power-driveny through the pulley 7..
For operating part of the warp harnesses, there is a shaft 8 journalled in bearings attached to the sidewalls 2 and 3 which is driven by the gear 9 on the main shaft 6, meshing with the gear 10 keyed to the shaft 8 as best seen in FIG. 6. The ratio of this gearing is 1 to 2 so that the shaft 8 turns at half the speed of the main shaft.
On the opposite side toward the front wall 4, there is a second harness-operating shaft 11, also supported in bearings carried by the sidewalls 2 and 3 and driven by reduction gearing at the left side of the machine, involving gears 12, 13, 14 and 15 so that the shaft 11 is driven at one-half the speed of the shaft 8 or in other Words, onequarter the speed of the main shaft 6. Gear 12 is keyed to shaft 8, gears 13 and 14 are locked together and idle on the main shaft while gear 15 meshing with gear 14, is keyed to the slower moving harness-operating shaft 11.
Weft Laying Needle Action The weft laying needle 16 is attached to Ian arm 17 which curves downwardly and towards the center line of the loom where it is connected to a vertical shaft 18. This shaft (see FIG. 5) is journalled in suitable bearings 19 which are fixed in a hub 20 that is part of a lever 21. As best seen in FIG. 6, this lever is H-shaped having on the fulcrum end one ann 22 pivoted on a pin 23 projecting from the front wall 4, and the other arm 24 pivoted on a pin 2S projecting from the back wall 5 of the frame.
The needle-carrying shaft 1S derives an oscillating'motion about its own axis through a suitable mechanical movement from the main shaft 6 so that there is one complete oscillation to project the needle into and retract it from the shed during each revolution of the main shaft. This mechanical movement may take the form of a wobble plate mechanism which utilizes a cylindrical actuator 26 keyed to the main shaft 6 with the geometrical axis of the cylindrical actuator at a substantial angle to the shaft. Surrounding this actuator is a box-like follower 27 which has vertical side plates 28 and 29 fastened to a block on one end of the needle-carrying shaft 18 and at the other end, to a suitable spacer block. The spacing of the plates 28 and 29 correspond to the diameter of the actuator 2 6 so that as the shaft rotates (for example, from the position shown in FIG. 13 to the position shown in FIG. 14), the needle-carrying shaft 18 will turn through an angle proportionate to the angle between the axis of the actuator and the main shaft. i
Simultaneously with the oscillating movement of the weft laying needle 16, a toeand-fro movement is imparted to the needle by another mechanical movement between the H-shaped lever 21 and the main shaft 6. This may be accomplished by an eccentric 30 on the main shaft turning in a suitable bearing in the central portion of a yoke 31. The opposite pin-shaped ends 32 and 33 of yoke 31 have slidable and rotatable connection with the forward arms 34 and 35, respectively of the H-shaped lever 21. Thus, as the main shaft 6 turns, the lever 21 will be rocked about the pins 23 and 25 to give the weft needle 16 a slight movement toward and away from the fell of the fabric. It will be noted that the pivot axis of the lever 21 during this rocking motion is directly below the line of the weaving or the fell of the fabric so that even though the rocking motion of the lever 21 moves the weft needle through a slight arc, the vertical component of the motion is so slight as to be of no consequence.
Knitting Needle Action The knitting needle 36 is mounted to reciprocate along one side of the shed and carries a hook 37 at one end which picks up the loop of the weft thread that has been projected through the shed by the weft needle 16 and loops or knits it with a previously caught loop. The knitting needle is guided in a slot 3d of a block 39 which is attached to a bracket 40 mounted on top of the machine. (See FIGS. 5, 7, 10 and 12.)
The longitudinal reciprocation of the needle V36 is accomplished by a rotating disc 41 having an eccentric groove'42 in which is engaged the projection 43 of the knitting needle. Thedisc i1 is attached to a horizontal shaft 44 which is driven by beveled gearing 45 from a vertical shaft 46, which in turn is connected by beveled gearing 47 to a spur gear 48 keyed to a shaft e9 extending through the end wall 3. Gear 4S meshes with gear 5t) keyed to the slower moving harness-operating shaft 11 and the ratio of the gearing from shaft 11 to the needle-operating shaft 44 is such that the needle .36"has one complete reciprocation for each complete turn of the main shaft 6.
Means are also provided for shifting the hook end of the knitting needle 36 up and down in a vertical direction so that on one forward movement, it will pass over the weft needle 16 while on the next forward movement, it will pass under the weft needle. This is accomplished by a gear 51 on the main shaft 6 which meshes with a gear 52 rotatably mounted on a suitable bracket 53 and the ratio is such that gear 52 turns at half the speedk of the main shaft 6 (see FIGS. 5 and 10'). A shift link S4 has its lower end connected to a pin S eccentrically mounted on the side of the gear S2. The upper end of this Vlink is guided on a stationary pin 56 passing through a slot Sea in the link, and there is also a hole 57 through which the needle 36 extends.
Power Feeds for Filer Threads and Finished Tape Two separate llerthreads F1 and F2 are supplied from any suitable continuous source, such as a pair of spools, and they are positively fed by a single narrow feed roller 58 against which they are held by a spring-urged idler roller 59.
Asseen in FIG. 8, the feed roller 58 is mounted at the end of a vertical shaft 6i) which is driven by helical gearing 61 and 62 from the harness-operating shaft 8. From the roller 58, thread F1 passes through an eye 63 from the top to the bottom of the needle, thence along the thin section 64 of the needle to the eye 65 at the forward end of the needle, through which it passes upwardly, and in FIGS. 2a, 9 and l0, the filler thread F1 is being held by the hook 37 of the knitting needle 36. The other iiller thread F2 goes from the feed roller 58 to the 'same eye 63, passing from the bottom to the top of the needle, then along the top surface of the thin section 64 and downwardly through the front eye 65. The thin section 64 joins the thicker body section of the laying needle 16 in such a way as to provide upper and lower shoulders, thereby providing upper and lower guide channels for filler threads F1 and F2, respectively. This construction isV shown clearly in FIGS. l() and 1l. The position of the thread F1 as it leaves the eye 65 is, of course, indicated only diagrammatically. It will be understood that when thread F1 passes from the bottom side of the needle to the upper side,-it will form a loop on such upper side and similarly, when the thread F2 passes from the top to the bottom, it
will form a loop on the bottom side of the needle, and it` is these loops which are .engaged alternately by the knitting needle hook 37. It is not necessary to provide any special means for spacing either of the weft threads at this point from its respective side of the needle to form a sucient loop to be caught by the hook 37. The portion of thread F1 between the eye 65 and the fabric will,- in the position shown in FIG. l0, pass over the relatively thick section of the needle, as seen in FIGS. and l1, to space the thread slightly from the thin section at the end of the laying needle. In practice, of course, this hook is very thin so that it readily slips'under .the thread on either ofthe upper or lower sides of the needle. It will also be evident that the upper and'lower guide channels to which reference has been made, will guide their respective threads only between the eyes 63 and 65, but not after they pass through the eye 65. The laying needle, in its return movement from the shed, moves away from the fell of the fabric, as is more thoroughly explained in my issued patent referred to above.
At this time, since thread F2 was not caught on the preceding movement through the shed, the slack must be taken up by the long arm 66 mounted on a light coil spring 67 and carrying an eye 68 through which the thread passes. A similar slack take-up device is provided for the filler thread Fl with along arm 69 mounted on a light coil spring '7G and carrying the eye 71.
The means for positively feeding the finished tape T from the machine, and it may be called the take-up device,
v is power-driven from the shaft 49 which extends from the gear 4d to the side of the machine and carries a worm 72 meshing with worm gears 73 and 74 connected to the feed rolls 7S and 76, respectively. The tape T passes over the top of roll 75 and under roll 76 against which it may be held by any suitable idler roller 77.
Warp H andlng Considering rst the harnesses which are operated by the slower running shaft 11, the desired number of jacks 7S (herein four such jacks) are in the form of vertical rods slidable through suitable bearings in the top wall of the frame and carrying at their upper end U-shaped heddle frames 79 between which the desired number of heddles are supported for weaving the Y sectionof the tape, one such heddle being indicated at Si) in FIG. 8. These heddles are arranged near that side of the shed opposite the knitting needle 36.
Each of the rods or jacks 7 8 is attached at its lower end to a rectangularly shaped slide 81, one of the slides 81 appearing in FIG. 8.- Each slide operates in a vertical fixed groove 82 in the front wall 4 and a vertical fixed `groove 3 formed on a block Siicast integrally with the frame. Each of these slides 81 is operated in the desired timed sequence by suitable box cams, one of which 85 appears in FIG. 8. Each slide carries a roller follower 86 engaging in a heart-shaped groove in each cam so that the harnesses are driven both upwardly and downwardly in a positive manner from the shaft V11. These cams are designed so as to provide a substantial dwell at each ex treme position of the shed, one dwell being about three times the length of the other. Each of the slides has its own operating carn so that Various types of weaves may be produced by arranging the cams to operate the liardv nesses as desired. g
On the other side, there are four similar jacks 87 operated from the shaft 3 by slides 88 and plate cams 89 engaging between'two roller followers 39a, the up-and down movement being twice as frequent as in the case of the first four jacks 78 and the dwell times being equal;
thus the jacks 37 will move up for each complete cycle Vare rigidly held in cantilever fashion, each by a single jack and the frames may be spaced only half the distance apart as in other looms, resulting in a more compact arrangement, and one which lends itself better to highV speed operation. While only four jacks 87 and four harnesses are shown on this side of the loom, which are suiiicient for a plain weave, more may be employed if desired, for any particular kind of a weave in the body ofthe tape.
Operation The Y-section tape may be described as having a iiat body portion 9h and two Wing portions 91 and 92 alongv one edge. One type of weave by which-this Y-section tape may be Vmade is indicated in FIG. 3. One set of warps 93, herein shown, as six in number, extends lengthwise throughout one of the wing sections while another set of warps 94 extends through the other wing, while the,
warps in the main body of the tape are indicated at 95.
Weft thread F2 is interwoven with the warps 93 in the lower wing section 92 and across the body 90 of the tape to the knitted selvage edge 96. As is always the case in a needle loom, the weft threads lay in pairs in the finished tape since the laying needle must project a loop of thread through the shed which is caught by the knitting needle and looped intorthe preceding loop. The weft thread F2 then skips a course and again enters the shed formed by the lower warps 93 and intermediate these courses, passes the other weft thread F1 which is interwoven rst with the upper warps 94 and then with the warps 95 in the body of the tape. The loops of the weft threads F2 and F1 thus alternate through the length of the tape, and there will be only half as many weft threads in each of the wing sections as in the body of the tape, but this is desirable in the intended use of the tape to avoid excessive bulkiness in the wing sections.
The manner in which the weave is accomplished is best shown in the diagrammatic View FIG. 2 which shows four positions-a, b, c and a'. That portion of the tape to the right of the indicated vertical center line forms the wing sections 91 and 92 which will indicate the upper and lower wings respectively, while that portion to the left of the center line indicates the solid body portion 90 of the tape. The warps to the right of the center line will be considered as two groups: the first of which is sectioned and shaded, and the second being open and not shaded or sectioned. The warps in the body portion of the tape to the left are indicated by a cross. The group of warps 94 shown in section may also be referred to odd-numbered warps; that is l-3-5-7 etc. moving from left to right as seen in FIG. 2, whereas the even-numbered warps 93 form the bottom wing section.
In the rst position designated a, the weft needle 16 has projected a loop of weft thread F1 through the warps 94 and 95 and after being caught by the knitting needle 36, the laying needle 16 retracts from the shed and the lower portion of the warp group 94 moves to the up position where it holds the weft F1 in a position slightly above the level of the shed as indicated in the b position of FIG. 2. At the same time, alternate threads of the other or 93 group of warps move upwardly. In FIG. 2b, these are warps positioned 4-8-12 etc. This forms a shed with the lower portion of the 93 group indicated as having positions 2-6-10 etc. At this b position, the laying needle 16 has projected a double weft F2 through the shed formed by group 93 warps so that a loop is formed on the bottom side of the thin end section 97 of the laying needle 16. In the interval, the knitting needle will have been shifted downwardly by the link 54 as explained in conjunction with FIG. 10. In this position, the knitting needle will catch a loop of the weft F2 and knit it with the previously caught loop of weft thread F1.
In moving to the c position, the shed formed by the 94 group of warps yis reversed so that whereas threads numbered 1-59 etc. were on the bottom in position a, they are now shifted to the top and threads 3-7-11 etc. have shifted from top to bottom. This completes the interweaving of the weft thread F1 which has been projected through the shed in position a. In position c, weft F1 is again projected through the shed which forms the upper wing section where it is caught by the knitting needle in its top position and after the laying needle retreats from position c, alternate threads of the 93 group, numbered 2-6-10 etc., are shifted upwardly to complete the interlocking of the F2 weft which has been projected in the b position.
In the d position, the laying needle projects the F2 thread through the re-formed shed of group 93 warps where it is again caught by the knitting needle 36 which has shifted to its lower position.
It will be understood that in the positions b and d, the 94 group of warps, together with F1 weft, will be held to the upper side of the laying needle or upper side of the shed, so as not to interfere with the forming and reforming of the shed of the 93 warps for the lower Wing section. Likewise, in positions a and c, the entire 93 group of warps is held down or to the lower side of the laying needle and the shed so that they will not interfere with the forming and re-forming of the shed of 94 warps in the upper wing section. This is accomplished by the previously mentioned long dwell on the cams so as to provide a three to one cam ratio.
Since the warps 95 in the body portion of thek tape are handled by different sets of harnesses, they can be considered to form a shed in transverse alignment with both of the sheds formed by groups 93 and 94 warps.
As a result of my invention, it will be evident that a Y tape can be produced on a loom employing only a single laying needle handling two separate weft threads and a single knitting needle which requires only a simple additional movement. Thus Y tapes of good quality can be produced very economically.
What I claim is:
1. In a needle loom of the class described, the combination of (a) means for forming and intermittently changing a shed between the warp threads, which includes means for retaining a rst group of warps in a region along one edge of said tape at one side of the shed between alternate changes of the shed while the shed in that region is formed by a second group of warps, and means for retaining said second group of warps at the other side of the shed between the other alternate changes of the shed while the shed in that region is formed by said rst group of warps;
(b) a weft laying needle having means for carrying two filler threads one on each side of said needle, and eye means adjacent the forward end of the needle for leading each of said ller threads to the opposite side of the needle;
(c) means for actuating said weft laying needle to project both ller threads through the shed at each change thereof;
(d) a reciprocating knitting needle; and
(e) means for shifting the path of movement thereof from one side to the other of said laying needle, whereby each thread will be caught alternately by said knitting needle at each change of shed and engaged in a loop of the other thread previously so caught.
2. In a needle loom of the class described, the combination of (a) means for forming and intermittently changing a shed between the warp threads, which includes means for retaining a first group of warps in a region along one edge of said tape at one side of the shed between alternate changes of the shed while the shed in that region is formed by a second group of warps, and means for retaining said second group of warps at the other side of the shed between the other alternate changes of the shed while the shed in that region is formed by said first group of warps;
(b) a weft laying needle having a guide channel for one filler thread on its upper face and a second guide channel for another filler thread on its lower face, said weft laying needle having an eye adjacent its forward end through which each filler thread passes to form a loop of each thread on that side of the needle opposite the guide channel for such thread;
(c) means for actuating the weft laying needle to project both iller threads through the shed at each change thereof;
(d) a knitting needle at the side of the shed opposite said region;
(e) means for actuating said knitting needle back and forth in the lengthwise direction of the fabric; and,
'2?' 8 (f) means for shifting said knitting needle between needle, and a mechanical connection between said link successive cycles of back and forth movement first and said shaft to produce a complete two-direction shift to one lside and then to the other of said laying needle cycle of said link for every two revolutions of said shaft. whereby said knitting needle will catch a loop first of one filler thread and then the other and knit the 5 References Cited in the le 0f this Patent same with the next previous loop. UNITED STATES PATENTS 3. The combination defined in claim 2 wherein the means (c) includes a power-driven shaft and a mechancal 2230636 Ch-1t$0m Sept' 20 1938 connection between said shaft and la iny needle to ro- 2816576 Shlmweu Dec' 17 1957 y e y P L3,056,431 nenas et a1. oet. 2, 1962 duce a complete cycle of movement of said laying needle 10 into and out of the shed, and wherein the means (f) of FOREIGN PATENTS Claim 2 illCllldeS a Shift link engaged With said knitting 225,893 Australia Oct 22 195g