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Publication numberUS3143943 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 11, 1964
Filing dateMay 10, 1960
Priority dateFeb 27, 1957
Publication numberUS 3143943 A, US 3143943A, US-A-3143943, US3143943 A, US3143943A
InventorsFrost Harold L, Townley Eustace R
Original AssigneeSmith & Sons Ltd S
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Processing of photographic material
US 3143943 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 11, 1964 E, R. TOWNLEY ETAL 3,143,943

PROCESSING OF PHOTOGRAPHIC MATERIAL Original Filed Feb. 27, 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 HEATER CAM SWITCH SYSTEM.

IN VE N T016 ATTORNEYS 1964 E. R. TOWNLEY ETAL PROCESSING OF PHOTOGRAPHIC MATERIAL Original Filed Feb. 2'7, 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS R. TovwvuEY H.- L. F' r' ATTORNEXi 1964 E. R. TOWNLEY ETAL 3,143,943

PROCESSING OF PHOTOGRAPHIC MATERIAL Original Filed Feb. 27, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 w x f MP-mil Fig.4.

A TTORNE )(5 United States Patent 3,143,943 PROCESSING OF PHOTOGRAPHIC MATER IAI. Eustace R. Townley and Harold L. Frost, Barkingslde, England, assignors, by mesne assignments, to S. Smith & Sons (England) Ltd., London, England Original application Feb. 27, 1957, Ser. No. 642,698, now Patent No. 2,961,938, dated Nov. 29, 1960. Divided and this application May 10, 1960, Ser. No. 30,698 Claims priority, application Great Britain Mar. 2, 1956 i 11 Claims. (CI. 9514) The present invention relates to the processing of photographic material and is particularly, although not exclusively, concerned with apparatus adapted to photograph, process, and project pictures from the processed material within a short time interval.

This appjlication for United States Letters Patent is a division of United States application Serial No. 642,698, filed February 27, 1957, for Processing of Photographic Material, now US. Patent No. 2,961,938, granted November 29, 1960.

The invention is especially concerned with apparatus adapted to photograph a cathode ray tube trace and to give a high quality, fully-processed projected picture within a very short time, and has specific reference to the processing means employed in apparatus of this kind.

An important object of the invention is to provide apparatus for processing photographic material in which the processing time can be reduced for a given quality of the product.

Processing methods are already known in which photographic light sensitive material is processed by the application of suitable liquids in processing cups "or dishes or by means of sprays. All the methods hitherto used have suffered from two main disadvantages.

(a) The formation of contamination deposits in the liquid supply lines caused by the interaction of the processing liquids and (b) The plating-out of silver in the supply lines and in the processing dishes caused by the interaction of the spent processing liquids.

It is a'further object of this invention to enable these disadvantages to be overcome or substantially reduced and to provide improved apparatus which can be used in the production of either positive or negative pictures.

It is a subsidiary object of the invention to provide apparatus in which, in the case of failure anywhere in the photographic-processor-projector apparatus, no liquids flow and air continues to flow over the photographic light sensitive material being processed. According to-the present invention there is provided apparatus for the processsing of photographic material comprising at least one jet having a liquid supply line and an air supply line so arranged that compressed air in the air supply line is adapted to draw liquid along the liquid: supply line and eject the liquid in a fine spray from the jet, and an electro-magnetically-operated valve in the air supply line.

In a preferred form of the invention a plurality of the said jets is provided and an electro-magnetically-operated valve is provided in the air supply line to each jet. Since each liquid supply line carries only one liquid, interaction between diiferent liquids in the supply lines is avoided, Moreover the avoidance of the need for valves in the liquid supply lines avoids difiiculties arising from the corrosion of such valves.

A further jet connected to a source of compressed air by an air supply line containing a further electro-magnetically-operated valve is preferably provided. Means may be provided for heating the air supply thus raising the processing temperature. This feature is particularly useful in cases where processing is effected most rapidly at an elevated temperature. a

3,143,943 Patented Aug. 11, 1964 The electro-magnetically-operated valves may be arranged to be operated in suitable time sequence, for example, by means of cam-operated switches.

The several jets may be arranged to operate upon the material to be processed at different stations. Preferably,

however, the jets are all arranged to operate upon the' material in a single station, the material being held stationary in this station for the appropriate time.

The invention will be described by Way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic representation of one embodiment of the invention, 8

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a jet assembly for use in the embodiment,

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of one of the jets in FIG. 2,

FIG. 4 is a diagram showing the mode of operation of the electro-magnetically-operated valves in the embodiment, a

FIG. 5 is a perspective view of cam-operated switches used in the embodiment, and

FIGS. 6 and 7 show the shapes of cams used in FIG. 4.

The embodiment to be described is an apparatus for the photographing, processing and projection of radar images appearing on the screen of a cathode ray tube.

In this apparatus the photographing, processing and projection are all carried out in synchronism with the aerial scan of the redar apparatus.

Referring to FIG. 1, the trace on a cathode ray tube 10 is photographed on film ll which remains stationary in the camera 12, represented by a lens 13 and shutter 14, in the exposure position, eg for the time taken for the radar aerial to make one complete rotation. It is then passed, in the direction of the arrow 19, from the camera to the processing station 15, Where it again remains for the same period whilst a new picture is taken at the exposure station.

passes on to the projection station 16, shown as including a light source 17 and a projection lens 18, and the pro for advancing the film, form the subject of patent application No. 505,825, now Patent No. 2,927,790, and are described in the specification of that application. vThe present description will, therefore, be confined to that part of the apparatus which is concerned with the processing In the processing station 15, the film frame to beprocessed lies over a chamber 20 from which spent liquid .is discharged through a waste line 21. The frame of the film 11, which is stationary in the processing station is shown in FIG. 1 as being supported by the upper surfaces of the walls of chamber 20. Four jets, of which only one marked 22a is shown in FIG. 1, are arranged within the chamber 20.

Referring to FIG. 2, the jet assembly is a unitary struc: ture comprising a base 23 through which are sealed pipes 24 supporting jets 22a, 22b and 22c, and a further centrally-disposed jet 25. The three jets 22a, 22b and 220 are suitably inclined relatively to one another in such a manner that each is directed at the centre of the film frame.

Referring again to FIG. 1, each of the three jets 22a, 22b and 220 of FIG. 2 is coupled by a separate supply line 25 to a reservoir 26 for a different liquid, namely in this example developer, fixer, and water, and by a separate supply line 27 through an air heater 28 and an electro-magnetically-operated valve 29 to a source of compressed air, such as a compressor, which is not shown. Only one of the reservoirs 26 is shown in FIG. 1.

Each jet 22a, 22b and 220 is constructed as shown in From the processing station the film FIG. 3, and comprises a miniature Venturi system. Compressed air is fed through a pipe 24' and a pipe 24" is connected with the liquid supply line 25. The drop in pressure in the jet chamber 30 causes a rise of liquid from the pipe 24" into this" chamber. The compressed air fed down the air supply line thus results in liquid being sucked into the mixing chamber 30 of the jet Where it is atomized and sprayed on to the film at high velocity.

. The fourth jet 25 (FIG. 2) is connected to the source of compressed air and heating means are provided for this air also.

A solenoid-operated valve 29 as shown in FIG. 1 is provided in each of the air supply lines and the operation of these valves is controlled by a cam switch system 31 to be described later. This system also controls a solenoid-operated film-crimper 32 which may be constructed in accordance with British patent specification No. 764,970 and serves the purpose set forth in that specification.

FIG. 4 shows the arrangement of the three solenoidoperated valves 29a, 29b and 29c serving to control the air supply to the nozzles 22a, 22b and 220 respectively of FIG. 2 and a solenoid-operated valve 34 serving to control the air supply to the nozzle 25 of FIG. 2.

The valves 29a, 29b and 290 are alike and each comprises a solenoid winding 35 having a core 36 of magnetic material projecting within it, the core being biased downward by a spring 37 and thus maintaining the valve 38 normally closed. Switches 39a, 39b and39c control the supply of current to thewindings 35 from a source shown as abattery 40. When a winding 35 is energised, the associated valve 38 is opened against the action of the spring 37'. a

. The valve 34 operates in the opposite manner, that is to say, it is normally held open by its spring 41. The upper half 42 of the core is of magnetic material and the lower half 43 of the core is of non-magnetic material and energising of the winding 44 by closure of a switch 45 closes the valve.

, The valves 29a, 29b and 29c control the supply of compressed air from a source connected at 46 to the air supply lines 27a, 27b and 270 respectively of the nozzles 22a, 22b and 220 respectively of FIG. 2. Air supply to the nozzle 25 of FIG. 2 through a supply line 47 is controlled by the valve 34.

The switches 39a, 39b, 39c and 45 of FIG. 4 are operated in proper sequence by means of a multiple cam switching device part of which is shown in FIG. 5.

The shaft 47 'of the device is driven by a servo motor (not shown) in synchronism with the rotation of a radar aerial and makes one rotation for each rotation of the aerial.

The switches 39a, 39b and 390 are operated by a pair of like cams 48 and 49 offset relatively to one another about the shaft axis, the cam 48 serving to open the switches and the cam 49 serving to close them. The cams have the shape shown in FIG. 6 and proceeding from a step 50 in the direction of movement of the blade over the cam indicated by the arrow 51', have a portion A extending over 135' of dwell at the smaller radius, a portion 'B extending over 100 of rise, and a portion C extending over 125 of dwell at the larger radius.

Each switch comprises two blades 52 and 53 engaging the cams 48 and 49 respectively. When both blades dwell in their outer position the contact at 54 is broken. When the blade 53 reaches the step 50 on its cam 49 it moves inwards and makes the contact. When the blade 52 reaches the step 50 in its cam 48 this blade moves inwards and breaks the contact. The use of the double cam ensures rapid making and breaking of the switches.

Bolts 54 passing through slots 55 and securing the cams to the shaft 47 enable the positions of the cams to be adjusted.

The switch 45 of FIG. 4 is operated by a second pair of cams 56, 57 of the same shape as the cams 48 and 49 and cooperating with blades 58 and 59. In this case,

film-advancing mechanism. The switch 61 has a cam operated blade 62 co-operating with two fixed blades 63 and 64. When the blade 62 is in its outermost position is makes contact with 63 and applies a charge to a capacitor. When the blade 62 reaches the step 65 and snaps inward it makes contact with the blade 64 thereby discharging the capacitor through an electro-magnetic device controlling the film advance. This is fully described in the specification of U.S. Patent No. 2,927,790, hereinbefore referred to.

The cam of the film-advancing switch 61 has the shape shown in FIG. 7. After the step 65 there is a dwell D at the smaller radius of 30 followed by a rise to the larger radius extending over the are E of dwell F of 230. V p

The sequence of switching of the switches 45, 29a, 29b and 290, beginning with the movement of arrival of a film frame in the processing chamber, is as follows:

1) The switch 45 is closed thereby shutting off the supply of hot air, and the switch 2% is closed thereby spraying developer on .to the frame; I

(2) The switch 45 remains closed, the switch 29a is opened, and the switch 2% is closed;

(3) The switch 45 remains closed, the switch 2% is opened and the switch 290 is closed; I

(4) The switch 29c is opened and the switch 45 is also opened and remains open throughout the remainder of the cycle of operation.

The angular displacement of the cams 48 and 49 relaand finally a rtively to one another is adjusted to give a make period 82. The cams 56 and 57 are displaced to the same extent but with the cam 56 leading the cam 57 by 82, so

that in this case the switch is opened for 82.

The relative orientation of the various cams in FIG- 5 is such that the switch 45 opens (and turns on the drying air) at the same time as the wash switch 39c opens (and turns off the supply of Water). The switch 60 serving to open the shutter 14 (FIG. 1) and actuate the crimping solenoid 32 closes about 1 after the switch 45 closes and remains closed for 72. The inward movement of the blade 62 of switch 61, which initiates the advance of the film, is arranged to occur 1.25 after the closure of the switch 60.

The film beng processed may be in any attitude and all liquids should cease to flow but that air should con tinue to flow, there may be provided a relay amplifier which receives signals from a feed-back generator in the servo motor circuit coupling the aerial to a motor driving the cam switch shaft and which actuates a relay having contacts in series with each of the cam switches. So long as the apparatus is Working satisfactorily, the feed-back generator supplies signals to the amplifier and so maintains the relay operated with its contacts closed, but as soon as failure occurs anywhere in the system, no signal is fed to the amplifier, the relay releases and thus the valves in the develop, fix and wash air lines remain closed whilst'that in the air dry line remains open.

An additional safeguard is provided in the apparatus deseribed in that in the absence of current in the solenoids the valves 29a, 29b, 29c controlling liquid supply remain'closed while the valve 34 controlling the hot ai v supply remains open.

In the apparatus described, the processing liquids never mix until the waste stage and as the waste line is separate from the supply lines, there is no danger of silver plating out in the supply lines.

As there is no switching in the liquid supply lines, no valves or moving parts are required in these lines and thus one corrosion problem which is always present in known apparatus is removed.

The electromagnetic switching of the air lines ensures the rapid transient application of the liquids to the material being processed. In other words, the processing liquids are applied in sharp blasts and there is no danger of staining which would arise, for instance, if a small quantity of fixer were allowed to interact with the developer before the main supply of fixer was applied.

It is usually desirable to locate the jet unit at an appreciable distance away from the material being processed. This has the advantage of increasing the uniformity of processing and also removes the dangers of contamination caused by Waste liquids clogging the surface of the material being processed and the mouths of the supply jets.

In the case Where a combined develop-fix solution is used only one liquid-supplying jet need be used.

While there have been described above what are presently believed to be the preferred forms of the invention, variations thereof will be obvious to those skilled in the art and all such changes and variations which fall within the spirit of the invention are intended to be covered by the generic terms in the appended claims, which are variably worded to that end.

We claim:

1. In combination in apparatus for photographing, rapid processing of the exposed photographic materialand the projection of the photographed image, all within a very short time, an image source, photographing means comprising a lens and shutter between said source and said material, means for supporting said material, a plurality of liquid delivering jets operated by compressed air disposed to direct liquid in a spray upon said material, a plurality of reservoirs for processing liquid, a source of compressed air, liquid and air supply lines coupling each said reservoir and said air source respectively to one of said jets, the compressed air expelling liquid from each said reservoir through its respective jet upon said material, an electromagnetically-operated normally closed fail safe valve in each said air supply line, each said liquid supply line carrying only one liquid and benig free from said valves whereby interaction between different liquids and the formation of contamination deposits and valve corrosion in a liquid supply line are substantially eliminated, and means to project the processed image on said processed photographic material.

2. In combination in apparatus for photographing, rapid processing of the exposed photographic material and the projection of the photographed image, all within a very short time, an image source, photographing means comprising a lens and shutter between said source and said material, means for supporting said material, a plurality of liquid delivering jets operated by compressed air disposed to direct liquid in a spray upon said material, a plurality of reservoirs for processing liquid, 2. source of compressed air, liquid and air supply lines coupling each said reservoirs and said source respectively to one of said jets, the compressed air expelling liquid from said reservoir through respective ones of said jets upon said material, an air delivering jet disposed to direct air upon said material, and coupled to said source through a further air supply line, an electromagnetically-operated valve in each said air supply line, each said valve being normally closed and opened electromagnetically so as to fail safe and prevent continuing liquid application to said photographic material beyond a predetermined period, each said liquid supply line carrying only one liquid and being free from said valves whereby interaction between difierent liquids and the formation of contamination deposits and valve corrosion in a liquid supply line are substantially eliminated, and means to project the processed image on said processed photographic material.

3. In combination in apparatus for the rapid processing of photographic material, a plurality of liquid delivering jets operated by compressed air disposed to direct liquid in a spray upon said material, a plurality of reservoirs for processing liquid, a source of compressed air, liquid and air supply lines coupling each said reservoir and said source respectively to one of said jets, the compressed air expelling liquid from each said reservoir through its respective jet upon said material, an electro-magneticallyoperated valve in each said air supply line, an air delivering jet disposed to direct air upon said material, and coupled to said source through a further air supply line, an electromagneticalIy-operated valve in each said air supply line, a source of current, a sequential switching device including a plurality of switches operated in predetermined sequence, means coupling each of said electromagnetically-operated valves through one of said switches to said source of current, and means to project the processed image on said processed photographic material.

4. In combination in apparatus for the rapid processing of photographic material, a plurality of liquid de1ivering jets operated by compressed air disposed to direct liquid in a spray upon said material, a plurality of reservoirs for processing liquid, a source of compressed air, liquid and air supply lines coupling each said reservoir and said source respectively to one of said jets, the compressed air expelling liquid from said reservoir through said jet upon said material, an electromagnetically-oper ated valve in each said air supply line, an air delivering jet positioned to direct air upon said material, a further air supply line coupling said air delivering jet to said source, and an electromagnetically-operated valve in each said air supply line, the valve in the first-named air supply line comprising spring means maintaining the last-named valve normally closed and a solenoid for opening the lastnamed valve against said spring means, and the valve in said further air supply line comprising spring means maintaining the last-named valve normally open and a solenoid for closing the last-named valve against the action of the last-named spring means, and means to project the processed image on said processed photographic material.

5. In combination in apparatus for the rapid processing of photographic material, a plurality of liquid delivering jets operated by compressed air disposed to direct liquid in a spray upon said material, a plurality of reservoirs for processing liquid, a source of compressed air, liquid and air supply lines coupling each said reservoir and said source respectively to one of said jets, the compressed air expelling liquid from said reservoir through said jet upon said material, an electromagnetically-operated valve in each said air supply line, an air delivering jet positioned to direct air upon said material, a further air supply line coupling said air delivering jet to said source, an electromagnetically-operated valve in each said air supply line, the valve in the first-named air supply line comprising spring means maintaining the last-named valve normally closed and a solenoid for opening the last-named valve against said spring means, and the valve in said further air supply line comprising spring means maintaining the last-named valve normally open and a solenoid for closing the last-named valve against the action of the lastnamed spring means, a source of current, switch means including two switches operated in succession at predetermined intervals, and means coupling each said solenoid to said source of current through one of said switches, and means to project the processed image on said processed photographic material.

6. In combination in apparatus for the rapid processing of photographic material, a plurality of liquid delivery jets disposed to direct liquid in a spray upon said material, a plurality of reservoir-s for processing liquid,

7,, a source of compressed air, liquid and air supply lines coupling each said reservoir and said source respectively to one of said jets, the compressed air expelling liquid from said reservoir through said jet upon said material,

an electromagnetically-operated valve in each said air Supply line,'said valve comprising spring means maintaining it normally closed, a solenoid means for opening said valve against said spring means, and means to project the processed image on said processed photographic material and control means for said solenoid means for providing controlled substantially minimum amounts of said liquids for the rapid processing of said photographic materials,- each said liquid supply line delivering liquid from only one of said reservoirs whereby inter-mixing of diflierent processing liquids and resulting harmful precipitation are eliminated.

"'7. The combination set forth in claim 6, a plurality of said jets, a plurality of said reservoirs containing liquid for multiple step processing of said photographic material, said solenoid means providing controlled substantially minimum amounts of said liquid for said processing steps.

8. Apparatus for the processing of photographic material comprising means for supporting said material in a stationary position in a processing station, a plurality of liquid delivering jets operated by compressed air and disposed to direct liquid 'in a spray upon the same area of said processing station, a plurality of reservoirs for sion to supply controlled quantities of said processing liquids to each said jet in a related sequence, each said valve comprising resilient means maintaining said valve normally closed and electromagnetically responsive to closure of said switching means to open said valve, and means to project the processed image carried by said processed photographic material.

9. Apparatus for the processing of photographic material comprising means for supporting said material in 8 a stationary position in a processing station, a plurality of liquid delivering jets operated by compressed air and disposed to direct liquid in a spray upon the same area of said processing station, a plurality of reservoirs for processing liquids, a liquid supply line coupling each said reservoir to a different one of said jets, a source of compressed air, air supply lines coupling said source to each of-said jets, the compressed air expelling liquid from said reservoirs through said jets upon said material, an eleotromagneticallyoperated valve in each said air supply line, and switching means coupled to said valves to operate said valves in succession to supply controlled quantities of said processing liquids to each said jet in a related sequence, each said valve comprising resilient means maintaining said valve normally closed and electromagnetically responsive to closure of said switching means to open said valve, and means to project the processed image carried by said processed photographic material, heating means in at least one of said air supply lines, said switching means comprising a plurality of adjustable cam means for adjustably controlling the individual operation of saidjets to limit both the quantity of processing liquid used and the time during which different liquids may interact at the processing station whereby contamination deposits at said station and the plating out of. silverin said supply lines is minimized.

10. The combination set forth in claim 9, each said liquid'supply line carrying only one liquid and being free from ,said valves. whereby interaction between diiferent liquids and the formation of contamination deposits and valve corrosion in a liquid supply line are substantially eliminated. V v

11. The combination set forth in claim 10, each said jet comprising a channeled block of material inert to said processing liquid, said block having a central chan-' nel, nozzle means communicating with said control channel, one liquid supply line and one air supply line communicating with said central'channel of said block.

V References Cited in the file of this patent

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2446668 *Jun 19, 1945Aug 10, 1948Eastman Kodak CoCombined camera, processing apparatus, and projector
US2473174 *Dec 4, 1944Jun 14, 1949Speedtype IncDouble exposure photographing and developing apparatus
US2760418 *Mar 17, 1952Aug 28, 1956William L UlmerPhotographic apparatus
US2856829 *Dec 7, 1955Oct 21, 1958Carl OrlandoApparatus for making photographic reproductions for projection
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4121236 *Jun 28, 1976Oct 17, 1978Microbox Dr. Welp Gmbh & Co.Aperture card camera with device for spraying the exposed film
US5664255 *May 29, 1996Sep 2, 1997Eastman Kodak CompanyPhotographic printing and processing apparatus
Classifications
U.S. Classification396/42, 396/604, 396/430
International ClassificationG03B17/48, G03B17/50
Cooperative ClassificationG03B17/50
European ClassificationG03B17/50