US 3139692 A
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July 7, 1964 c. A. SELLERS ETAL 3,139,692 CARTRIDGE POWERED SPEAR GUN Filed March 14, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTORS. CHARLES A. SELLERS JOE N. SHAW A TTORNE Y BY BM M}.
y 7, 1964 c. A. SELLERS ETAL 3,139,692
CARTRIDGE POWERED SPEAR GUN Filed March 14, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS.
CHARLES A. SELLERS BY JOE N. SHAW a M ML A TTORNE Y United States Patent Filed Mar. 14, 1963, Ser. No. 265,118 2 Claims. (11. 42-1 This invention relates to a spear gun for propelling a projectile under water or through the air.-
An object of the invention is to provide an improved and simplified spear gun of economical construction which does not require close machining tolerances and which is made entirely of materials which are resistant to corrosion in salt water and which may operate efficiently without lubrication to facilitate under water usage.
Another object is to provide a breech-loading spear gun which utilizes the explosive force of a cartridge to propel the projectile without the creation of a large amount of bubbles in the water, the gun being lightweight, compact, rugged and durable and very'easy to handle and manipulate.
A further object is to provide in a spear gun a detachable barrel assembly and coacting projectile of simplified construction and increased efliciency, and which barrel assembly may be readily replaced by a conventional barrel to convert the gun into a regular pistol.
Another object is to provide a spear gun having a novel safety mechanism which is substantially foolproof.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent during the course of the following detailed description.
In the accompanying drawings forming a part of this application and in which like numerals are employed to designate like parts throughout the same,
FIGURE 1 is a side elevation of a spear gun according to the invention,
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged side elevation, partly broken away and partly in section, with one-half of the receiver portion of the gun removed to show the internal parts thereof,
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view showing the firing pin assembly in the retracted or cocked position,
FIGURE 4 is a similar view showing the firing pin assembly and related elements in the firing position,
FIGURE 5 is an exploded vertical sectional view, partly in elevation and partly broken away, Showing the projectile and coacting barrel assembly, and
FIGURE 6 is a side elevational view of a chambered barrel used to convert the spear gun to an ordinary pistol.
In the drawings, wherein for the purpose of illustration is shown a preferred embodiment of the invention, attention is directed first to FIGURE 1, wherein the spear gun of the invention is shown in its entirety, and includes a receiver section 10, a detachable barrel assembly 11 and a projectile or spear 12, tethered by a suitable flexible element 13 to a slot 14 in a barrel release arm 15 to be further described. The other end of the flexible element 13 is secured at 16 to the projectile 12.
The receiver section is formed in two companion halves, one of which is removed in FIGURES 2 and 4 for the sake of clarity. The two halves of the receiver section are secured together in assembly by screws 17 or the like.
The receiver section 10 comprises a short barrel extension 18 having a bore 19 to receive the rear portion of detachable barrel assembly 11. The barrel release arm,
. previously mentioned, is positioned within a slot 20 opening through the bottom of barrel extension 18 and pivotally secured therein by a screw 21 or the like which additionally serves to clamp the two halves of the ref,139,692 Patented July 7, 1964 ceiver section together in assembly. An adjustable stop screw 22 on the inner end of arm 15 engages within a groove 23 on the rear end portion of barrel assembly 11 to lock the same releasably within the bore 19. The barrel assembly may be readily detached from the receiver section 10 by turning the arm 15 clockwise thereon to dislodge the screw 22 from groove 23. It might be mentioned here that the spear gun at any time may be quickly converted to an ordinary pistol, such as a .22 calibre pistol, by removing the barrel assembly 11 and replacing it in the assembly by the chambered barrel 24 shown in FIGURE 6 and having a locking groove 25 identical to the 'groove23.
The barrel assembly 11 comprises integrally formed inner and outer barrel sleeves 26 and 27 which are concentric and spaced with the inner sleeve 26 having its forward end terminating just short of the forward end of the outer sleeve 27. The rear end 28 of the annular space 29 formed between the inner and outer barrel sleeves terminates somewhat forwardly of the external groove 23. The bore 30 of inner barrel sleeve 26 extends rearwardly through the barrel assembly 11 and has an enlarged rear portion 31 forming a breech loading chamber for a blank cartridge 32, such as a rim fire .22 calibre blank cartridge.
The projectile 12 or spear has a leading elongated rod portion 33; equipped with a single barb 34 and a rear enlarged tubular portion 35 adapted to be received in the annular space 29 of the barrel assembly 11 with its rear end engaging the rear end wall 2 8 of the barrel assembly, FIGURES 2 and 5. Thus assembled, the bore 26 forwardly of the cartridge 32 forms with the projectile a substantially closed chamber for pressure caused by the expanding gases of the exploding cartridge, and these expanding gases act on the projectile 12 and propel it forwardly with great force. The interfitting construction of the barrel assembly and projectile constitutes an important feature of the invention and the construction is highly compact and allows the overall length of the gun to be relatively small without decreasing the range and effectiveness thereof. The use of the explosive car.- tridge 32 rather than a spring device renders the spear gun much more effective and allows the use of a much heavier projectile. The cartridge is greatly superior to a carbon dioxide capsule in a number of respects. It is cheaper, much smaller and produces far fewer bubbles when the gun is used under water and it allows the gun to be made in a much more compact and less awkward construction. i
A springclip 36 is employed, as shown, to 'hold windings of the flexible element 13 and to bias the barrel release arm 15 in the barrel locking position shown in FIGURE 2. r
The receiver section 10 also has a rear downwardly offset bore 37 to receive a firing pin assembly 38 having an intermediate rod portion 39 surrounded by a main spring 40 having its forward end bearing against a fixed collar 41 on the rod 39 and its rear end bearing against a shoulder plug 42, fixed at the rear of bore 37. The rod 39 reciprocates through a bore 43 of plug 42 and is equipped at its rear end with a manual retracting or cocking knob 44. The firing pin assembly has an enlarged cylindrical portion 45 slidable within the bore 37 and a firing pin 46 at the leading end of the assembly projects through a reduced opening 47 in proper alignment to strike the primer of cartridge 32 when the gun is fired. Intermediate portion 45 and collar 41 is a safety locking groove 48 to receive the head of an adjustable screw 49 carried by a sear 50, pivoted at 51 to the receiver section forwardly of the screw 49. A sear spring 52 biases the sear in a counter-clockwise direction, FIG- URE 2, toward a safety lockingposition with the firing pin assembly as shown in this figure.
A safety lever 53 on the hand grip portion of the gun is pivoted thereto at its lower end as' shown 'at 54. A safety lever spring 55 in the hand grip portion biases the safety lever '53 to 'the safety position in FIG- URE 2. The safety lever 53 has a leading beveled hooklike extension 56 which coacts with a depending beveled extension 57 on the pivoted sear to prevent firing of the gun prior to squeezing of the safety lever 53, FIG- URE, 4. v A trigger 58 surrounded by the usual trigger guard 59 is pivoted at 60 to the receiver section and coacts with a forward cam part 61 on the sear 50 forwardly of the-pivot 51 to' 'turn the sear clockwise and release the pin assembly 3 8 for firing, FIGURE 4.
The gun may be equipped, as an optional feature, with a cartridge extractor blade 62 on the bottomv of the hand grip, thereof, and a cavity 63 for small spare parts may be provided and covered by the extractor,
- as shown. I
When the gun is carried, the firing pin assembly is latched in the safety position shown in FIGURE 2, Prior to firing, it is cocked as shown in FIGURE 3, and the screw 49 then engages forwardly of the enlargement 45 of the firing pin. When the trigger is pulled, the sear and screw 49 release the firing pin,FIGURE 4, and the main spring 40 pushes the firing pin into engagement with the rim of the cartridge to explode it. The gun cannot be fired by the trigger until the safety lever 53 is first gripped and thrust forwardly to release the sear,
. as shown inFIGURE"4. The receiver section has suitable internal cavities in the two mating halves thereof to accommodate all movingparts, as shown clearly in thedrawings. The gun is equipped sights, as indicated. 1 H g It is to be understood that the form' of the invention herewith shown and described is to be taken as a preferred example of the same, and that various changes in the shape, size and arrangement of parts may be resorted to, without departing from the spirit of the-inven tion or scope of the subjoined claims.
Having 'thus described our invention, we claim:
1..A spear gun comprisinga receiver having a hand grip and ashort barrel extension, a spring-loaded manually retractable firing-pin on the receiver including a forwardreduced firingpin extension, safety latch'and trigger release means onthe receiver to maintain the firing pin retracted, and to cause the release thereoffor firing the'spear gun, the'shortba rrel extension having abore including aback wall normal thereto, said back i wall'having an eccentric opening adapted to receive'said reduced firing pin extension upon release of; thefiring pin, 'a barrel engageablej within the 'bore of the short barrel extension-and extending forwardly of the short barrel; extension andhaving a central rear breech load-' ing chamber for an explosive cartridge and a rear end wall engageable with the rim of the cartridge and clampwith conventional 4 a ing the rim between the ,rear end Wall and said back wall, said eccentric opening in alignment with said clamped rim, means to releasably lock said barrel within said bore in clamping engagement with said rim of the cartridge, said barrel having inner and outer substantially coextensive concentric barrel sleeves formed integrally thereon, the inner barrel sleeve communicating directly with said breech loading chamber and extending forwardly thereof and the outer barrel sleeve surrounding the inner barrel sleeve and defining therewith a narrow annular space between said sleeves throughout the major portion of the length of the barrel, and a spear projectile having a forward solid spear portion in advance of said barrel in assembly and a rear thin-walled tubular portion engageable within said annular space and substantially-filling said space in assembly, whereby said 7 forward solid portion is then positioned adjacent the forward end of the inner barrel sleeve to receive directly the explosive force from said cartridgeemanating therefrom upon firing of the cartridge by saidfiring pin extension.
2. In a breech loading cartridge powered spear gun, a 7
receiver having firing pin means and trigger and safety lock means for the firing pin means, a short barrel exten I sion on the receiver having a bore and a rear flat end wall provided with an opening for the firingpin means,
,a barrel unit engageable within the bore of the short a with said opening for the firin g pin means, means to releasably lock said :barrel'unit within said bore,.said barrel unit having an inner barrel sleeve directly in advance of the breech loading chamber and communi eating therewith and an outer barrel sleeve surrounding the inner sleeve in spaced substantially concentric relation thereto, anda spear projectile having a rear tubular portion engageable within theannular space between said barrel sleeves and substantially coextensive length- 7 Wise therewith and a forward solid portion arranged immediately forwardly in assembly of the forward end of the inner barrel sleeve to receive directly the force of explosion therefrom. I 1
Refgences Cited in'the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS v McCoy Dec.'8, 1931 2,014,184 'Linder Sept. 10,1935 2,345,833 Schirokauer Apr. 4, 1944 2,455,608 Rosengren Dec; 7, 1948 2,789,465 McDonald Apr. 23, 1957 2,888,768 2 Taylor June 2, 1959 2,957,468