US 3142276 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 28, 1954 A. SCHAUER 3,142,276
DEVICE FOR FORMING CUT PILE FABRICS AND THE LIKE '7 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 25, 1962 INVENTOR. #4 FRED Jaw/405? BY I ATTO/QA EV July 28, 1964 A. SCHAUER 3,142,276
DEVICE FOR FORMING FILE FABRICS AND THE LIKE Filed June 25, 1962 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 ill! J4 INVENTOR. W115? flgw A. scHAuER' 3,142,276
DEVICE FOR FORMING cu'r PILE FABRICS'AND THE LIKE July 28, 1964 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed June 25, 1962 INVENTOR. ,iZA-v Sci/Musk B z A. SCHAUER July 28, 1964 DEVICE FOR FORMING CUT PILE FABRICS AND THE LIKE Filed June 25, 1962 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 I N VEN TOR. 65 x50 SCH/ ua? ATZOEA/EV iii i wa nzrllldrllllllllllllz III-ll Ill'll July 28, 1964 SCHAUER 3,142,276
DEVICE FOR FORMING CUT FILE FABRICS AND THE LIKE Filed June 25, 1962 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 i lv,
A. SCHAUER Jul 28, 1964 DEVICE FOR FORMING cu'r FILE FABRICS AND THE LIKE Filed June 25, 1962 Q 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 /IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IN VENTOR K50 SCH/4H5? ATM/9M A. SCHAUER July 28, 1964 DEVICE FOR FORMING CUT PILE FABRICS AND THE LIKE Filed June 25, 1962 7 Sheets-Sheet '7 N$ gg 2 LE 5 5 v a m "w" m m m H m w" (Q fin. m k A? E Y E i F INVENTOR.
mmf nr United States Patent 3,142,276 DEVICE FUR FGRMING CUT FILE FABRICS AND THE LIKE Alfred Schauer, Elrnhnrst, N.Y., assignor to Roger H. g lulllen Inn, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New Filed .lune 25, 1962, Ser. No. 204,677 9 Qlaims. (Cl. 11280) The present invention relates to a device for forming cut pile fabrics and the like and more particularly to a hand gun-type device usable for making cut pile rugs and the like.
Hand guided motor-driven devices of this kind, called hand guns, have been used for some time in making loop pile rugs and the like. Means have also been suggested adaptable to such devices for cutting the pile loops so made, so as to form cut pile fabrics such as rugs, etc. The present invention comprises an improvement on these devices, particularly as to the means for cutting the pile loops, as well as the means for forming the pile loops all of a selected predetermined height, so that the cut pile, when the product is completed, will all be substantially uniform in height rather than ragged, as has been the case in the use of some devices where the cutting operation has been uncertain or irregular for one reason or another.
The present invention provides a means by which the forming of the loops from bights of pile yarn is regular and uniform, as well as selective as to the height of the pile. Furthermore, the pile cutting means is so certain in its operation that the pile is all cut in the same way at the same height, so that the resulting product appears as a velvet carpet with uniform height cut pile.
In order to attain these ends the present invention comprises a means for forming loops by an operation in some ways similar to that heretofore in use in the making of tufted fabrics, in which a needle is projected through a backing fabric, the needle having an eye rearwardly of its forward end. In this instance, however, the needle itself does not project a loop of the pile-forming yarn through the fabric, but merely opens a hole or aperture through which a loop of the yarn may be projected by another member herein termed an assembly, as it includes a means not only for projecting a bight of the yarn through the fabric, but also for cutting the bight of yarn after it has been projected therethrough to a desired extent.
In the device of the present invention, a number of actuating means are provided for actuating both the needle and assembly aforesaid and other interlocking means are provided by which the bights of the yarn are suitably severed or sheared at the proper point in the cycle of the operation. In the particular device of the present invention, the assembly includes a member having a V-notch forward end across which the yarn loop extends and which is used to project the yarn loop through the backing fabric through the hole or aperture formed by the needle, the cut end of this yarn which forms a part of the previously formed loop and was cut incident to the completion of that operation being held meanwhile against retraction during the formation of a next loop in the next succeeding cycle operation of the device. The bight of the yarn extends across adjacent the apex of the V of the V-notch member aforesaid and is in rear of a hook-shaped member or a hook portion of such a member which extends through a slot in the member having the V-notch forward end as aforesaid. During the projection of the loop of the yarn through the backing fabric this hook member is forward of the bight of the loop of yarn. At about the termination of the forward movement of the assembly, including the member with the V-notch forward end, the hookshaped member is moved rearwardly with respect to the V-notch member and the V-notch of the latter is sharpened to a knife edge on at least one surface adjacent thereto, and preferably both such surfaces, so that there will be a positive shearing action between a portion of the hook-shaped member and at least one sharpened knife edge of the V-notch member, which is substantially contiguous therewith, and in any event is preferably in shearing relationship therewith.
In connection with all the above, suitable means are provided for automatically actuating the several parts in proper timed relation to each other, all preferably operated from a common actuating means which may be an electric motor carried by the support. Provision is preferably made for independently varying the amplitude and position of the reciprocatory movements of both the needle member and the assembly aforesaid, including the V-notch member and the hook-shaped member aforesaid.
Other and more detailed objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following particular description of a preferred embodiment thereof, which is illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a view in plan of a device for making cut pile rugs embodying the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a side elevation of the device of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a view of the device of FIGS. 1 and 2 as seen from the right in FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a view substantially in transverse section on the line 4-4 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary view principally in central longitudinal section on the line 55 of FIG. 4, but with some parts shown in elevation;
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary detailed view in section on the line 66 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a view in principally longitudinal central vertical section on the line 77 of FIG. 1, but with some parts shown in elevation, this view showing the parts in position with the needle fully extended and the assembly therein not quite to its rearmost position;
FIG. 8 is a view similar to a portion of the view of FIG. 7, but showing the parts in a position with the needle at its rearmost position, and the assembly almost to its fully forward position and with the hook-shaped member retracted with respect to the V-notch member of the assembly;
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary View of a portion of the needle member and the assembly hereinafter described as seen from the side opposite that shown in FIG. 8;
FIG. 10 is a view partly in transverse section on the line 10-10 of FIG. 7 and with some parts in elevation;
FIG. 11 is a view of the parts shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 substantially in longitudinal section on the line 1111 of FIG. 7;
FIG. 12 is a fragmentary view of some of the parts shown in FIG. 11 on a somewhat larger scale and with the needle, the V-notch member and the hook member therein also shown in central longitudinal section;
FIG. 13 is a view substantially in transverse section on the line 1313 of FIG. 12;
FIG. 14 is a view similar to that of FIG. 13, the section being taken substantially on the line 14- 14 of ticularly the relationship between the needle, the backing fabric, the assembly for projecting a bight of pile yarn through the fabric and the means including the hook-like member and the V-notch member for shearing the yarn to form cut pile;
FIG. 23 is a fragmentary view with parts in section and other parts in elevation, the view being taken substantially on the line 2323 of FIG. 19;
FIG. 24 is a view of the parts shown in FIG. 23 and similar thereto, the view being taken substantially on the line 2424 of FIG. and
FIG. 25 is a fragmentary view showing a portion of a backing fabric on a substantially enlarged scale and showing the rear of some pile yarns formed therein in accordance with the teachings of the present invention.
While many of the principles of the apparatus of the present invention are applicable to fully automatic machinery and are applicable also to the making of pile fabric other than rugs, there is chosen for illustration in the accompanying drawings and for the following particular description a form of the invention which may be termed a tufting gun for making out pile tufted fabric. As the description proceeds there will be pointed out equivalents and how certain of the principles of the invention are of more general application.
In the accompanying drawings, FIGS. 1 and 2, the entire device is shown, which includes an outer support here shown as a substantially cylindrical housing. The outer support 30 is part of the stationary frame of the machine. A further part thereof comprises a shoe head 31 which may be threaded or otherwise suitably secured to the forward end (at the right as seen in FIGS. 1 and 2) of the outer support 30. These parts may be suitably secured together by threading in a manner not specifically illustrated and/or may be secured by the use of one or more set screws in a conventional manner. The shoe head 31 carries shoes 32 and 33 through intermediate rigid stems 34 and 35 as best seen in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3. The shoes 32 and 33 are arranged to bear against the backing fabric or against some of the loops of the cut pile yarn in rear of the fabric as best shown in FIGS. 17-22 and hereinafter more particularly described. Furthermore, these shoes 32 and 33 may be independently adjusted to desired points forwardly of the shoe head 31 by an appropriate adjustment as shown by providing the stems or supports 34 and 35 with portions extending longitudinally into holes or recesses in the shoe head 31 and securing these stems in desired adjusted positions by set screws, one of which is shown at 36, FIG. 1. It will be understood that any other suitable type adjustment, if desired, may be used in lieu of that shown, and further, that the shape and character of the shoes is not critical except insofar as the shoe 32 enters into the operation as hereinafter described.
It will be understood, however, that for many purposes a fixed adjustment or a fixed relationship between the shoes 32 and 33 on the one hand and the shoe head 31 on the other may be satisfactory; and further, that another shoe head having shoes fixed thereon in different relationships could be substituted for use in lieu of the one presently shown, without providing adjustments as aforesaid.
Preferably arranged between a shoulder 37, FIGS. 7 and 8, formed near the forward end of the outer support 30 and the shoe head 31 is an annular band 38, formed as one end portion of a bracket 39 carrying a handle 40, which may conveniently be made swingable about the longitudinal axis of the outer support 30 either freely or otherwise, and which provides a convenient way by which one end of the entire device may be supported or steadied by one hand of a user.
At the rear of the outer support 30 (to the left as seen in FIGS. 1 and 2) is mounted a gear box 139 which is suitably secured by screws 41 to a flange 140 formed rigid with the outer support 30. It will be understood 4 that any suitable method of providing a gear box rigid with the rear end of the outer support 30 should be considered equivalent of that specifically shown in the accompanying drawings.
At the rear of the gear box 139 is a split plate 42, FIGS. 1, 2, 4 and 5. This plate is suitably secured to the gear box as by screws 43 and has a large hole at its center for receiving a substantially cylindrical projection 44 extending forwardly from a prime mover such as an electric motor 45. The plate 42 is provided with a split portion shown at 46, FIG. 4, and is sufficiently resilient so that when the cylindrical portion 44 is inserted in the substantially cylindrical hole centrally of the plate 42, it will permit such introduction. The plate 42 may be tightened around the cylindrical portion 44 of the motor 45 by a screw extending freely through an ear 136 on one portion of the plate 42 and threaded into another portion 47 thereof, FIG. 4, so that the head of the screw 135 will tend to close the split portion 46 and clamp the plate 42 around the portion 44 of the motor, thus holding the motor securely on the rest of the device.
As shown, the motor assembly 45 is illustrated substantially as a pistol grip-type small motor, substantially equivalent to those used commonly at the present time in driving fii-inch drills. It may also include reduction gearing as is common in such devices. In the present instance the motor 45 is arranged to drive a shaft carrying a beveled pinion 48, FIG. 5. A pistol grip portion 49 of the motor 45 will permit the user to hold the implement with a finger of his hand in contact with the usual trigger 50 for operating a switch to control the operation of the motor. A suitable electrical cord illustrated at 51 may extend from the grip 49 to any convenient electrical outlet. It will be understood that the motor 45 is here illustrative of any prime mover effective to transmit rotary power to the device, in this case by driving the beveled pinion 48.
The present invention, as in cases of most tufting apparatus, uses a reciprocating needle which serves to provide a hole between the threads of a backing fabric through which a loop of pile yarn may be introduced. Such a needle is shown in the accompanying drawings at 52. This needle is formed substantially as a semi-cylindrical shell as is evident from many of the drawings in which it is shown and is provided with a pointed forward end with the point formed by beveling off the shell of the needle as indicated at 53 in FIGS. 11, 12 and 17 through 22. At its rear end the needle 52 has an enlarged portion 54. If the needle 52 is viewed from the substantially cylindrical side it will appear as shown best in FIGS. 23 and 24.
At its rear end the needle has an enlarged portion 54 which is flattened as shown on two sides, FIG. 13, and which is outwardly threaded as best seen in FIGS. 7, 8 and 9. The enlarged portion 54 is shown threaded into the forward end of a needle barrel 55, which is shown as a substantially cylindrical member (see FIGS. 7, 8 and 10). In order that the needle may be positively secured within the forward end of the needle barrel 55, a set screw 56, FIGS. 2 and 11, may be threaded through the forward end portion of the needle barrel into engagement with one of the flattened surfaces of the enlarged portion 54 of the needle.
At a point spaced somewhat in rear of its forward pointed end previously described, the needle 52 is provided with an eye or aperture 57 here shown as substantially rectangular in outline. Pile yarn for forming the pile of the fabric which the device is adapted to make is supplied from any suitable source (not shown) through appropriate guide means (also not illustrated) to the path shown for the yarn at 58, FIGS. 17-24 inclusive. This yarn then passes through the eye 57 of the needle to the hollowed-out inner portion thereof in a manner which is now conventional in this art. Means are provided for preventing over-supply of the yarn through the needle eye from the yarn source, such means comprising a flat spring 59 which is disposed in a substantially rectangular slot 60 in the needle (see particularly FIGS. 13 and 14), and is secured at its rear end to the needle by one or more rivets 61 or any other desired manner. The forward end of this spring as seen best in FIGS. 17- 22 serves to engage a portion of the yarn as it passes inwardly through the eye 57 of the needle and to act substantially as a check valve, allowing the yarn to move inwardly of the needle as is required in the operation, but substantially preventing retraction of the yarn outwardly through the needle eye.
Means are provided for reciprocating the needle carrying member and thereby the needle in a desired manner. For this purpose the needle barrel 55 has secured thereto a member 62, FIGS. 1, 2, 7, 8 and 10, this member 62 being secured as shown by a pair of machine screws 63 or the like and extending freely through a slot 64 formed in the outer support 30. The member 62 has pivoted thereto a block 65, the block 65 being secured to the member 62 by a screw 66 having a smooth cylindrical portion extending through a part of the block 65 and being threadedly secured into the member 62. Connected rigidly to the block 65 is a connecting rod 67, which is preferably secured thereto by a set screw 68, so that the block 65 may be adjusted lengthwise of the con necting rod by loosening the set screw 68, adjusting the parts to a desired position, and retightening the set screw 68. i
The other or rearward end of the connecting rod 67 is shown as adjustably connected by a set screw 69 to a block 76, which is essentially similar to the block 65 and is similarly mounted for pivotal movement by a screw 71 as best shown in FIG. 6. The screw 71 has a cylindrical portion extending through a cylindrical hole in the block 70 as shown, FIG. 6, and a threaded portion 72 extending through an elongated slot 73 extending radially of a crank arm 74, and the portion 72 being threaded tightly into a nut 75, having flattened sides received in a non-rotatable manner in a groove 76 which extends radially of said crank arm below and parallel to the slot 73. The crank arm 74 is mounted on a shaft 77 as best seen in FIG. 5. This shaft 77 is the main drive shaft for the device as a whole and is preferably suitably mounted in bearings (not shown) on the gear box 139. Within the gear box the shaft 77 carries a beveled gear 78 in mesh with the beveled gear 48 when the motor assembly is in its normal operative position with respect to the device as shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 5.
Means are provided for rotatably adjusting the crank arm 74 about the axis of the shaft 77. For this purpose the crank arm has a split or bifurcated portion 79, FIG.
1, the two portions thus split apart being urged together by a suitable bolt 80 extending freely through the upper of the two portions as seen in FIG. 1 and threaded into the lower thereof in a conventional manner.
From the foregoing it will be seen that various adjustments of the needle operation are provided for by the apparatus just discussed. In the first place, the amplitude of the needle movement may be varied without varying any other characteristics of this movement by varying the effective length of the crank arm of the crank 74. This may be accomplished in the device shown by loosening the screw 71, adjusting the connection between this screw and the crank arm 74 to a desired point and again retightening the screw.
A second adjustment which may be made is to vary the position of the entire stroke of the needle movement without varying the amplitude 'of it. This may be accomplished in the device shown by adjustably varying the connection at either end of the connecting rod 67 with its associated blocks 65 or 70, these connections being secured by the set screws 68 at one end and 69 at the other.
As a third adjustment of the needle movement, its timing in the cycle of operations, ie with respect to the other means operated by the common actuating means, may be adjusted by varying the angular position of the crank arm 74 about the axis of the drive shaft 77, this adjustment being secured by the bolt 80. It will be understood, however, that this is a relative adjustment, as either this or the other means hereinafter described, which is driven by the common drive shaft 77, may be adjusted with respect thereto and either adjustment will eifect a phase variation of one with respect to the other.
Mounted in sliding relation in the needle 52 and for longitudinal movement in a path substantially concentric with the curvature of the outer part of the needle and preferably substantially parallel therewith, i.e. with a longitudinal axis thereof, is an assembly including a member 81 having a portion of rectangular cross-section slidable in the needle as shown in FIGS. 13 and 14 and an inner hook member 82, which is slidable in a substantially rectangular slot 83 within the member 81. In order to provide for guiding the forward ends of these members, the needle 52 is formed with rectangular grooves for receiving and guiding the member 81 as best shown in FIG. 14. Furthermore, as to that portion of the member 81 which may project forwardly beyond the needle and beyond that portion where it is positively guided in place by the sides of the groove shown in FIG. 14, a leaf spring 84 (see FIGS. 11, 12 and 17-22 inclusive) is provided which is suitably secured at its rear end to a part of the enlarged portion 54 of the needle and bears as shown at 85, FIG. 18, onto a part of the member 81. This becomes quite important when the member 81 is projected a substantial distance beyond the end of the needle as in the position of the parts shown in FIG. 20.
At its rear end the member 81 has fixedly secured thereto either directly or through the intermediation of a plate as shown at 86, FIGS. 12 and 14, a rearwardly extending actuating stem 87. While an intermediate plate 86 is shown in the present drawings, it will be understood that this is not essential to the device and the stem 87 could be formed in any way rigid or integral with the member 81. 7
Means are provided for reciprocating the member 81 and parts carried thereby. For this purpose the actuating stem 87 has secured thereto a substantially cylindrical member 88, FIGS. 7, 8, 10 and 11, this securing being effected by one or more set screws 89. The member 88 is preferably cylindrical as shown and is mounted for longitudinal sliding movement within a cylindrical bore concentric with the needle barrel 55. Thus the rear end of the assembly 81-82 is guided accurately for solely longitudinal movement. Secured to the cylindrical member 88 and projecting laterally therefrom is a member 90, FIGS. 7, 8 and 10, this member being secured to the member 88 by a pair of cap screws 91 as shown and having a portion extending through an elongate longitudinal slot 92 in the needle barrel 55 and through a registering slot 93 in the outer support 30. Outside the outer support 36 the member has pivoted thereto a block 94 by the use of a pivot pin 95 which has a cylindrical portion received in a bearing part of the block 94. The pivot pin 95 has a threaded portion which is suitably threaded into a part of the block 90 in an appropriate firm manner. The block 94 has adjustably secured therein a connecting rod 96, this securing being effected, for assembly, by a set screw 97.
At its rear end, the connecting rod 96 is connected to be driven .by a crank carried by the shaft 77 in a manner similar to that described hereinabove as to the manner of connecting the connecting rod 67 to the crank arm 74 carried by the same drive shaft 77 As shown particularly in FIGS. 4 and 5, the connecting rod 96 extends through a hole in a pivot block 98 and is secured thereto in an adjusted position by a set screw 99. The block 98 is pivoted about a cylindrical portion of a screw 100 which passes through a suitable slot in a crank arm 101 and is threaded into a suitable nut 102 having flat sides bearing against the sides of a further grooved-out portion of the crank arm 101 in a manner similar to that shown in FIG. 6 as to the corresponding connection in the mechanism for reciprocating the needle 52. The crank arm 101 is fixed in an angularly adjusted position onto the shaft 77 and this adjustment is secured, for example, by a set screw 103.
The lower end of the shaft 77 as seen in FIG. has a bearing in a plate 104 which is suitably secured to the gear box 139 by screws or the like as illustrated in dotted lines in FIG. 5. This is solely for convenience of assem bly and disassembly of the parts and other constructions generally equivalent thereto could be substituted if desired.
From the foregoing it will be seen that provision is made for varying the amplitude of the reciprocatory movement of the assembly including the member 81 and parts carried thereby. This may be done in accordance with the specific teaching herein given of the present de vice by varying the eflfective length of the crank arm 101, which in turn may be done by loosening the screw 100, and adjusting this screw and its nut 102 lengthwise of the radial slot in the crank arm to bring the parts to a desired adjusted position and then retightening the screw 100.
A further adjustment may be made by shifting the entire position of the movement of the assembly 81-82 longitudinally of the device, i.e. forwardly or rearwardly, without varying the amplitude thereof. This may be done by adjustably varying the connection between the connecting rod 96 and the block 94 on one hand or on the other hand the block 98, the adjustment in either instance being secured by the set screws 97 or 99 respectively.
A third adjustment which may be made is a phase adjustment between the phase of operation of the needle on the one hand and that of the operation of the assembly 81-82 aforesaid on the other. This can be accomplished by a relative rotation of either of the crank arms 74 or 101 with respect to the other or with respect to the drive shaft 77 as by holding one of these arms stationary and adjusting the other. The crank arm 101 as aforesaid is adjustably secured to the drive shaft 77 by the set screw 103.
The next portion of the device to be considered is the member 82 having a hook-shaped forward end hereinafter referred to as the hook member, the forward portion of which is shown in perspective in FIG. 16 and which is mounted for solely sliding movement in a direction longitudinally of the device in the slot 83 of the member 81, FIG. 15, all as aforesaid. The rear end of the member 82 may be suitably connected to or form a part of a member portion 105, FIGS. 7, 8, 9, 11 and 12. In FIG. 12 these parts are shown as integral although this is not essential. In any event, the portion 105 has its rear end turned up as shown at 106 and bored or pierced to serve as a guide for a stem 107 which is suitably secured by welding or brazing or the like at 108 to the stem 87 and extends forwardly from adjacent to the point 108 generally parallel to the stem 87. Between the connection at 108 and the turned up portion 106 of the member 105 is a compression spring 109. The effect of this spring is always to move the portion 105 and hence the hook member 82 forwardly, i.e. to the right as seen in FIGS. 7, 8, and 11 with respect to the V-notch member 81 and thus to hold these parts in relative position shown in FIGS. 9 and 23.
When it is desired to effect a pile cutting operation as generally hereinabove referred to, the hook member 82 which is located at its normal forward position at the outside as shown in FIG. 23 is drawn rearwardly with respect to the V-notch member 81 to the position of these parts shown in FIG. 24, forcing the bight of the yarn into engagement with inclined beveled and sharpened surfaces 110 of the V-notch member which are respectively formed by beveling the outer edges of the V-notch member to form knife edges adjacent to the hook member. The hook member has a hook portion 111 which extends far enough laterally so that when the hook member is retracted, it will positively engage the bight of yarn shown at 112 in FIG. 23 to sever it against one or another or several of these surfaces or the knife edges formed by these bevels. At the same time, the hook portion 111 of the member 82 is of such dimensions that at the forward position of the member 82 there will be a free passage as shown at 113, FIG. 23, through which the bight of yarn may freely pass to the position thereof shown in full lines in that figure.
Means are provided for moving the hook member 82 as aforesaid and for assuring that it will be brought to and held at a selected position so as to execute the desired cyclic operation of the device. As previously described, the compression spring 109 tends at all times to move the hook member 82 forwardly with respect to the V-notch member 81. When, however, it is desired to move the hook member from the FIG. 23 position to that shown in FIG. 24, this is accomplished by a differential movement between the member 81 on the one hand and the needle 52 on the other. For this purpose the portion 105 of the member 82 has one or more laterally extending projections 114 (only one being shown in the accompanying drawings) which are arranged to engage against a rear portion of the enlarged head 54 of the needle 52. When then the needle 52 is retracted by the means aforesaid with respect to the V-notch member 81; or when the latter is projected forwardly sufficiently beyond the needle 52, as the case may be, then the rear end of the enlarged head 4 of the needle will engage the lateral projection 114 of the portion 105 and will move the hook member 82 rearwardly against the compression spring 109. In this movement it is guided by the turned up rear end 106 of the member 105, which has an aperture through which the stem 107 extends. This differential motion of the members 81 and 82 is effective to cut the pile of the yarn.
When thereafter it is desired that the hook member 82 shall reassume its normal forward position with respect to the member 81, this is accomplished generally to a large extent at least by a reverse differential movement of the needle 52 and the V-notch member 81, permitting the compression spring 109 to expand, and thereby moving the turned up end 106 and the parts 105 and 82 rigid therewith toward their forward position with respect to the V-notch member 81.
In order, however, to assure that this hook member 82 shall always be moved positively to its utmost forward position with respect to the V-notch member 81, auxiliary means are provided comprising a stop blade 115, FIG. 11, which engages the turned up rear end 106 of the member 105 at the rearmost end of the movement of the latter.
The blade as seen in FIG. 2 is formed as a forwardly extending tongue constituting a part of a member 116 which is curved to the extent necessary and provided with slots 117 (FIG. 2) through which screws 118 extend, these screws being threaded into the main outer support 30. Thus the stop blade 115 may be adjusted longitudinally of the device and this adjustment secured by tightening the screws 118. This adjustment is provided so as to position the stop blade 115 accurately, so that it will cause the hook member 82 to move to its most forward position with respect to the V-notch member 81 at the rearmost position of the latter.
In order that the member 116 may be attached to the outside of the device as shown in FIG. 2 and the stop blade 115 thereof extend through to engage the turned up rear end 106 of the member 105, the outer support 30 is provided with a slot 119 and the needle barrel 55 is provided with a registering slot 120. The stop blade 115 extends through both slots as shown in FIG. 11.
It will be seen from the foregoing that the mechanism generally used for actuating the reciprocating means in the present case comprises cranks and connecting rods.
This mechanism may be adequate for many purposes. However, other equivalent reciprocating mechanism, including, for example, cams and cam followers by which any desired type of movement may be obtained is believed to be equivalent to the crank means herein shown, with adjustments of the amplitude of movement and also the position of movement being accommodated by the use of substitute cams to replace other cams. Such cams could, of course, be carried and rotated by the shaft 77 in lieu of the cranks shown thereon.
A machine cycle is shown in the several views FIGS. 17-27. In FIG. 17 the device of the present invention has been brought against a backing fabric here shown generally at 121 which may be of any suitable type and of any suitable material. It may, for example, be of jute or the like, woven in the general style and pattern of monks cloth. Such a fabric is shown in FIG. 25 and some threads thereof also generally diagrammatically in FIGS. 17-22. As shown in FIG. 17, the device is brought against the fabric until the shoes 32 and 33 are seated thereon and the point of the needle 52 penetrates the fabric as shown. As illustrated in the drawings, there are two cross threads of the backing fabric between each penetration of the needle. This may be one way of operating the device, although the number of threads between each penetration of the needle is not critical or a necessary vital part of the present invention. Also as shown in FIG. 25, there are two plies of pile yarn shown at 122 which are inserted simultaneously; whereas in the previous figures only a single pile yarn 58 is shown. Here again optional uses of the device are illustrated in that one, two, three, or possibly more plies of yarn may be trained through the needle in the manner shown for the pile yarn 58 in FIGS. 17-22 and all of the plies thus trained through the eye 57 of the needle may be used simultaneously and in a parallel fashion as shown in FIG. 25.
Considering the comparison of FIGS. 17 and 18, it will be noted that the needle 52 has been moved to its most forward position, which position is that shown for the needle in FIG. 7; and in FIG. 18, the initial portion of the retracting movement of the needle has started as indicated by arrow 123. Up to this time the loop or bight of the pile yarn has not actually been extended through the fabric, as the eye 57 of the needle is not normally extended through the fabric, although this is largely immaterial from the point of view of the essential operation of the device. In any event the position of the eye of the needle at the point of greatest penetration of the needle will bring a bight of the yarn closely adjacent to or through the fabric and in position so that a bight of the yarn may be picked up by the reciprocating assembly 81-82 as shown FIGS. 18 and 19.
During the portion of the cycle shown from that position of the parts in FIG. 18 to that in FIG. 19, the needle continues to move toward the rear, while the assembly 81-82 moves forwardly. This results in a bight of the pile yarn being picked up by the V-shaped forward end of the member 81 by slipping past the portion 111 of the hook member through the space 113, FIG. 23, which shows the bight yarn at 112 in the position to which it is carried through the fabric to form a loop as shown at 124. During this period the end of the yarn which forms a part of the cut pile at 125, FIG. 19, is prevented from being retracted through the fabric by the pressure of the lower end, as seen in FIG. 19, of the shoe 32, which bears on a part of the yarn in rear of the fabric 121 and thus prevents retraction of the cut end portion 125. FIG. 19 shows the parts in a position in which the assembly 81-82 is almost at its furthest extended position forwardly. At about this time the needle is still retracting as shown in FIG. 19 by the arrow 126 in that figure. This is almost to the position of the parts shown in FIG. 24 which shows these parts after the needle has retracted sufiiciently with respect to the assembly 81-82 so that the hook member is drawn rearwardly as aforesaid to cause a cutting of the yarn to form cut pile. This occurs with the pile loop or bight of the yarn at about the position shown in FIG. 19 and is incident either to the continued rearward movement of the needle 52, while the assembly and particularly the V-shaped member 81 is substantially stationary or to the continued forward movement of the assembly with the needle either stationary or moving rearwardly, or both in accordance with the adjustment of the apparatus.
Still further movement of the parts with a continued retraction of the needle and a start of the retraction of the assembly following the shearing of the yarn is shown in FIG. 20, the pile being cut at a point slightly to the right (as seen in the drawings) of the level of the remainder of the cut pile at 127, so that the yarn end at 128 which may be slightly further retracted during the final retractive portion of the needle movement, as it is caught between the spring 59 and the side of the eye 57 of the needle 52, will be retracted only to the level 127 of the other cut pile.
As shown in FIG. 21, the needle 52 has retracted sufliciently, so as to be clear of the fabric and is substantially stationary and the assembly 81-82 is now retracting so as also to be clear of the fabric, i.e. to a position substantially as shown in FIG. 22. Meanwhile, the end 129 of the previously cut loop is held substantially stationary by the shoe 32 bearing against the rear surface thereof; and the apparatus of this invention may then be moved from the position of FIG. 21 to the position of FIG. 22 for the making of a next loop as soon as the assembly 81-82 has cleared the fabric by a retractive movement as shown by the arrow 130, FIG. 21. FIG. 22 shows the start of the next cycle in forming a new loop and corresponds substantially to the showing of the parts in FIG. 17.
Rows of cut pile may be formed at any desired interval from one another and as shown in FIG. 23, there are three threads of backing fibers between rows of cut pile. Here again this is not absolutely essential, but any desired spacing of the rows of cut pile may be made in accordance with the desires of the users of the device and in accordance with the type of carpet or other pile fabric which is being made.
While there has been shown and described herein but one principal form of the device; and some variations have been referred to as the description has proceeded, it will be understood that other variations and modifications will occur to those skilled in the art from the foregoing particular disclosure. I do not wish to be limited, therefore,
except by the scope of the appended claims, which are to be construed validly as broadly as the state of the art permits.
What is claimed is:
1. A device for forming cut pile fabrics and the like by projecting a loop of pile yarn through a backing fabric and cutting the loop, comprising an outer support forming a part of a frame for the devrce,
a needle carrying member carried by and mounted for reciprocatory movement with respect to said support and provided with a needle having a pointed forward end for piercing a backing fabric, and an eye in said needle rearwardly of said forward end,
an assembly also carried by and arranged for longitudinal sliding movement with respect to said support in a direction substantially parallel to the direction of reciprocatory movement of said needle and including a longitudinally extending member having a forward end portion disposed so as to be projectable through an aperture in the backing fabric formed by the needle once the needle is projected and extends therethrough, said longitudinally extending member having a substantially V-notch forward end and hav- 1 1 ing longitudinally extending guide means, at least one edge portion of said V-notch adjacent to said guide means being sharpened to form a knife edge;
an inner hook member portion which forms a part of said assembly and extends through said guide means and is longitudinally movable with respect thereto, said hook member portion being mounted for solely longitudinal sliding movement with respect to the V-notch forward end of said longitudinally extending member,
said hook member portion having (a) a forward position in respect to said V-notch forward end, such that a bight of a pile yarn may be moved past said hook member portion to a position between it and the apex of the V of said V-notch forward end and (b) a rear position in which it has moved to the rear of said apex of the V,
a common actuating means, means driven by said actuating means for reciprocating said needle carrying member with respect to said support and thereby for reciprocating said needle to cause it repeatedly to penetrate said backing fabric, means driven by said actuating means in timed relation with the reciprocation of said needle for reciprocating said assembly to cause said V-notch forward end thereof to move through an aperture in said backing fabric through which said needle extends to project through said backing fabric a bight of pile yarn passing across said V-notch and behind said hook member portion,
and means actuated in a predetermined timed relation to the reciprocations of said needle and said assembly to cause said hook member portion to move from its forward to its rear position, so as to shear said bight of pile yarn at said knife edge.
2. A device for forming cut pile fabrics in accordance with claim 1, in which said outer support is formed as a housing having a substantially cylindrical guideway therein for a portion of said needle-carrying member, which is formed as a portion of a piston for reciprocation in said guideway; and in which said assembly is mounted for reciprocation in a path parallel to that of said needlecarrying member, said needle-carrying member having guide means therein in which a portion of said assembly is slidable.
3. A device for forming out pile fabrics in accordance with claim 1, in which said actuating means comprises a continuously rotatable shaft, and in which said means driven by said actuating means for reciprocating said needle carrying member comprise crank means on said rotatable shaft, and a connecting rod interconnecting a portion of said crank means remote from the center of rotation thereof with a part secured to said needle-carrying member for reciprocating the latter.
4. A device for forming cut pile fabrics in accordance with claim 1, in which said actuating means comprises a continuously rotatable shaft, and in which said means driven by said actuating means for reciprocating said needle-carrying member and said means driven by said actuating means in timed relation with the reciprocation of said needle comprise two crank means separately secured to said rotatable shaft and connecting rods respectively connecting said crank means with said needle-carrying member and with said assembly.
5. A device for forming cut pile fabrics in accordance with claim 3, further comprising means for adjustably varying the amplitude of movement of said needle, comprising means for adjustably varying the effective length of the arm of said crank means.
6. A device for forming cut pile fabrics in accordance with claim 3, further comprising means for adjustably varying the position of the needle movement longitudinally of such movement independently of the amplitude of such movement, comprising means for adjustably varying the position along said connecting rod of its connection at one end thereof.
7. A device for forming cut pile fabrics in accordance with claim 1, in which said hook member portion is actuated to move from its forward position to its rear position, both as aforesaid, by a predetermined differential movement between said needle-carrying member and said assembly.
8. A device for forming cut pile fabrics in accordance with claim 1, further comprising a shoe carried by said outer support and constructed and arranged to hold a portion of the yarn extending to the cut end of the immediate preceding cut loop of such yarn, so as to prevent the retraction of said cut end incident to the formation of a next succeeding loop during the next cycle of the operation of said device.
9. A device for forming cut pile fabrics in accordance with claim 1, in which said hook member portion is formed as a part of a flat parallel-sided member which is mounted in shearing contact with said knife edge, so that upon movement of said hook member portion from its forward to its rear position, a bight of yarn will be positively sheared by said knife edge.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 897,200 Perrier Aug. 25, 1908 1,603,328 Dietz Oct. 19, 1926 1,976,709 Doubler Oct. 16, 1934 2,057,920 Rose Oct. 20, 1936 2,077,719 Solliday Apr. 20, 1937 2,197,296 Carver Apr. 16, 1940 2,672,109 Wilson Mar. 16, 1954