|Publication number||US3141532 A|
|Publication date||Jul 21, 1964|
|Filing date||Jul 21, 1960|
|Priority date||Jul 21, 1960|
|Publication number||US 3141532 A, US 3141532A, US-A-3141532, US3141532 A, US3141532A|
|Inventors||Runyan Edgar A|
|Original Assignee||Inland Steel Products Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (39), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
July 21, 1964 E. A. RUNYAN 3,141,532
STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR MOUNTING SHEET METAL PANELS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed March 9, 1959 July 21, 1964 E. A. RUNYAN 3,141,532
STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS FOR MOUNTING SHEET METAL PANELS Original Filed March 9, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Patent 3,141,532 STRUQTAL SUPPORTS FOR MQUNTING SHEET METAL PANELS Edgar A. Runyan, Cincinnati, Ghio, assignor to Inland Steel Products Company, a corporation of Delaware Continuation of application Ser. No. 797,910, Mar. 9, H59. This application July 21, 1960, Ser. No. 44,325 8 Utairns. (Cl. 18-37) This invention relates to the mounting of sheet metal panels upon an underlying support structure, utilizing attachment means passing through the panel into holes which are preformed in the support structure. It is more particularly concerned with structural support units having preformed holes in the face elements of the unit and means for locating the holes in the panel member in accurate registry therewith.
This application is a continuation-in-part of co -pending application Serial No. 432,870, filed May 27, 1954, now abandoned, and is a continuation of Serial No. 797,910, filed March 9, 1959, now abandoned.
A primary object of the invention has been to provide an attachment means on a structural support by which the panel may be placed upon or against the support structure, in the required position and the holes located and punched from the exposed surface of the panel in a rapid convenient manner in precise registry with the preformed holes of the support structure lying beneath it.
Briefly, the invention involves the use of a support struc ture provided with embossed means projecting outwardly from the plane of the face of the structural member to which the panel is to be applied and disposed around the periphery of the preformed apertures. The panel is placed upon or against the structural member and localized pressure is applied against the panel in the area of each embossed means which functions as a forming die to impress an embossed reference mark which protrudes in relief from the external plane of the panel. The reference mark indicates accurately the location of the embossed hole beneath the panel, permitting a matching hole to be formed in the panel by piercing the panel at the reference mark. Thereafter, an attaching element, such as a sheet metal screw, is passed through the pierced area of the panel and anchored in the preformed hole of the support member.
According to the principles of the so-called blind fastening technique of this invention, an operator, using the proper tools, is enabled to locate and form the holes in the panels and apply the attaching means in a rapid convenient manner while working continuously on the exposed side of the panel.
The invention is of particular utility in the construction of prefabricated steel buildings, such as warehouses, consisting of a structural steel wall and roof frame covered over with sheet metal panels. conventionally, buildings of this character are constructed by first erecting the structural sustainers or framing members and thereafter applying and attaching the wall and roof panels. The common practice is to preform in the framing members a series of properly spaced holes for anchoring the attachment screws. This makes it necessary to locate and form the attachment holes in the panels by passing punches or the like through the holes of the structural members from inside the building outwardly through the panels. At least two men are needed in this operation, one man working inside the building and driving the tool through the holes of the structural members to pierce the panels, while the second man on the outside applies the attaching means. Moreover, this method also requires the erection of scaffolding inside the building to supportthe man or men working therein.
According to the present invention, the roof panel may x Patented July 21, 1964 See be simply elevated to the roof framework, which is provided with the preformed holes and embossed locating means associated therewith, and placed in position thereon, the panels forming a supporting surface for the workmen. The panels, of course, rest upon the embossed areas of the structural sustainers of the roof framework, the approximate location of the holes being readily determined, as explained in detail later.
The embossed portions of the framework are impressed in the panel preferably by striking the exposed panel surface one or more times with a rubber mallet in the approximate area of the embossments. The force of the mallet blows impresses the configuration of the embossment in the sheet metal, the mallet head being sufiiciently soft to be deformed while the sheet metal of the panel is forced into contact with the embossment and deformed thereby using the deformed area of the panel as a reference mark. A punch and hammer are used to pierce the area of the panel coincident with the preformed hole of the structural sustainer unit from the exposed side of the panel. After the panel is pierced, an attachment screw is placed in the hole and tightened by a suitable means, such as a manually or power driven wrench or screw driver, depending upon the type of screw which is applied. This same procedure is utilized in applying the siding or wall panel to the structure.
A further object of the invention has been to provide an embossedmeans for forming clean-cut holes in the panel which are sheared concentric with the preformed embossed hole in the structural support framing member. For this purpose, the punching tool is slightly larger than the diameter of the embossed hole and includes a tapered end portion which first perforates the panel, then by a shearing action against the inner edge of the annular rim, severs the pierced sheet metal cleanly around the hole. Upon the introduction of the attachment screw, the severed slug of metal, if caught in the embossed hole, is readily dislodged.
In addition to its utility as a locating means, the embossments provides: (1) a stronger anchorage since the annular rim increases the thickness of the metal section, (2) a purchase for additional threads of the attachment screw, and (3) a means for collectively strengthening the entire structure since the installed panel is keyed rigidly to the embossment upon which it is nested. Moreover, each embossment being raised outwardly above the plane of the panel, naturally dries out more quickly than the panel surface so as to resist corrosion. In order to provide a watertight seal, a washer is placed under compression between the screw head and the top of the embossment or the exposed face of the panel.
Various other features of the invention will be more fully apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the drawings.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary sectional view taken in a vertical plane, showing the first step of mounting a sheet metal roof panel upon one of the roof sustainer members, the panel being in position to receive the impression of one of the embossments.
FXGURE 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken from FIGURE 1, showing in greater detail the relationship of the panel and the embossrnent.
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged sectional view similar to FIGURE 2, detailing the formation of the emb ossrnent.
FIGURE 4 is a view similar to FIGURE 1, showing the punch in position to pierce the area of the panel deformed by the ernbossment.
FEGURE 5 is an enlarged sectional view similar to FIG- URE 3, showing the punch in position after piercing the panel and shearing the edge of the pierced hole.
FIGURE 6 is a view similar to FIGURE 4, showing the application of an attachment screw after the marked panel has been pierced and sheared.
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged sectional view similar to FIGURE 5, showing the attachment screw threaded into the preformed hole of the structural support unit to attach the panel.
FIGURE 8 is a sectional View taken on line 8d, FIG- URE 6, further illustrating the completed attachment to a Z-shaped structural sustainer member.
FIGURE 9 is a view similar to FIGURE 7, showing the attachment as applied to the overlapped portion of adjacent panels.
FIGURE 10 is a sectional view similar to FIGURE 8, showing the method applied to a C-shaped structural sustainer member.
FIGURE 11 is a plan view of an alternative embossment employing raised areas peripherally spaced around the preformed hole.
FIGURE 12 is an enlarged cross sectional view of FIGURE 11 through line I2I2.
FIGURE 13 shows a plan view of an embossment similar to that used in FIGURE 12 in which an elongated boss is employed.
FIGURE 14 shows an enlarged cross sectional view along line Iii-14 of the embossment illustrated in FIG URE 13.
FIGURE 15 is a plan view of an illustrative presentation of still another embossment which can be utilized in the instant invention.
FIGURE 16 is an enlarged cross sectional view along line I616 of the embodiment shown in FIGURE 15.
FIGURE 17 is a diagrammatic sketch of a die press system for producing the upset embossment illustrated in FIGURE 15.
As outlined above, the improved attachment is of particular advantage in mounting panels either upon the roof frame or upon the wall frame of a prefabricated steel building, the structure shown in the drawings being representative of structural sustainers employed in fabricating the wall and roof structure. It will be understood that the same procedure is followed in attaching the panels to any framing members or in any other structure which requires the formation of holes in precise registry with the holes of an underlying member.
In the erection of a metal building, the framework of the walls and roof is erected upon a suitable footing, following the -generally accepted building procedure. The framing members which are selected to disclose the invention may be Z-shaped in cross section as indicated at 1'9 in FIGURE 8 or they may be C-shaped or channelshaped as shown at 11. in FIGURE 10. These members are selected according to the particular requirements of a given building.
In the illustrative example, shown in FIGURES 1-6, the framing member is formed of heavy gauge sheet steel approximately A inch thick although the thickness and other factors vary as required. The desired cross sectional configuration is imparted to the sheet in a conventional Way, such as by stamping in a die press or by a rolling operation. As best shown in FIGURE 2, the top flange 12 (or, if used as a wall framing member, the outside flange) is provided with a series of spacedpreformed holes with surrounding embossments indicated at 1?. These holes are each delineated by an embossment formed by an annular bead or rim 14 which preferably has a tapered external surface as indicated at 15. The rim 14 is located upon the external surface of flange 12 and projects outwardly from the plane or face of the flange a sufiicient distance to impress an embossed area in the panel 17 when it is forcibly pressed against the embossed area as is detailed in FIGURE 3.
The preformed holes and accompanying embossments are located preferably at uniform spacing along the flange 1 2, the spacing selected according to the type of building and other factors. In the present disclosure, the panels are 4 formed to provide longitudinal box-like corrugations 18 providing beam sections for stiffening the panels longitudinally. To accommodate this particular panel configuration, the holes are spaced in the supporting structural unit to reside at the center of valley 20 between adjacent corrugations, as illustrated.
The embossrnents are preferably formed by conventional punching and stamping. For example, to form the hole and embcssment shown in FIGURE 2, a die press having multiple piercing and forming dies suitable to pierce the holes and to upset the metal around the hole is employed. To function satisfactorily as blind marking expedients, the embossments are formed so that the striking surface provided thereon projects outwardly from the panel mounting face of the structural unit to an extent greater than the thickness of the sheet metal panel which is to be mounted thereon. Other embossments which can be utilized are shown in FIGURES 11-16. In FIGURE 11 the embossment comprises a plurality of raised areas 4% in the face of the structural sustainer ll peripherally spaced about hole which is prepunched in flange 43. A similm arrangement is also shown in FIGURE 13 which utilizes elongated bosses 45 positioned in the faces of flange in surrounding the preformed hole 47 provided in structural sustainer 48. These embossments deform the face of the sheet metal panel sufficient to provide a reference mark, which although not enclosed, satisfactorily delin ates the area of the panel which is coincident with the underlying hole in the structural support unit to permit proper punching. To form this arrangement of holes and accompanying emboss. .ent a stripper type punch which bottoms on the die anvil is used. Appropriate mating faces are used to simultaneously form the embossments while the punch is cooperating with a suitable die button to form the hole. In FIGURE 15 is shown another embossment which comprises an upset area 5% surrounding hole 51 punched in the flange 52 of structural sustainer 53. Although the sides of the embossment inwardly converge, the metal employed is strong enough to resist being forced back into a planar configuration by the application of the panel deforming force. This form of embossment is fabricated utilizing a conventional die press schematically illustrated in FIGURE 17 having a vmale punch 60 with a smaller diameter than the female cavity 61 in the die button 62. The punch in forming the hole also upsets the surrounding area of the flange face by forcing it into the larger opening of the die cavity. It will be understood that the exact cross section of the framing member is not significant, embossments having various other configuratrons can be formed, and other structural members of various shapes used.
The structural sustainer members and the panels can be formed of sheet steel, aluminum and other material suitable to the intended use of the structure. By way of example, galvanized sheet steel approximately .024 of an inch thick (N0. 24 US. gage) is widely used in the fabricating of sheathing for building purposes, although heavier sheets are also used. When applied to a roof, the panels are placed with the corrugations 18 extending longitudinally in the direction of the roof pitch. When erected as wall panels, the panels are usually placed with the corrugations extending vertically; in either case the box-like corrugations form stiffening beams which reinforce the portion of the panel which spans the structural sustainer members.
After the structural framework of the roof is erected, the panels are simply placed in position upon the structural frame members Ill, as indicated in FIGURE 1. The present mode of locating and piercing the holes allows the workmen to erect and mount the panels in a rapid, efficient manner, working entirely upon the top of the roof. In other words, by locating the holes from above, there is no need for a man or men to work from beneath, using punches from below to locate the holes.
Referring to FIGURES l and 2, it will be seen that 5. the panel is in contact with the embossment 14 when it is initially placed on the roof and that the workman locates the panel properly upon the roof then strikes the panel from above, in the area of the embossment, utilizing a rubber mallet as indicated at 21 in FIGURE 1. The impact of the mallet deforms the sheet metal around the rimmed hole and impresses the reference mark or dimple 16. The mallet is sufficiently elastic to transmit the impact pressure in all directions. The embossment thus operates like a forming die, the rubber mallet cooperating with it to create the dimple impression by an outwardly bulging action.
It will be noted that the mallet has a head which is sufficiently large to encompass a considerable area surrounding the rimmed hole. This makes it unnecessary to strike the panel with the mallet centered upon the hole and simplifies the dimpling operation.
After this operation, the dimple is pierced, for example, utilizing a punch 22 driven in with a hammer as indicated at 23. Referring to FIGURE 5, it will be noted that the punch is larger in diameter than the hole 13 and includes a tapered point 24. Upon being driven into the panel, the point first pierces the dimple, then the tapered surface progressively ruptures the sheet metal until finally the tapered surface enlarges the hole substantially to the full diameter of the embossed hole. At this point, the pierced sheet metal is in shear between the edge 25 of the hole and the tapered punch surface. Additional advancement of the punch, usually by an additional hammer blow, generally severs the slug 26, thereby creating a clean hole 27 trimmed concentric to the embossed hole 13.
At this point, a screw 28, preferably of the self-tapping type, is placed in the hole and threaded in as shown in FIGURE 7. The screw 28, in the form illustrated, has a head 30 and is provided with a washer 31 formed of a plastic material such as commercial Neoprene. The screw may be tightened by the socket type wrench 32, and upon entering the hole, ejects the severed slug 26 in the event the slug sticks in the hole. Washer 31 is confined under pressure between the head 30 and the top surface 33 of the dimple to form a water-proof seal when the screw is tightened. The washer is formed of resilient material and counteracts the effect of vibrations which tend to loosen the screw.
In most steel industrial buildings, the roof framework consists of rafters rising at a slope from the wall framework and delineating the pitch of the roof. The roof panels are mounted on the support members 10 or 11, which are erected as purlins or beams resting upon the roof rafters and extending longitudinally of the building at right angles to the rafters. The panels are mounted upon the purlins with the corrugations 18 extending longitudinally in the direction of the roof pitch, that is, parallel with the rafters.
The panels are supported at their opposite ends upon the purlins, which are located at a spacing corresponding to the length of the panels. In most cases, intermediate purlins are erected between the main ones for additional panel support. In covering the roof framework, the panels are erected in courses upon the purlins with their side edges overlapped. The end portions of the courses are overlapped one upon another upon the purlins in the usual way. Preferably, a water-proofing compound is applied to the overlapped interfaces to prevent wind-blown water from entering the building.
Since the attaching screws are applied at the overlapped endwise portions of the panels and anchored in the purlins, the locating dimple must be impressed into two thicknesses of sheet metal at the joints as shown in FIGURE 9. Experimental work has shown that the overlapped metal can be impressed and pierced quite as readily as the single thickness shown in FIGURE 7, which 6 represents the attachment of the panel to an intermediate purlin.
The wall framework of the building is provided with horizontal stringers or girts in the same manner as the roof purlins. The ends of the wall panels are overlapped one upon the other and attached to the stringers, as indicated with respect to the roof panels.
It will be understood that the workmen can easily determine the approximate location of the embossed holes beneath the panel by observing the location of the support member extending beyond the edge of the panel. If the framework is entirely covered, then the location can be approximated by sighting along the heads of the screws previously installed.
It will be noted in FIGURES 7 and 9, that the annular rim 14 surrounding the preformed hole forms a metal section having a greater thickness than the web 12 of the support member and thus provides a greater number of threads for anchoring the screw. This naturally increases the holding power of the screw and provides a stronger structure. The dimple itself strengthens the bond between the panel and beam since the dimples are keyed rigidly to the embossment. The screws, therefore, are not subjected to any stress in the plane of the panel such as by vibration or wind pressure; moreover, the keying imparts added rigidity to the entire building. Since the top surface 33 of the dimple is displaced outwardly from the plane of the panel, the seal is less exposed to water and is more resistant to corrosion.
In steel building erection, the screws 28 preferably are of a commercial self-tapping type; these screws have strong holding power and reduce costs since the embossed holes need not be tapped. It will be understood that it is also contemplated to utilize other types of fasteners, for example, drive screws which cut their own threads as they are driven by hammer blows into the hole.
From the foregoing, it will be observed that the present invention is of particular advantage in the erection of steel buildings. However, it will be readily understood that the invention can be applied to practically any problem involving the location and piercing of holes in sheet metal which precisely match the holes of a support structure beneath the panel.
What is claimed is:
1. A unitary structural sustainer for the mounting thereon of a thin gauge sheet metal panel, said sustainer comprising a structural metal shape having a cross-sectional configuration imparting strength and rigidity there to comprising a plurality of fiat elements with contiguous elements thereof angularly disposed each to the other, at least one of said elements having a planar metal panel mounting face, said face having provided therein a plurality of spaced mounting apertures extending entirely through said mounting face and adapted to receive a suitable fastener and having a free marginal edge integral with said face, each of said apertures having embossment means adjacent to and integral with said face projecting outwardly therefrom to an extent greater than the thickness of the sheet metal panel to be mounted thereon, said embossment means having a striking surface adapted to deform an area of a sheet metal panel coincident with an adjacent aperture placed on contact therewith upon the application of a suitable force to an area of exposed face of a sheet metal panel overlying said embossment and said aperture, and being sufiiciently strong to resist deformation by said force.
2. A structural sustainer unit in accordance with claim 1 in which said embossment means are struck up from said planar panel mounting face.
3. A structural sustainer unit in accordance with claim 2 in which said embossment means surrounding a given aperture comprises a plurality of projections spaced about said aperture.
4. A unitary structural sustainer for the mounting thereon of a thin gauge sheet metal panel, said sustainer comprising a structural metal shape having a cross-sectional configuration imparting strength and rigidity thereto comprising a plurality of flat elements with contiguous elements thereof angularly disposed each to the other, at least one of said elements having a planar metal panel mounting face, said face having provided therein a plurality of spaced mounting apertures extending entirely through said mounting face and adapted to receive a suitable fastener and having a free marginal edge integral with said face, each of said apertures having an embossed annular rim surrounding said aperture adjacent to and integral with and forming a relief projecting from the face of said shape to an extent greater than the thickness of the sheet metal panel to be mounted thereon, said annular rim having a striking face adapted to deform an area of a sheet metal panel coincident with an adjacent aperture placed in contact therewith upon the application of a suitable force to an area of an unexposed face of said sheet metal panel overlying said annular rim and said aperture and sufficiently strong to resist deformation by said force.
5. A unitary structural sustainer for the mounting thereon of a thin gauge sheet metal panel, said sustainer comprising a structural metal shape having a cross-sectional configuration imparting strength and rigidity thereto comprising a plurality of fiat elements with contiguous elements thereof angularly disposed each to the other, at least one of said elements having a planar metal panel mounting face, said face having provided therein a plurality of spaced mounting apertures raised above said panel mounting face extending entirely through said mounting face and adapted to receive a suitable fastener and having a free marginal edge integral With said face, each of said apertures having a frustoconical embossed annular rim surrounding said aperture adjacent to and integral with and forming a relief projecting from the face of said shape to an extent greater than the thickness of the sheet metal panel to be mounted thereon and adapted to deform an area of a sheet metal panel coincident with an adjacent aperture placed in contact therewith upon the application of a suitable force to an area of an exposed face of said sheet metal panel overlying said aperture and said annular rim and sufficiently strong to resist deformation by said force.
6. A structural sustain-er unit in accordance with claim in which the upper edge of said embossed annular rim adjacent said aperture is provided with an acute striking face.
7. A unitary structural sustainer for the mounting thereon of a thin gauge sheet metal panel, said sustainer comprising a structural metal shape having a cross-sectional configuration imparting strength and rigidity thereto comprising a plurality of fiat elements with contiguous elements thereof angularly disposed each to the other, at least one of said elements having a planar metal panel mounting face, said face having machine punched therein a plurality of spaced mounting apertures raised above said panel mounting face extending entirely through said mounting face and adapted to receive a suitable fastener, and having a free marginal edge integral with said face, each of said apertures having a frustoconical embossed annular rim surrounding said aperture adjacent to and integral with and forming a relief projecting from the face of said shape to an extent greater than the thickness of the sheet metal panel to be mounted thereon, said rim having a Wall of substantially constant thickness struck up from said panel-mounting face surrounding said aperture and adapted to deform an area of a sheet metal panel coincident with an adjacent aperture placed in contact therewith upon the application of a suitable force to an area of an exposed face of said sheet metal panel overlying said aperture and said annular rim and sufficiently strong to resist deformation by said force.
8. A structural sustainer unit in accordance with claim 7 in which the upper edge of said embossed annular rim adjacent said aperture is provided With an acute striking face.
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