US 3147468 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. N. DANIELS ALARM SYSTEMS Sept. l, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed July 24, 1962 M m WD VN. m
Sept 1, 1964 E. N. DANIELs 3,147,468
ALARM SYSTEMS Filed July 24, 1962 FIG. 5
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 `-`|20 FIG 7 '78 18?/ FIG. 4
INVENTOR. BY Edward lV. Dan/'els ATTYS.
United States Patent i 3,147,468 ALARM SYSTEMS Edward N. Daniels, 1961 Delaware St., Gary, Ind. Filed July 24, 19,62, Ser. No. 212,040 4 Claims. (Cl. 340-274) This invention relates to improved alarm systems, and it relates more particularly to mechanisms which are sim- `ple and inexpensive to manufacture and which can be reliably employed for providing effective systems of this type.'
Alarm systems, particularly of the type used to prevent burglary and housebreaking, are well known, although they have not been adopted on a large scale in homes, apartments, hotels, motels or in relatively small business establishments. There are several reasons for this, including the fact that existing systems are quite expensive. Thus, most require installation of a relatively large amount of mechanical and electrical fixtures when employed in new buildings and if an existing structure is to be modified to include these fixtures, the cost of such modification is even more prohibitive.
Existing systems have also` been found objectionable from the standpoint of appearance. The nature of many systems requires the installation of bulky and unsightly equipment and, therefore, such systems have not been widely adopted because they detract from the appearance of dwellings or other establishments.
It is an object of this invention to provide an alarm rsystem for preventing burglary and housebreaking which which is, therefore, simple to install in new or existing structures so that the system can be economically employed on a large scale in homes, hotels, apartments, motels, small business establishments and the like.
It is an additional object of this invention to provide .an alarm system of the type described which employs mechanisms which are relatively small and simple in chart acter and which, therefore, can be installed in doors and Windows without detracting from the appearance of a dwelling or other establishment in which they are employed.
These and other objects of this invention will appear hereinafter, and for purposes of illustration, but not of limitation, specific embodiments of this invention are shown in the accompanying drawings in which- FIGURE l is a fragmentary view in section of a door and jamb construction which has been modified in accordance with this invention;
FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional view taken about the line 2 2 of FIGURE l;
FIGURE 3 is a detail sectional view of the construction shown in FIGURE 1 with the door bolt in the retracted position;
FIGURE 4 is a combined view illustrating a fragment of a window modified in accordance with this invention, and also illustrating a schematic showing of one form of an electrical circuit suitable for use in combination with the inventive mechanisms;
FIGURE 5 is a detail sectional view of a door and jamb construction provided with an alternative form of this invention;
FIGURE 6 is a detail sectional view illustrating a still further modification of the invention as applied to a winable for use in accordance with this invention.
adapted to urge the plate about its pivot.
The alarm system of this invention includes mechanisms which can be associated with both doors and windows. These mechanisms can be tied into an electrical circuit which includes an alarm so that anyone attempting to open the doors or windows will operate portions of the circuit to energize the alarm.
The mechanisms of this invention are adapted to be associated with otherwise conventional door and window constructions. Thus, in a typical door and door jamb, there is provided a bolt, means in the jamb for receiving said bolt to hold the door in position and means, such as a knob on the door, for retracting the bolt when it is desired to open the door. In accordance with this invention, electrical conducting means are provided on the end of the bolt and insulating means are included in the bolt structure for separating the conducting means from the body of the bolt. In the receiving means associated with the jamb, there are provided a pair of electrical contacts .which are included in an alarm circuit. The conducting means on the bolt are adapted to bridge these contacts when the bolt is received in the receiving means.
The receiving means located in the door jamb preferably comprises a housing adapted to fit within the jamb.
lA plate is mounted within the housing and the contacts,
which preferably comprise a pair of upstanding fingers, are secured to the plate. Furthermore, the plate is pivotally mounted within the housing and resilient means are With an arrangement of this type, a highly reliable contact with the conducting means on the end of the bolt can be achieved.
As indicated, otherwise conventional windows, doors, and other points of entry are tobe modified for use in .combination with the mechanisms described. Specififcally, the modifications consist in the provision of switch means associated with the windows, etc., and included in an alarm circuit. For example, the sashes of the Windows are adapted to hold the switch means in one position when the window is closed, and means are provided for changing the switch position when the window is raised.
VWhen the alarm circuit is operative, raising of the window will, of course, result in setting off of the alarm. Similarly, other points of entry are provided with means for actuating ,an alarm if an entry is attempted.
In one form of this invention, a window sash is provided with a vertical channel extending from the bottom edge of the sash. A switch means is provided with a resilient arm having means engaging the non-channelled portions of the sash when the window is closed. The engaging means of the switch arm are adapted to move into the channel when the window is raised, and the contact on this switch arm is then adapted to engage the contact of an associated switch arm for completing a circuit to the alarm.
In an additional form of this invention, a button switch of the type commonly employed in refrigerators or auto mobiles for turning on lights, can be employed. If an entry is attempted through any point supplied with this type of switch when the alarm circuit is operative, then Vthe alarm will be set off.
In a preferred form of this invention, the front door of a dwelling is supplied with a bolt construction of the type described. The alarm circuit is adapted to be made operative by closing a switch Within the dwelling and by then closing the front door bridging the contact thereof. A circuit to an alarm mechanism is thereby completed except for the open switches at the various Windows, doors, etc., supplied therewith. These switches can be Varranged in parallel across the alarm whereby closing will operate if an entry is attempted. It will be noted that in this form of the invention, opening of the front door will not set off the alarm and therefore an individual can enter through the front door. This is eX- tremely convenient for the owner, since he can use this door without setting oii the alarm and since there is no need to throw any switches, deactivating the system, when this door is used. This arrangement represents no particular danger, since only an extremely small percentage of illegal entries are attempted through the front door Vof dwellings.
The accompanying drawings illustrate various forms which the mechanisms of this invention can assume. In FIGURES 1 through 3, there is provided a door 10 including a conventional knob construction 12 adapted to operate the bolt 14. A jamb 16 is provided with means for receiving the bolt 14 whereby the door can he held in position in the conventional way. The knob 12 is adapted to retract the bolt so that the door can be opened. A plate 18, fastened by means of screws 20, outlines the opening in which the bolt 14 moves.
The knob and bolt construction may comprise any conventional unit included in any type of door construction. However, in accordance with this invention, the bolt is modified by first providing a cut away section 22 at the end which extends toward the jamb. In this section of the bolt there is xed by means of the screw 24 an insulator block 26. Secured to the block 26 is a conducting insert 28. The insert 28 is shown as fastened by means of screw 30 in a cut away portion 32 of the block 26. However, it will be apparent that this conducting means could be fixed to the face of the block thereby eliminating the need for providing a recess in the insulated block. The construction shown is desirable, since it provides a smooth surface for contact with the conventional curved edge 33 of the jamb construction.
The means for receiving the bolt 14 when the door is closed includes a housing 34 fitted in the jamb 16. A plate 36 is pivotally mounted within the housing at one end by means of a pin 38. A compression spring 40 iitted around a pin 41 urges the plate in a clockwise direction about the pivot. The end of the pin ts freely in the bore 43 to enable movement of the plate 36. Mounted on the top of the plate by means of fasteners 45 are a pair of electrical contacts 42. These contacts include upstanding fingers 44 at their forward ends and leads 46 are connected at the rearward ends thereof.
When the door is closed and the bolt 14 moves into the housing 34, the bolt assumes the position shown in FIGURES l and 2. Thus, the conductive insert 28 bridges the contact fingers 44, and it will be apparent that a circuit including the leads 46 will be completed with the bolt in place. The pivotal mounting of the plate 36 and the spring 40 cooperate to provide good contact between the conductive insert and the contact fingers.
The window structure shown in FIGURE 4 comprises a sash 48 surrounding the pane Sil in the conventional manner. The sash is modified by the provision of a channel 52 which extends from the bottom edge of the window upwardly.
Associated with the window adjacent the channelled sash is a switch mechanism 54. This mechanism includes a pair of contacts 56 and 53 held in position by a block 60 and connected to leads 62 and 64. The arm 58 is resilient and is provided with an out-turned portion 66 adapted to ride on the edge of the sash when the window is closed.
Upon opening of the window, the portion 66 of the arm 58 will eventually enter the channel 52 and, therefore, the contacts will come together and a circuit will be completed. The construction shown provides an additional advantage which forms an important aspect of this invention. With this construction the window can be partially raised by an occupant without setting off the alarm. Thus, the arm 66 is located a short distance in the art.
above the top of the channel 52 and, therefore, the alarm will not be set off until the window has been raised a distance greater than the spacing between the arm and the end of the channel. With this arrangement, air can be let into a room; however, an individual could not enter through this window without setting off the alarm.
FIGURE 5 illustrates a particularly suitable alternative design for a bolt construction and receiving means therefor. In this instance, the bolt 14 is cut away to receive an insulating block 70 fastened thereto by means of a screw 72. A conductive strip 74 is secured to the insulating block and is adapted to bridge a pair of spaced apart contacts 76 when in the position shown in FIG- URE 5.
The contacts 76 are fastened to the plate 78 which is pivotally mounted within the housing 80 on the bar 82. A spring 84 iitted around the shaft of the screw 86 normally urges the plate upwardly.
It will be noted that the block 70 and associated strip 74 protrude beyond the normal extent of the sloped end 88 of the bolt 14. Accordingly, this bolt will not slide as is the custom of bolt construction and the door 10 with which it is associated will not close through mere swinging action. In order to close a door with a bolt of this type, it is iirst necessary to retract the bolt and then move the door into position before releasing the bolt. This serves to remind the owner of the dwelling to set the alarm circuit.
FIGURE 6 illustrates a window construction 90 provided with hinge means 92 whereby it can be open and shut. The sash 94 of the window is adapted to engage the button 96 of the switch 98 which is positioned in an opening 100 in the frame 102. The switch is of the type which will close when the button 96 moves outwardly in response to opening of the window.
The circuit shown in FIGURE 7 includes an alarm 120, a main switch 122 and a battery 124. A bolt 14 and associated contacts 42 are also shown in the circuit and it will be apparent that, with the main switch closed and the bolt 14 in place, the alarm will be energized when one of the switches 126 is closed. These latter switches comprise switches of the type shown in FIG- URES 4 and 6 and are associated with possible points of entry in a structure.
Although a circuit of the type shown in FIGURE 7 is preferred, the mechanisms of the invention can be employed in combination with a circuit which provides for setting off an alarm when the front door is opened. FIG- URE 4 illustrates a circuit of this type including a main source of power 160 connected across the primary of transformer 170. The secondary of the transformer is adapted to deliver power through .conductors 172 and 174 to an alarm circuit which includes the contact mechanisms for a door and window which have been described. It will be understood that this circuit is exemplary only and that various other arrangements will be suggested to one skilled Furthermore, it is contemplated that several doors and windows or other points of potential entry be provided with the mechanisms of this invention and be included in the same circuit.
In a typical operation of lthe alarm system shown in FIGURE 4, the doors and windows are closed and the switch 176, which comprises a master control switch for 'the alarm system, -is moved to the closed position. This results in energization of a solenoid 178 which opens the contacts and, accordingly, breaks the .circuit to the alarm box 182. This alarm box may contain an alarm bell or other audio means, or -the box may contain a visual alarm, such as a flashing light mechanism. In addition, a combination of audio and Visual alarms could be provided, and it is also contemplated that a plurality of lights, all assigned to different locations, be included so that the specific location of an entry could be detected.
With the solenoid 178 pulled in, the alarm cannot be actuated unless a window or door is opened. If a window is opened, the contacts 56 and 58 will close providing a shunt whereby the secondary of the transformer will be placed across the alarm box.
If the door is opened, the bolt 14 must be retracted and this will break the bridge across the contacts 42. Accordingly, the solenoid 178 will be de-energized closing the switch 180 and thereby placing the alarm across the secondary of the transformer. Thus, when the switch 176 is closed, making the alarm system operative, any entry attempted through a door or window will be detected. The master control switch is usually provided inside the structure to be protected so that the occupants may set the alarm when retiring. A similar switch can be provided at some hidden or remote spot outside the structure to permit setting of the alarm after leaving the structure. Similarly, a remote alarm box could be easily integrated with the mechanisms of this invention.
As indicated, the alarm systems of this invention are economical, since they can be readily installed with only a few parts being necessary. If installed when building a new structure, the operation can be accomplished very easily along with the regular wiring. An important aspect of this invention is the fact that both the door and window mechanisms are not visible to the casual observer. Thus, there is no danger of detracting from the appearance of a home, apartment or the like and, furthermore, the presence of an alarm system would not be obvious to one considering an unauthorized entry.
The bolt constructions described are particularly desirable, since any .conventional bolt can be so adapted and there is, therefore, no need to completely replace this mechanism when adapting an existing structure to the invention. Thus, the bolts already pres-ent in door constructions in an existing structure can be cut out and drilled to form the desired recesses for the insulator block and associated conducting element.
It will be understood that various modifications can be made in the above described alarm system which provide the characteristics of this invention without departing from the spirit thereof, particularly as defined in the following claims.
1. In an alarm apparatus for a structure which includes a door and an associated jamb, bolt means in said door, means in said jamb for receiving said bolt to hold said door in position with respect to the jamb, and means on said door for retracting said bolt when opening the door, the improvement wherein said bolt defines a cut away portion in the end to be received in said jamb, an insulator block included in said cut away portion and an electrical conducting means secured -to said insulator block, said bolt including a sloped end surface adjacent said cut away portion and wherein said insulator block and conducting means protrude beyond the plane defined by an extension of said sloped surface, a pair of electrical contacts disposed in said receiving means, and electrical circuit including an alarm, said contacts being included in said 4circuit and said conducting means being adapted to bridge said contacts when received in said receiving means.
2. An apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein said receiving means includes a housing iitted within said jamb, and a plate mounted within said housing, said contacts comprising a pair of upstanding fingers and means securing said fingers to said plate.
3. An apparatus in accordance with claim 2 wherein said plate is pivotally mounted within said housing and including means for resiliently urging said plate, said resilient means being adapted to press said contacts against said conducting means when said bolt is received in said housing.
4. ln an alarm apparatus which includes a door and an associated jamb, bolt means in said door, means in said jamb for receiving said bolt to hold said door in position with respect to the jamb, and means on said door for retracting said bolt when opening said door, the improvement comprising a cut away section formed in the end of said bolt which is received in said jamb, an insulator block secured in said cutaway section, and an electrical conducting means secured to said insulator block, said block insulating said conducting means with respect to said bolt, said receiving means including a housing fitted within said jamb, a plate mounted within said housing, a pair of electrical contacts comprising upstanding spaced apart lingers fastened to said plate, and an electrical circuit including an alarm, said contacts being included in said circuit and said conducting means being adapted to bridge said contacts when said bolt is received in said receiving means, said plate being pivotally mounted within said housing and including means for resiliently urging said plate, said resilient means being adapted to press said contacts against said conducting means when said bolt is received in said housing.
References Cited in the iile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 492,478 Sturts Feb. 28, 1893 662,803 Murphy Nov. 27, 1900 665,856 Biederman lan. 8, 1901 1,238,823 Roeder Sept. 14, 1917 2,243,804 Howton May 27, 1941 2,615,083 Krueger Oct. 2l, 1952 2,724,823 Toepfer Nov. 22, 1955 3,011,163 Britt Nov. 28, 1961 FOREIGN PATENTS 538,591 France June l2, 1922