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Publication numberUS3148482 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 15, 1964
Filing dateOct 14, 1958
Priority dateOct 14, 1958
Publication numberUS 3148482 A, US 3148482A, US-A-3148482, US3148482 A, US3148482A
InventorsNeale John D
Original AssigneeNeale John D
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Composite floor structure and reinforcing, aligning and mortar gaging mat assembly therefor
US 3148482 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

' Sept. 15, 1964 .1. D. NEALE' 3,148,432

' COMPOSITE FLOOR STRUCTURE AND-REINFORCING, ALIGNING AND MORTAR GAGING MAT ASSEMBLY THEREFOR S Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Oct. .14, 1958 INVENT OR JoH/v 0. Name Sept. 15, 1964 J. D. NEALE 3,148,482

COMPOSITE FLOOR STRUCTURE AND REINFORCING. ALIGNING AND MORTAR GAGING MAT ASSEMBLY THEREFOR Filed Oct. 14, 1958 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Joy/v 0. New 6 BY M 9' 7%4/ ATTORNEYS Sept. 15, 1964 J. D. NEALE 3,148,482

COMPOSITE FLOOR STRUCTURE AND REINFORCING, ALIGNING AND MORTAR (meme MAT ASSEMBLY THEREFOR Filed Oct. 14, 1958 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Jo/m d A mw 7' BY 7 M%Zw% ATTORNEYS 3,148,482 Patented Sept. 15., 1964 3,148,482 COMPOSITE FLQGR STRUCTURE AND REINFORC- ING, ALIGNING AND MORTAR GAGING MAT ASSEMBLY THEREFOR John D. Neale, 63.7 Common St, New Orleans, La. Filed Oct. 14, 1958, Ser. No. 767,47 14 Claims. (Cl. 50343) This invention relates to improvements in composite floor structures and is more particularly concerned with a metallic mounting assembly for supporting and positioning a planar exposed floor surface of preformed paving or flooring units and for the structural reinforcement of the mortar setting bed provided therefor.

In building flooring and patio and other outdoor paving constructions, the employment of preformed flooring units such as tile and brick to provide a finished floor has been widely used by architects and building construction industries. This type of floor structure is generally composite, comprising a mortar bed setting upon which the preformed flooring units are positioned and arranged in various patterns to form a finished floor surface. The present invention is primarily concerned with such types of floor structures.

In the past, the construction of composite floor structures utilizing preformed flooring units for a finished surface has required highly skilled workmanship to achieve a finished product that is presentable, neat and serviceable. Extensive time is consumed and exceptional skill is required in leveling the individual tiles or brick and also in positioning and aligning the preformed units to provide for straight and neat appearing mortar lines between adjacent units. The cost of such floor structures is consequently high, often precluding the moderately fixed property owner from such an undertaking.

It is the primary object of the present invention to provide a wire mat assembly comprising a wire mesh and spacer supports to space the preformed flooring units at a predetermined distance above the base course or subfloor so that they provide a level surface, to properly position and align the flooring units so as to form straight uniform mortar joints, and to reinforce the mortar setting bed. Thus, with the present invention, walks, patios, terraces and other floors may be constructed without the requisite of skilled workmanship and at a moderate cost to the builder.

With foregoing considerations and purposes in mind, therefore, it is a further major object of this invention to provide a novel mat structure for use in the construction of composite floors, which obviates the necessity of manually leveling, positioning and aligning preformed flooring or paving units in order to form a level floor surface with uniform mortar joints between adjacent units.

It is a further object of this invention to provide for a novel composite floor embodying a mat structure which positions and aligns preformed flooring or paving units which comprise the exposed surface of the floor to form a level floor surface with straight uniform mortar joints.

Still another object of this invention is to provide a novel mat structure embodying a rod-like mesh for reinforcing the mortar setting bed of a composite floor structure and for concomitantly supporting preformed flooring units which form the exposed finish floor surface.

It is further the object of this invention to provide in a composite floor structure having individual preformed flooring units forming the exposed floor surface, a novel mat structure wherein flooring unit spacers support a reinforcing mesh of the mat in predetermined spaced relationship above the base course.

It is a further object of this invention to provide for a novel mortar bed reinforcing mat structure for supporting preformed floor slabs or tiles in uniform spaced relation to permit the introduction of a body of cementing mortar between the slabs or tiles.

It is further the object of this invention to provide for use in a composite floor a novel mat structure which enables the unskilled worker to construct a finish floor surface of preformed flooring units which is neat and presentable in appearance.

It is still another object of this invention to provide for a novel mat structure which is simple in construction and comparatively inexpensive to manufacture.

Further objects of the invention will presently appear as the description proceeds in connection with the appended claims and the annexed drawings wherein:

FIGURE 1 is a top plan view illustrating a composite floor structure according to the preferred embodiment of the invention and showing the preformed flooring units of the finished floor surface in dot-dash outline form.

FIGURE 2 is a sectional view taken substantially along line 22 of FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 3 is an enlarged perspective view of a section of the mat assembly in the embodiment illustrated in FIGURES 1 and 2 and showing the preformed flooring units in solid outline form.

FIGURE 4 is a top plan view illustrating a composite floor structure according to a further embodiment of the invention and showing the preformed flooring units of the finished floor surface in phantom outline form.

FIGURE 5 is a sectional view taken substantially along lines 55 of FIGURE 4.

FIGURE 6 is an enlarged perspective view of the mat assembly in the embodiment illustrated in FIGURES 4 and 5.

FIGURE 7 is a top plan view illustrating a further pattern of the preformed flooring units of the embodiment illustrated in FIGURES 4-6.

FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary section of the composite floor construction in perspective showing the mat structure according to another embodiment of the invention.

FIGURE 9 is a fragmentary section of the composite floor construction in perspective showing the mat structure according to another embodiment of the invention.

Referring now to the drawings and more particularly to FIGURES 13, a composite floor is illustrated which is generally designated at 16 and comprises a mortar setting bed 12 spread over a base course, conventional form board support or sub-floor 14'. Planar preformed flooring units 16 forming the finished flooring surface are bedded in the mortar bed 12, arranged and positioned to form patterns such as the side by side pattern (FIG- URE l) or other patterns such as a basket weave or a herringbone. For indoor floors and outdoor pavements and walks, the preformed units 16 may be shaped from such material as quarry tile (clay tile impervious to water), cement tile, bricks, brick pavers, precast terrazzo, or cut stone and fiagstone cut from marble, granite or travertine.

In accordance with the present invention and with continued reference to FIGURES 1-3, a mat assembly is there illustrated and is generally designated at 18. This assembly comprises a mortar bed reinforcing mesh structure 20 and vertically standing aligner-spacers 22. The reinforcing mesh structure 20 is associated with the aligner-spacers 22 to set in the mortar setting bed 12 with the lower series of mesh wires preferably 4 inch below the surface of the mortar bed, the upper surface of which is gauged by the upper series of mesh wires. The wire mesh is thus located in spaced relation to the base course 14 and is composed of straight parallel runner wires 24 spaced equally apart and equally spaced apart straight parallel cross wires 26 extending transversely and preferably in overlying relation to the runner wires and joined thereto by welding or other suitable means to form a uniform mesh network of equal square areas. These wires 24 and 26 are preferably rod-like members and are illustrated to have a cylindrical cross-section. Other bars, however, of different cross-sectional area which are commonly used for reinforcing concrete may alternately be employed. The rod-like wires 24 and 26 are of suitable gauge to insure the necessary rigidity and strengthening of the bed and are preferably knurled to provide an increased interlocking bond strength between the rods and the mortar.

Each of the aligner-spacers 22 comprises a single piece of rod-like wire in the form of a U and providing a pair of elongated substantially parallel legs 28 of equal length and a curved portion 30 integrally connecting the legs (FIGURE 3). The aligner-spacers are disposed in an inverted position with the legs 28 straddling the juncture of the runner and cross wires and respectively joined to the mesh 20 by welding or other suitable means at a predetermined distance from each free end of the legs. One aligner-spacer is employed at each intersection of the runner wires 24 and the cross wires 26 to assure uniform spacing of the wire mesh from the base course 14 and automatic gauging of the mortar bed thickness. Thus, the mesh 20 is supported and uniformly spaced above the base course 14 by the aligner-spacers 22 at a distance determined by the point of attachment of the spacer to the rodlike cross wires 26 and the rod-like runner wires 24 as it straddles the intersection thereof.

The curved portion 30 which defines the upper extremity of the spacer 22 projects above the horizontal plane of the mesh 20, is positioned transversely to the length of the mortar joint to be formed and abuts the opposed sides 31 of adjacent preformed flooring units 16. In this manner, the upper extremities of aligner-spacers constitute pocket forming means in that they align and position the preformed units 16 laid on the mortar bed 12 and pressed into supported relation with the uppermost wires of the mesh 20 to gauge the plane of the floor surface and form straight mortar joints of uniform width between adjacent units. To form a mortar joint of narrower width, the spacer may be rotated 90 in either direction to straddle either the runner wire 24 or the cross wire 26.

In the construction of a composite floor with the present invention, the mat assembly 18 is placed on the base course 14 with the free ends of aligner-spacer legs 28 abutting the level surface of the base course. The reinforcing mesh structure being supported by the aligner-spacers 22 at a uniform distance above the surface of the base course 14 determines the depth of the mortar bed. The mortar then is poured and spread over the base course to the prescribed height, namely, the level of the upper surface of the uppermost mesh wires assuring embedding of the lowermost wires about /41 inch in the mortar bed and partial embedding of the upper wires and allowing the upper extremity only of the spacers 22 to project above the spread surface of the mortar bed. In some instances, depending upon working conditions the mortar bed may be poured first and the mat assembly subsequently pressed into it. In such usage any excess mortar must be scraped otf at the high spots and moved to the low spots thereby assuring the gauged mortar bed thickness.

Since the reinforcing mesh 20 is substantially level or gradually inclined or curved to fit the contour of the underlying base course, the preformed flooring units which are laid in the mortar bed and rest on the cross wires 26 of the mesh 20 will also be level and generally present a surface conforming to that of the prepared base course. Thus the necessity of leveling out the flooring units as they are placed in the mortar setting bed in a conventional composite floor construction is obviated since the supporting cross wires 26 will automatically gauge the penetration of the flooring units and assure a firm backing by the mortar bed as well as a top surface of the flooring units parallel with the mesh. In placing the flooring units in the bed, they are positioned between the upper extremities 30 of the aligner-spacers 22 which project above the surface of the setting bed and abut all the sides of each flooring unit to pocket it in position thereby aligning and positioning each flooring unit with its adjacent units so as to form straight uniform mortar joints on each side thereof to be filled to the level of the planar exposed surface of the flooring units. Thus, the necessity of the skill and experience involved in lining up and leveling flooring units and positioning them to obtain a neat and presentable finish floor surface is not required and the work may be accomplished by those having comparatively little ability and experience in building floors of this type.

Referring now to FIGURES 46, the composite floor illustrated therein is substantially identical with the embodiment illustrated in FIGURES 1-3, with the exception of the mat structure. Thus, with continued reference to FIGURES 4-6, 34 designates the mat structure comprising a series of elongated, parallel runner wires 36 and a series of elongated, parallel cross wires 38 extending transversely to the runner wires to form a uniform mesh of equal square areas. Similar to the embodiment illustrated in FIGURES 1-3, the wires 36 and 38 are shown to be knurled rods having a substantially cylindrical cross-section. Other cross-sectional forms, however, which are commonly used in concrete reinforcement may be alternately employed.

In order to support the mat 34 in spaced relation to the base course 14, the runner wires 36 are provided with a series of base-engaging, equally spaced apart vertically standing U-bends 40. The runner wires 36 further are provided with a series of inverted U-bends 42 spaced equally apart between every other U-bend 40 to align and position the preformed flooring units in a direction transverse to the longitudinal axis of the runner wires. The cross wires 38 are supported in the horizontal plane of the runner wires between the U-bends 40 where they are joined by welding or other suitable means to prevent longitudinal elongation of the runner wires by spreading of the U-bends 40 under the weight of the mat. The cross wires 38 are also provided with a series of inverted U- bends 44 spaced equally apart, one between adjacent pair of runner wires to align and position the flooring units 16 in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the runner wires 36.

Since the runner wires 36 and the cross wires 38 are in the same plane the preformed flooring units 16 are consequently supported by both series of reinforcing wires 36 and 38 in this form of the invention and the mortar bed thickness is gauged by both sets of wires. Referring to FIGURE 4, each preformed flooring unit 16 is illustrated as supported by one runner wire 36 spaced equidistantly from the sides of the unit that are parallel to the runner wire. Extending transversely of the runner wire 36, each flooring unit 16 is supported by two cross wires 38 spaced equidistantly between the near parallel sides of the flooring unit and the center thereof. Thus, a total of four inverted U-bends 44 are provided to align and position each preformed flooring unit 16 in one direction while two inverted U-bends 42 are provided to align and position each flooring unit in a direction transverse thereto.

With continued reference to FIGURES 4-6, the construction of the composite floor illustrated therein is substantially the same as that previously described in reference to the embodiment of FIGURES 1-3. The mat assembly is set on the base course and mortar is then poured and spread to a desired height determined by the plane defined by the upper surfaces of both the runner wires 36 and cross wires 38 thereby embedding the wires 36 and 38 in the setting bed with the upwardly projecting inverted 'U-bends 42 and 44 exposed above the surface of bed 12. Accordingly, the wires 36 and 38 reinforce the mortar setting bed as well as gauge its thickness. The preformed flooring units thereafter are laid on the mortar bed and pressed into supported position on the runner wires 36 and the cross wires 38 to predetermine a uniform exposed surface. The flooring units also are pocketed by the inverted U-bends 42 and 44 to provide for self-alignment and gauging of the mortar joint as heretofore pointed out in connection with FIGURES 1-3. Thus, a level floor surface and straight uniform mortar joints are formed without the aid of any particular skill.

A further pattern of the preformed flooring units 16 is illustrated in FIGURE 7 wherein each pair of flooring units is arranged in an L-shaped form. This arrangement of the flooring units 16 is obtained by equally spac ing a series of three inverted U-bends 44 along each cross wire 38 and by similarly equally spacing a series of three inverted U-bends 42 along each runner wire 36. The spacing between both series of inverted U-bends 42 along each runner wire 36. The spacing between both series of inverted U-bends will be equal to twice the distance between the individual U-bends 42 and 44 which compose the series.

Referring to FIGURE 8, the mat assembly illustrated therein is substantially identical to the embodiment illustrated in FIGURES 4-6. The difference in this form of the invention resides in the fact that the runner wires 36 are provided with vertically standing U-bends 48 which are elongated and are of greater length than the U-bends 40 in order to accommodate a sub-bed 50 of sand, earth fill or wet concrete under the mortar setting bed 12. To insure adequate rigidity in the U-bends 48, a preferably fiat circular disk 52 provided with a central elongated opening 54 for receiving the legs 56 of the U-bend 48 is provided. This disk 52 is normally joined to the U- bend 48 at the desired height of the surface of the subbed of sand as by welding or other suitable means. Thus the disks 52 gauge the depth of the sub-bed of sand, the mat wires gauge the thickness of the setting bed 12 above sub-bed and perform the other functions described in connection with the embodiment of FIGURES 4 through 6.

FIGURE 9 illustrates an alternate method of increasing the rigidity of the U-bends 48 illustrated in FIGURE 8. In this embodiment a straight sheet metal angle iron 58 of suitable gauge and size is disposed with one web face lying against and joined as by welding or other suitable means transversely across the legs 56 of the U-bends 48. As a result the angle irons extend parallel to runner wires 36 and the other web lies at a level to gauge the surface of the sand sub-bed 50.

The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embrace therein.

What is claimed and desired to be secured by United States Letters Patent is:

l. A composite floor structure arranged to be formed over a base surface and comprising a mortar setting bed; a series of patterned preformed flooring units set on said bed in spaced relation to the bottom of said bed forming a planar exposed floor surface; and means supporting said flooring units and reinforcing said mortar bed comprising a plurality of spaced apart, parallel, rod-like runner wires having a plurality of integral vertically depending upwardly facing U-bends spaced equally apart and a plurality of spaced apart, parallel, rod-like cross wires extending transversely of said runner Wires and joined thereto between and connecting the upper portions of adjacent legs formed by said upwardly facing U-bends, said cross wires being in the same horizontal plane as said runner wires and forming therewith a reinforcing mesh having substantially equal spaces, and being free of interlock with respect to said base surface, said depending upwardly facing U-bends supporting said reinforcing mesh between the faces of said mortar bed, each of said runner wires and each of said cross wires having a plurality of longitudinally spaced integral inverted U-bends projecting above said mortar bed forming respective pockets which align and position each of said flooring units in precise side-by-side relation thereby forming uniform straight mortar joints between adjacent flooring units.

2. The structure defined in claim 1 comprising means engaging the legs of and augmenting the rigidity of said upwardly facing U-bends.

3. The structure defined in claim 2 wherein said augmenting means comprises individual flat plates formed with respective elongated central apertures for receiving and surrounding the legs of respective ones of said upwardly facing U-bends intermediate the extremities thereof to form a sub-bed depth gauge.

4. The structure defined in claim 2 wherein said augmenting means comprises an elongated member spanning respective aligned groups of said U-bends and joined to the spaced legs thereof intermediate the extremities thereof to form a sub-bed depth gauge.

5. In a composite floor structure comprising a sub-bed, a mortar setting bed overlying the sub-bed and preshaped flooring units adapted to be set on said mortar setting bed and forming a planar exposed floor surface; a mortar reinforcing and gauging and flooring unit positioning and aligning mat assembly embedded in said beds and including a plurality of parallel longitudinally extending rodlike members spaced laterally apart and a plurality of parallel transversely extending rod-like members spaced laterally apart in substantially coplanar relation to said longitudinally extending members and joined to said longitudinally extending members at their points of crossing of said longitudinally extending members to form a reinforcing mesh structure of equal area spaces with said flooring units abuttingly res-ting on said mesh structure in overlapping relationship to the portions of said members delimiting said spaces, means extending away from the opposite faces of said reinforcing mesh for respectively supporting said reinforcing mesh between the faces of said mortar bed and aligning and positioning said flooring units in predetermined spaced side by side relation to each other to assure an even floor surface and to locate and define uniform mortar lines therebetween, said means for supporting said mesh including a plurality of rows of substantially rigid spaced apart leg members joined to said mesh extending downwardly from said mesh at spaced intervals, and a plurality of substantially rigid elongated members spanning respective aligned groups of said leg members and rigidly joined to said legs intermediate the extremities thereof, said elongated members being substantially in planar relationship and resting on said sub-bed so as to gauge said sub-bed.

6. A composite floor structure formed over a base surface and comprising a mortar bed having a substantial thickness providing oppositely facing surfaces; a series of patterned preformed flooring units set on and embedded in one surface of said mortar bed and forming a planar exposed floor surface; and means supporting and positioning said flooring units in substantial spaced relation to said other surface of said mortar bed and reinforcing said mortar bed comprising a plurality of spaced apart parallel rod-like runner members, a plurality of spaced apart parallel rod-like cross members extending transversely of said runner members and joined thereto, said rod-like cross members and said rod-like runner members being in substantially coplanar relationship and forming a reinforcing mesh structure of substantially equal area spaces with each of said flooring units abuttingly resting on said mesh structure in overlapping relation to the portions of said rod-like members delimiting said spaces; means adapted to non-interlockingly contact said base surface and position said mesh structure in said mortar bed in predetermined spaced relation to said other surface of said mortar bed to gauge said mortar bed 7 thickness; and means fixed to and projecting above said mesh structure and said mortar bed forming respective pockets which align and position each of said flooring units in precise side-by-side patterned relation thereby forming uniform straight mortar joints between adjacent flooring units.

7. The structure defined in claim 6 wherein said aligning means comprises vertically upstanding members having a predetermined lateral dimension fixedly joined to said mesh structural unit at the intersection of said rodlike members.

8. The structure defined in claim 7 wherein said aligning means comprises inverted U-shaped wire-like elements having a pair of parallel legs connected by a curved portion and said legs respectively abut the opposing side faces of adjacent flooring units to form aligning pockets for each of said flooring units.

9. The structure defined in claim 6 wherein said mesh supporting means comprises vertically depending U-bends formed integrally with respective ones of said parallel redlike members at longitudinally spaced intervals.

10. The structure defined in claim 9 wherein said transverse members extend between the upper portions of the legs formed by said depending U-bends and are fixedly secured thereto for positioning and supporting said transverse members in the same horizontal plane with said parallel members.

11. A composite floor structure formed, over a base surface and comprising: a relatively thick mortar bed having oppoistely facing surfaces; a series of preformed flooring units set on and embedded in one surface of said mortar bed and forming an exposed planar floor surface; and means supporting said flooring units in substantial spaced relation to the other of said surfaces of said mortar bed and structurally reinforcing said mortar setting bed comprising a series of parallel spaced apart rod-like runner members and a series of parallel spaced apart rod-like cross members extending transversely of said runner members and being joined thereto, said cross members and said runner members being in substantially coplanar relationship and forming a reinforcing mesh structure of substantially equal area spaces with said flooring units seated on said mesh structure in overlapping relation to the portions of said members delimiting said spaces so that said flooring units are completely above said portions of said mesh structure, means fixed to said mesh structure and adapted to contact said base surfs to position said mesh structure between said surfaces of said mortar bed, and pocket forming means fixed to said mesh structure and projecting above said mesh structure and said mortar setting bed, said last-mentioned means positioning and aligning said flooring units in side-by-side uniform spaced relationship with one another to facilitate the formation of neat mortar joints by introduction of mortar between opposed sides of adjacent aligned flooring units with the patterns in which said flooring units are selectively arrangeable being dependent solely upon the location of said pocket forming means.

12. The composite floor structure defined in claim 11 wherein said pocket forming means comprises elements joined to said reinforcing mesh structure at selected intersections of said runner members and said cross members, the upper extremities of said elements projecting above said mortar bed abutting opposing side faces of adjacently disposed ones of said flooring units.

13. The composite floor structure defined in claim 11 wherein said pocket forming means comprises a plurality of inverted U-shaped spacer supports joined to said reinforcing mesh structure at selected intersections of said runner members and said cross members.

14. The composite floor structure defined in claim 13 wherein said inverted U-shaped spacer supports each comprises a pair of laterally spaced upstanding legs respectively disposed on opposite sides of the reinforcing mesh structure intersection associated therewith.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 459,014 Miles Sept. 8, 1891 1,510,516 White Oct. 7, 1924 1,672,176 Schumacher et al. June 5, 1928 1,932,274 Kublanow Oct. 24, 1933 2,022,363 Vertuno Nov. 26, 1935 2,124,799 Specht July 26, 1938 2,228,387 Edge et a1. Jan. 14, 1941 2,783,695 De Canio Mar. 5, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 520,481 Germany of 1931 871,121 France of 1942 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3, 148,482 September 15, 1964 John D. Neale It is hereby; certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.

Column 5, lines 14 to 16, strike out "The spacing between bothseries of inverted U-bends 42 along each runner wire 36.".

Signed and sealed this 5th day of January 1965.

(SEAL) Attest:

ERNEST W. SWIDER EDWARD J.. BRENNER Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3342003 *Sep 25, 1963Sep 19, 1967Frank Joseph JMesh reenforcement with spacer for cementitious material
US3375633 *Dec 16, 1965Apr 2, 1968Jean Jacques PourtauMechanical device for laying tiles or mosaic flooring
US3828509 *Dec 29, 1972Aug 13, 1974Didier Werke AgRefractory block for lining firing and melting chambers
US3913336 *Mar 11, 1974Oct 21, 1975Figari Jorge GalvezFloating airport and method of its construction
US4047825 *Jun 14, 1976Sep 13, 1977The Raymond Lee Organization, Inc.Rollable walk guide
US4417828 *Sep 9, 1981Nov 29, 1983Nicolon B.V.Erosion protection mat
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US5937602 *Mar 18, 1998Aug 17, 1999Jalbert; GaetanGround cover with improved resistance to degradation by freezing and thawing
US7001101 *Mar 24, 2005Feb 21, 2006Derose Gary PhillipInterlocking paver/tile
US7877956 *Apr 30, 2004Feb 1, 2011Pergo AGFloor element with guiding means
US20110219713 *Sep 16, 2010Sep 15, 2011Pre-Con Products, Ltd.Modular foundation system and method
EP0206559A2 *May 30, 1986Dec 30, 1986Abed H. NajjarTile mounting system
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/390, 52/660, 52/388, 125/11.1, 404/70, 404/37, 52/687, 404/45, 52/379
International ClassificationE01C5/00, E04F15/02
Cooperative ClassificationE04F15/02, E01C5/003, E01C2201/167
European ClassificationE04F15/02, E01C5/00C