US 3144157 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 11, 1964 Filed Oct. 2, 1962 A. DRlTZ v MECHANICAL DEVICE 2 Sheets-Sheet l Aug. 11, 1964 DRl z MECHANICAL DEVICE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 I Filed Oct. 2, 1962 FIGZA FIGZB United States Patent 3,144,157 MECHANHEAL DEVKCE Arthur Dritz, 171 Beach at 125th St, Roclraway Park, NY.
Filed Oct. 2, 1962, Ser. No. 227,860 3 Claims. (Cl. 218-25) This invention generally relates to improved mechanical aids for applying relatively small metallic objects to sheets of pliable material. More specifically, this invention pertains to a plier-like tool and associated mechanical aids for facilitating the application of relatively small metallic objects such as eyelets to sheets or pieces of textile, plastic or paper material.
As those skilled in the art to which this invention pertains are aware, there are a considerable number of plierlike devices in the prior art which generally compise:
(1) handle portions (usually two),
(2) jaw portions (usually two),
(3) pivot means located intermediate said handle portions and jaw portions so that force applied by squeezing said handle portions together is transmitted to said jaw portions, and
(4) said jaw members being provided with a pair of cooperating die members, and by the application of man ual pressure upon the handle portions of the plie'r-like device, the magnified pressure exerted up the jaws and die members is suflicient to cause a metallic piece placed within the die members to assume a different shape and even to interfit with another piece if desired.
By Way of example, the following patents may be cited: 2,814,222, 2,550,788, 363,433, 595,972, 1,142,797, 1,228,- 735, 945,012, 179,281, 582,332, 263,110, 1,271,711, 2,837,948.
All of these plier-like devices teach that when the jaws of an ordinary pair of pliers are provided with cooperating die members, a number of differently shaped small metallic pieces may be placed within said die members and shaped.
While these rather simple plier-like tools are quite satisfactory for a good many purposes, they have been observed to have certain disadvantages when used in connection with textiles and similar materials.
It is, therefore, a primary object of this invention to provide a novel plier-like tool which is useful for the placement of eyelets in pliable material and, which is substantially free of many of the objections of prior art devices.
This and other objects are accomplished by the parts, elements, constructions, arrangements and combinations which comprise the present invention, the nature of which is set forth in the following general statement, preferred embodiments of which are set forth in the following description and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and which are particularly and distinctly pointed out and set forth in the appended claims forming a part hereof.
Before explaining the present invention in detail, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in this application to the details of construction and arrangement of parts illustrated in the accompanying drawings, since the invention is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced or carried out in various ways. Also, it is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation.
An over-all view of a plier-like tool in accordance with this invention is shown in FIGURE 1, wherein the handle portions are shown as being pivotally connected by means 12 to the jaw portions 14 and 16. The location of die elements 18 and 20 in the jaw portions 14 and 16 is indicated very generally in FIGURE 1 and a preferred specific construction of these die elements is illustrated in FIGURE 2. These die elements may be either perma- 3,144,157 Patented Aug. 11, 1964 nently fitted into the jaws (as by welding) but are preferably detachably fastened thereto in any of several ways that are Well known in the art.
FIGURE 2 is a cross sectional view of an upper and lower die in juxtaposed positions (much as they would be when in the jaws of a plier-like tool). The shank portions 54 and 56 of lower and upper dies 18 and 20 respectively are preferably about the same diameter as corresponding holes in jaw portions 14 and 16. Grooves 5i) and 52 of shank portions 54 and 56 may be fitted with rubber O-rings, or washers or the like so as to increase the effective diameter of these sections to a sufficient extent that die members 18 and 20 will be retained within jaw portions 14 and 16, which, as noted earlier, is a securing technique that is well known in the art.
t will be noted that shank portion 54 widens out into a main body portion 60 which has an upper outer edge 42. Adjacent to the edge 42 is a concave surface 44 which extends inwardly and upwardly until it merges into a rather convex lower shoulder 38. Convex lower shoulder 38 levels out in an inward direction and then abruptly merges upwardly and inwardly into an upper shoulder 40. The purpose of lower shoulder 38 and upper shoulder 40 is to act as partial or complete support for the base of eyelets that are placed thereon. FIGURE 3 is a perspective view of an eyelet and FIGURE 2 illustrates the manner in which this eyelet is to be placed between the die members 18 and 20, with a portion of the base 36 of the eyelet resting upon upper shoulder 40. Eyelets that have a larger diameter might have a part or all of their base portion rest upon lower shoulder 38, in which case upper shoulder 41) might effectively assist in the centering of the eyelet. When the eyelet is resting on upper shoulder 40 the extension 22 is the primary means for centering the eyelet.
Referring now to the upper die member 20, it will be noted that the shank portion 56 widens downwardly into a main body portion 62 which has a lower outer edge 32. Adjacent the edge 32 is a rather uniformly shallow concave surface 30 which extends inwardly until it merges into another deeper non-uniform concave surface 26. Concave surface 26 terminates in a rather sharp lip portion 24 which also essentially defines the outer perimeter of central recess 65. Central recess 65 is preferably of slightly greater internal diameter than the outside diameter of extension 22 so that when an eyelet is placed as shown, and then the die members brought together, the lip portion will pass inside of the eyelet and outside of extension 22. In its most downward (or closed) position, lip portion 24 would abut against the upper surface of shoulder 40.
The die members of this invention are particularly useful when employed in conjunction with an eyelet having a shank portion 34 and end section 46 which is polygonal in cross section. As shown in the drawings the eyelet has a shank portion and forming end 46 that is hexagonal in cross section (although 4-l2 sides would also be suitable). Making the shank portion and end section polygonal in cross section rather than circular permits the die members and eyelet to act in conjunction as scissors on the material to which the eyelet is to be attached rather than acting in conjunction as a punch (as would be the case when the shank portion and end section are circular). This scissoring action (or shearing action) is diiiicult to illustrate with drawings, but an attempt along this line has been made in FIGURES 4-8. First of all, reference is made to FIGURE 8 wherein the progressively changing (i.e., diverging) location of the eyelet shank portion and end section are indicated in dotted lines. At its outwardmost position the edge portion of the eyelet is shown as being curled over, but it will be appreciated that this curling action can start much sooner if desired, depending upon the contour of the concave portion 26.
FIGURES 4-7 are intended to illustrate the sequential change in the surface contact relationship between the end section 46 of the eyelet and the concave die surface 26 as the die members come together and progressively change the shape of the eyelet from that shown in FIG- URE 3 to that shown in 3a. For example, in FIGURE 4 it will be seen that the side of eyelet edge portions 46 are barely tangential to portions of concave surface 26. However as the eyelet is pressed harder and harder against concavity 26 there is a progressively greater common contact surface which is quite comparable to a scissors action. Any cloth between these two dies will therefore be gradually cut in a progressive fashion and since only a relatively small portion of the fabric is being cut at any given instant the cutting task is easier and requires less pressure (particularly as compared to trying to cut the entire cloth surface at the same instant as would be the case where a punch type operation occurred). FIGURE 7 shows that at or near the completion of the operation (sometimes referred to as the eyelet curling operation) the eyelet and concave die portion 26 tough along a much greater line of contact.
It should also be pointed out that as the die members 18 and 20 are pressed together with an eyelet and cloth therebetween, different edge portions of the eyelet are simultaneously functioning to hold the cloth taut and to cut the cloth. The fact that one section of the eyelet edge is holding the cloth taut while the other cuts it obviously has many advantages.
The angle A (hereinafter and in the claims referred to as the slope), which defines the initial slope of the concave surface, is believed to be critical in order to achieve the above-mentioned scissoring or shearing action. Criticality falls within the range of 40-45". If A is less than 42 it is very difficult to apply enough pressure to the edge portion 46 of the eyelet to cause it to penetrate cloth in preference to merely sliding down the surface of concavity 26. If A is more than 45 then too much of the eyelet edge portion 46 will contact the concave surface 26 at one time and when there is too much contact area at any given instant it is frequently difficult to cut through cloth, and particularly heavy cloth.
FIGURES 2A and 2B are cross-sectional views illustrating how eyelets (34a and 34b) of a larger size than the eyelet (34) shown in FIGURE 2 can be positioned and used. In these figures it will be noted that the upper die member 20 is defined by a central axial recess 65, a lower outer edge 32, a uniformly shallow concave surface 30 inwardly of said edge, a deeper non-uniform concave surface 26 located inwardly of said shallow concave surface 30 and outwardly of said central axial recess 65. The lower die member 18 comprises a center axial extension 22 which is adapted to extend at least some distance into the said central axial recess 65 located in said upper die member 20, an upper outer edge 42, a concave surface 45 located inwardly of said upper outer edge 42, a convex lower shoulder 38 located inwardly from and adjacent to said concave surface 45, and a second shoulder 40 located inwardly and above said convex lower shoulder 38 and outwardly of said central axial extension 22. In FIGURE 2B it will be seen that the 4 i uniformly shallow concave surface is adapted to support the base of an eyelet 34b and the concave surface 44 in said lower die member 18 is adapted to curl the lower forming end of said eyelet. In FIGURE 2A it will be seen that the concave surface 44 in lower die 13 is adapted to receive the base of eyelet 34a and the uniformly shallow concave surface 30 in said upper die member 20 is adapted to curl the forming end of said eyelet. The die members 18 and 20 shown in FIGURES 2, 2A and 213 would of course have the same cross-sectional view when considered from any axial plane.
While this invention has been particularly described with reference to eyelets, those skilled in the art will readily see its adptability to grommets, studs, sockets, prongs, etc.
In conclusion, while there have been illustrated and described some preferred embodiments of my invention, it is to be understood that since the various details of construction may obviously be varied considerably without really departing from the basic principles and teachings of this invention, I do not limit myself to the precise constructions herein disclosed and the right is specifically reserved to encompass all changes and modifications coming within the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In the known combination of an eyelet applying means comprising jaw members provided with upper and lower cooperating die members, at least one of said die members being adapted to receive and support an eyelet, and means permitting movement of said jaw members and die members toward and away from each other, the improvement which comprises:
(a') said upper die member being defined by a central axial recess, a lower outer edge, a uniformly shallow concave surface inwardly of said edge, a deeper non-unifom concave surface located inwardly of said shallow concave surface and outwardly of said central axial recess,
(b) said lower die member comprising a center axial extension which is adapted to extend at least some distance into the said central axial recess located in said upper die member, an upper outer edge, a concave surface located inwardly of said upper outer edge, a convex lower shoulder located inwardly from and adjacent to said concave surface, and a second shoulder located inwardly and above said convex lower shoulder and outwardly of said central axial extension.
2. The device set forth in claim 1 wherein the initial slope of the said deeper non-uniform concave surface of said upper die member is between about 40 and 3. The device according to claim 2 wherein said slope is about 42.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 249,593 Delkescamp Nov. 15, 1881 1,838,973 Wilder Dec. 29, 1931 2,445,761 Castle July 27, 1948 2,657,894 Sklenar Nov. 3, 1953 3,013,272 Barratt Dec. 19, 1961