US 3137268 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 16, 1964 Q HORNWOQD 3,137,268
WARNING DEVICE Filed May 23, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Carl 6. Hornwood ATTORNEY June 16, 1964 c. a. HORNWOOD 3,137,268
WARNING DEVICE Filed May 23, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 6. M FIG.7.
INVENTOR Co rl G. Hornwood United States Patent DEVIQE Carl G. Hornwood, 14 Donna Drive, Upper Brooltville, N.Y., assignor of fifty percent to Clive H. Brarnson, Oyster Bay, NY.
Filed May 23, 1962, Ser. No.197,041 8 Clahns. (Cl. 116-414) ceilings and which will visibly indicate the presence of dangerously excessive stresses acting upon the bolt by reason of partial ceiling collapse prior to the condition becoming sufficiently aggravated.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a warning device capable of installation concurrent with the placement of bolts or other suitable fastening means employed for the positioning of support headers across the ceilings of mine shafts.
A further object of the present invention is the provision of a plurality of warning devices throughout a mine shaft, tunnel and/ or all excavating work in which an unstable roof remains.
A still further object of the instant invention is the provision of a visible alarm device to minersor workmen, activation being occasioned by excessive movement in the regions of the devices notwithstanding the absence of any sounds which would otherwise warn of the presence of imminent danger.
Still another object of thepresent invention is to provide a device of this character that will satisfy mine safety regulations and laws relating thereto, and which will not constitute a hazard in itself in gaseous mines with reference to initiating explosions.
Another general object of the present invention is to provide a device'of the described character which will be simple in structure, economical of manufacture, easily and quickly installed and highly effective in use.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent upon reading the following description taken in conjunction with'the accompanying drawings in which;
FIGURE 1 is an elevation view in partial cross-section of an embodiment of the warning device in combination with a bolt employed in securing a support header to the ceiling of a mine;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged exploded view in perspective of the warning device operatively illustrated in FIG- URE 1;
FIGURE 3 is an elevation view in cross-section of the warning device as it would appear subsequent to distortion thereof by reason of excessive forces acting thereon;
FIGURE 4 is an elevation view on a reduced scale of a mine shaft wherein is illustrated the installation of a plurality of warning devices according to the present invention;
FIGURE 5 is a plan view of the ceiling of the mine shaft taken along line 5-5 of FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 6 is an elevation view of a modified embodiment of the present invention; and
FIGURE 7 is a side elevation view of a further modification of the warning device according to the present invention.
, 3,137,268 Patented June 16, 1964 It will be understood that the foregoing general objectives and the following detailed description as Well are exemplary and explanatory but are not restrictive of the invention. 7
Referring now in detail to the present preferred embodiment of the invention illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawings, the warning device is seen designated generally by numeral 1. With particular reference to FIGURE 2 of the drawings it will be observed that the device therein illustrated-is comprised of a pair of opposingly arranged washers 2 and 4 and a pair of frangible wafers 6 and 8 disposed therebetween, each wafer having respective reactants 10 and 12 sealed therewithin as seen by referring to the view in cross-section provided in FIGURE 3. Reactants 10 and 12, when interreacted produce substantial volumes of products of reaction, the volume thereof being comparatively greater than the unreacted combined volume of reactants 10 and 12. For purposes of illustration reactant 10, a sodium bicarbonate solution, and reactant 12,,an alum solution, i.e., solution of a hydrated double sulfate of aluminum or other univalent metal such as potassium, sodium or ammonium, when interacted, produce a foam 14 which exudes without said washers 2 and 4 to become visible as shown in FIG- URE 3 of the drawings. Other suitable reactants may be employed in place of the above, as for example those conventionally used in soda-acid reactions; specifically, saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and concentrated sulfuric acid, saponin, a plant glucoside being dissolved within the sodium bicarbonate solution to thus produce a foam which is perceivable upon interaction of the basic reactants.
Accordingly, reactant containing wafers 6 and 8, axially disposed and concentric with respect to shaft 16 of bolt 18, spacedly support said washers 2 and 4 against predetermined compressive forces acting thereupon when said bolt 18 is applied as a fastening member as shown in FIG- URE 1 to thus secure support header 20 to ceiling 22 of mine shaft 24.
Projections 26 extending inwardly of washer 4 and slidably receivable within passages 28 disposed within wafer 8, are poised directly in piercing relation with Wafer 6, such piercing action being occasioned upon compression of said washers by forces in excess of the predetermined force withstandable by said wafers and washers. Projections 39 extending inwardly of washer 2, similarly provide piercing means poised directly with respect to wafer 8, such piercing action being eifectuated upon partial collapse of header 29 thereby generatingsuch excessive forces to cause distortion as shown in FIGURE 3 of the drawings.
Perforations 32 positioned randomly through washers 2 and 4 provide means facilitating the flow of the products of reaction to regions without the space occupied by the wafers and encompassed by the supporting surfacesof the washers. l
Also contemplated within the purview of the present invention is the employment of radioactive luminous materials within a frangible wafer adapted as abovedescribed, said luminescent materials to exude from the wafer ,upon the destruction thereof thus providing a visible warning to miners notwithstanding the absence of light in the mine. Examples of such luminous materials include radioactive pigments such as zinc sulfide pigment containing radium salts. It is further contemplated that a suitable material manifesting luminescent properties be included in physical combination with one of the reactants, the products of reaction according to the above preferred embodiment being thus endowed with luminescent properties.
FIGURES 6 and 7' of the drawings illustrate modifications to the preferred embodiment of the invention heretofore described. Washers 34 and 36 of the variation shown in FIGURE 6 perform the entire support function against destruction of Wafers 38 and 40. To that end the circumferential edges at 42 support said washers in opposing relation as shown, space 44 being provided as a housing for said wafers. Upon collapse of said Washers due to excessive external compressive forces, destruction of said frangible wafers will occur, thus permitting the subsequent interaction of the respective reactants hermetically sealed therewithin prior to said destruction.
As illustrated in FIGURE 7, a further variation to the preferred embodiment described herein comprises washers 46 and 48, spaced support of said washers being accomplished by upwardly extending spaced support members 50, collapse thereof resulting in the puncture of wafer 52 by piercing means 54 and the destruction of wafer 56 by the excessive compressive force acting thereon.
From the foregoing description it Will be appreciated that the warning devices according to the present invention may be conveniently positioned along the header support 20 utilized in shoring the ceiling 22 of a mine shaft, such application being shown in FIGURES 4 and 5 of the drawings. It will be further appreciated that the instant concept and suitable structures derivable therefrom may be utilized wherever the application thereof appears desirable, particularly with respect to unstable constructions susceptible of cave-ins or collapse occasioned by excessive forces created by topographical movements or by accidental weakening of the structures themselves.
Both the structural and operational characteristics of the invention having been described, it will be understood that changes may be made in the form, construction and arrangement of parts from that disclosed herein, e.g.,
variation of the shape and number of washers or the shape, number "and ingredients of the wafers, without in any way departing from the spirit of the invention or sacrificing any of the attendant advantages thereof, provided, however, that such changes fall within the scope of the claims appended hereto.
What is claimed is:
1. A warning device comprising in combination at least one washer and a frangible wafer disposed thereagainst, said wafer containing an indicating medium adapted to exude therefrom subsequent to fracture of said wafer, said washer and said wafer being receivable upon the shank of a bolt and adapted for positioning between the head of the bolt and the member through which the bolt is extended.
2. A warning device comprising in combination, at least'one washer and a frangible wafer positioned adjacently thereto, said wafer containing an indicating medium adapted to exude therefrom subsequent to fracture of said wafer, said washer and wafer being receivable upon the shank of a bolt and adapted for positioning between the head of the bolt and the member through which the bolt is extended.
6 3. A warning device comprising in combination, a
washer of concave configuration and a frangible wafer receivable within the concavity of said washer, said wafer containing an indicating medium adapted to exude therefrom subsequent to fracture of said wafer, said washer and wafer being receivable upon the shank of a bolt and adapted for positioning between the head of the bolt and the member through which the bolt is fastened.
4. A warning device comprised of a pair of opposingly arranged washers and a pair of frangible wafers disposed therebetween, asid washers being provided with piercing means adapted to puncture said wafers, said wafers beingadapted to support said washers in spaced relation against a predetermined compressive force acting thereupon, each wafer having a respective reactant hermetically sealed therewithin, inter-reaction of said reactants being occasioned upon puncture of said wafers, said inter-reaction being characterized by a substantial volumetric increase of said reactants, said puncture being accomplished by said piercing means upon compression of said washers by a force in excess of said predetermined force withstandable by said washers.
5. A Warning device according to claim 4 wherein said piercing means comprises projections extending inwardly of said opposingly arranged washers, said projections being poised in the direction of said wafers.
6. A warning device comprised of a pair of washers, spacing members positioned between said washers and a pair of superposed frangible wafers disposed within the spaced provided between said washers, said spacing members being adapted for supporting said washers against predetermined compressive forces acting thereagainst, each wafer having a respective reactant hermetically sealed therewithin, inter-action of said reactants being occasioned upon fracture of said wafers, said inter-action being characterized by a substantial volume of products of reaction, said fracture being accomplished upon collapse of said spacing members, said collapse being engendered by forces in excess of said predetermined compressive forces.
7. A warning device comprised of a pair of opposingly arranged washers, spacing members positioned between said washers, piercing means extending inwardly of said opposingly arranged washers, and at least one frangible wafer disposed within the space provided between said washers, said spacing members being adapted for supporting said washers against predetermined compressive forces acting thereagainst, said wafer containing an indicating medium adapted to exude therefrom subsequent to puncture of said wafer, said puncture being accomplished by said piercing means upon collapse of said spacing members, said collapse being engendered by forces in excess of said predetermined compressive forces,
8. A warning device according to claim 7 wherein the indicating medium contains a luminous material.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS