US 3148510 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P 1964 R. J. SULLIVAN 3,148,510
METHOD OF INSTALLING EARTH ANCHORS Filed Feb. 25, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 p 15, 1934 R. .1. SULLIVAN 3,148,510
METHOD OF INSTALLING EARTH ANCHORS Filed Feb. 25, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 lot ,9 FIG IO S Q 45 25 B 2737 35 23 FIG. 7 I5\ I Q /9' 257 OW I SIM/ em,
\ I7 A yr/ d 03 J United States Patent 3,148,510 METHQD 0F INSTALLKNG EARTH ANQHORS Ross J. Sullivan, Centralia, M0,, assignor to A. B. Chance Company, Centralia, Md, a corporation of Missouri Filed Feb. 25, 1960, Ser. No. 11,012 3 Claims. (Cl. 61-5368) This invention relates to a method of and apparatus for installing earth anchors.
Among the several objects of the invention may be noted the provision of a method and apparatus whereby wrench-type screw earth anchors may be rapidly powerinstalled by means of power turning and thrust equipment; the provision of an improved combination of a quickattachable and -detachable driving tool and screw anchor adapted to be quickly power-driven with maximum safety and convenience and minimum labor; and the provision of a method and apparatus of the class described which will leave an installed anchor in a superior load-holding condition. Other objects and features will be in part apparent and in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly comprises the elements and combinations of elements, steps and sequence of steps, features of construction and manipulation, and arrangements of parts which will be exemplified in the structures and methods hereinafter described, and the scope of which will be indicated in the following claims.
In the accompanying drawings, in which several of various possible embodiments of the invention are illustrated,
FIG. 1 is a side view of one modification of a driving tool made according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a side view of one form of anchor to be driven;
FIG. 2A is a fragmentary view similar to the upper portion of FIG. 2 but showing a modified form of anchor head;
FIG. 3 is a side elevation, partly in section, showing application of a tool such as shown in FIG. 1 as applied to an anchor such as shown in FIG. 2, ready for power installation;
FIG. 4 is a cross section showing the anchor of FIG. 2 in anchoring position;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged axial section taken on line 5-5 of FIG. 1 and showing certain latch members in released positions;
FIG. 6 is a top plan view of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a cross section taken on line 7-7 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 8 is a right-side elevation of the upper end of the tool shown in FIG. 5;
FIG. 9 is a view similar to FIG. 6 but showing the latch parts in latching position and another form of socket; and,
FIG. 10 is a side elevation of the upper end of a driving tool, showing application of an adaptor thereto.
Corresponding reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings.
Earth screw anchors of the wrench type herein contemplated are those which are screwed into the earth to provide anchorage for guy lines and the like such as used to support transmission, distribution and communication lines. Heretofore the usual manual installation of such screw earth anchors has required the coordinate manual exertions of two men applying simultaneous moments on the ends of a bar at the top of an anchordriving wrench in order to secure the desired driving torque. This has considerably limited the size of anchor that may be installed, although their holding powers (size for size) were superior to other forms of anchors. Uneven manual application of torque had some tendency to cause more than necessary earth disturbance with resultant possibility of reduction in maximum holding power. Moreover, there was size limitation upon such manually installed earth screw anchors because of the limited torque producible by two men.
Power digging machines have been used in the construction of electric power and communication lines for boring comparatively large-diameter holes into the earth by means of screw-type digging heads. However, heretofore there has not been a satisfactorily safe and convenient method of driving screw anchors by the comparatively heavy earth-digging equipment. Thus in the past, installations of earth anchors have been limited to comparatively small screw sizes due to the inability to take advantage of the large torques available from such power equipment. The present invention provides means capable of transmitting suflicient torque to install the present and larger sizes of wrench-type screw anchors and adapted to transmit to an anchor the upper limit of torque output available in the larger power digging machines. This is accomplished without the necessity of increasing anchorholding rod sizes beyond those necessary for sustaining guy wire loads in tension.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, there is shown at numeral 1 a typical earth anchor adapted to be installed according to the invention. This consists of a screw flange 3 constructed with approximately one turn around a central pilot member 5 to which it is attached. The upper end of the pilot 5 is formed as a polygonal wrench-engaging portion 7 which in the present form of the invention has a square cross section. Other wrenchengaging forms may also be used. Permanently attached to part 7 is a guy rod 9. This is threaded at its upper end to receive a lock nut 11 and a threaded wire clevis or thimble eye 13. The nut 11 provides shoulder means for uses to be described, besides serving to lock in place the clevis 13. Such a shoulder may also be provided by an integral shoulder means 11A on a similar anchor rod 9A such as shown in FIG. 2A. Threaded into the shoulder 11A is a clevis or thimble eye 13A, having a male threaded shank for the purpose, instead of the female threaded shank such as on clevis 13 in FIG. 2.
At numeral 15 is shown a driving tool made according to the invention, which consists of a torque tube 17, the lower end of which is formed as a polygonal socket wrench portion 19 adapted freely to telescope and interfit with the wrench-engaging part or nut 7 of the anchor 1, the guy rod 9 in the process being telescopically thrust into the tube 17. Telescopic movement is limited by contact of the end 8 of part 19 with the upper edge of the screw flange 3. The upper end of the tube 17, by threading 24 and welding 25, is afiixed to a latch-supporting body 21. Body 21 is hollow and may be surrounded by a circular collar 23 which is located under a flange 27. Collar 23 forms a protective ring to prevent damage to certain latch parts to be described, during tool transportation. I
Adjacent the flange 27 the body 21 is cross-drilled to provide opposite openings 2 for the reception of cylindrical retractable holders, catches, detents or dogs 31, beveled at their inner ends, as shown at 33. As will be apparent from the following description, the members 31 have several functions, i.e., to hold an anchor in assembled position in the tool with polygonal parts 7 and 19 engaged and to center the axis of the anchor rod 9 on the tool axis. Each member 31 has a set of spaced finger grips 35 and 37, providing between them a transverse slot 39 and a transverse bevel portion or cone 41. The trans verse slots 3% and cones 41 are for engagement with the free ends 43 of cantilever leaf springs 45, the opposite ends of which are held by screw fasteners 47 in grooves 49 of the body 21.
The springs 45 in their normal straight positions such as shown in FIGS. 1 and 3 bias the catches 31 inward to engaging positions. The catches may be manually pulled outward against this bias, thus bending the springs as shown in FIG. 5. In order to hold the catches in their release positions after they are pulled out, they are provided with sidewise grooves, parts of which extend axially, as shown at 51, and parts of which extend circularly or circumferentially, as shown at 53. A pin 55, held in flange 27, extends into each groove 51, 53. Thus when the catches 31 are positioned inward, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, the pins are located in the respective straight portions 51 of the grooves. Each catch may then be pulled outward and turned, to place the circular part 53 of the groove around the respective pin 55. This prevents the biases of the bent springs 45 from driving the catches 31 back to their latching positions.
The catches may be freely turned in their outer positions, as shown in FIG. 5, because of the rotary nature of the conical bearing with spring 45 provided by each cone 41. Finger grips 37 are formed as shown at 57, to provide adequate rotary movement for the desired actions. To return a catch 31 to its inward latching position, it is turned clockwise from the position shown in FIG. 8, thereby taking its respective pin 55 out of the circular groove portion 53 into the axial groove portion 51. Upon manual release, the respective spring 45 snaps the catch to its detaining inward position shown in FIG. 9, wherein its bevel faces the inlet of the tube 17.
The outer end of the body 21 is provided with a preferably polygonal socket 59 which is cross-drilled for the reception of the polygonal male end 61 of a so-called Kelly bar 67 of a power digging machine, parts of which are shown generally at 63. A holding bolt in the cross drill maintains an attachment when made. Some bars such as 67 have cross-drilled female socket ends, in which event the upper end of the tool would have a crossdrilled male end substituted for the cross-drilled female end described.
The assembly of power digging machine parts 63 is one of various types that may be used. The machine parts 63 illustrated are adapted to be supported upon a truck bed 64 and swiveled into any desired angular position, including, if need be, horizontal and vertical. The bar 67 is in the form of a rack, adapted through a suitable power gear box 69 to be rotated and axially driven at the same time, as, for example, from a power takeoff of the truck. Another type of such machines applies power in rotation but carries the driving parts (gear box, etc.) on the end of the Kelly bar in such a manner that their substantial weights exert the desired substantial axial force along the Kelly bar. Since power-driven digging equipment of this and analogous types is known to those skilled in the art, further description will not be needed. Important to the invention, however, is the fact that the bar 67 is in effect a power-driven rotatable and advancing element. Ordinarily a bar such as 67 carries upon it a digging head. This may be removed for application of the wrench 15, as illustrated in FIG. 3.
To apply an anchor such as 1 or LA, its clevis such as 13 or 13A may be removed, leaving the nut 11 or shoulder 11A as a shoulder spaced or adapted to be spaced from anchor part 7 a proper distance, such that when the shoulder is above the centering catches 31, the parts 7, 19 will be in driving engagement. Then the drive box 69 is swiveled to place the torque tube 17 in an accessible position for thrusting an anchor 1 or 1A with its head 11 or 11A foremost through the opening in the wrench portion 19 until the wrench-engaging portion 7 engages the wrench portion 19. In the process, the nut 11 or shoulder 11A contacts bevels 33 and displaces and moves past the spring-biased catches 31, so that the anchor 1 is thereafter latched coaxially and captively in the torque tube. Thus it is prevented from thereafter sliding out or becoming eccentrically positioned, as when the box 69 is tilted for drilling at an appropriate angle, for example, at the 45 angle shown in FIG. 3. Note that if axial forces tending to position rod 9 out of coaxial alignment become considerable, the rod is nevertheless kept in substantial coaxial alignment by the shoulder means 11, which in this instance serve as a spacer between the upper portions of rod 11 and the interior of the hollow body 21.
The drive for the power digging machine then may be turned on, which rotates and at the same time advances the bar 67 to which the driving tool 15 and its contained wrench-engaged anchor are attached. The result is that the anchor, with the surrounding tool, is quickly driven into the earth to the desired depth. In some instances it may be desired to spade out a small amount of earth at the starting position 72 before the power drive is activated.
After an appropriate depth is reached, each detent catch is pulled out manually and turned, so as to hold them out of latching engagement with the nut 11 or head 11A. The operators hands may then be removed. Thereupon the bar 67 may be retracted (without rotation) which telescopically disengages the parts 7 and 19. In the process the detent catches 31 clear the nut 11 or head 11A, the tool 15 being withdrawn from the earth, leaving the anchor installed. The appropriate clevis 13 or 13A may then be applied as illustrated in FIG. 4, which places the anchor in load-receiving condition. It will be understood that earth displaced by the tube 7 in time packs around the rod 9 or 9A, or it may be tamped for the purpose. The result is as shown in FIG. 4. After the tool 15 has been retracted, the box 69 may again be tilted to present it for the reception of the next anchor to be installed.
Advantages of the invention are as follows:
An arrangement for power-driving earth screw anchors such that they are given positive coordinated rotary and advance movements, instead of the simple rotary movements obtained by manual actuation without substantial axial thrust. This results in driving the anchor more rapidly-with little manual effort and with less soil disturbance.
The means such as 31 accepting and, first, concentrically spacing an anchor in the tube 17, the anchor being very simply thrust or telescoped in, like a bayonet in a scabbard; also, second, such means for holding the anchor captive with the tube. This results in automatically centering and holding the anchor captive against wobble and downward and outward slippage while bringing the power apparatus 67, 69 into the proper downwardly angled position for installation. In this regard it will be understood that all of the torque transmission from the tool 15 to the anchor 1 occurs through the engaged polygonal parts 7, 19. No torque is applied to rod 9. The latching detent catches or dogs do not effect any rotary torque transmission but latch under the nut 11 or shoulder 11A for centering and holding captive the anchor.
By means of the invention, earth anchors with larger diameters of the screw flanges 3 may be accurately driven with case. However, the driving torque is delivered through parts 7, 19. Therefore, their guy rods 9 need not be made larger, since these rods are not employed for transmitting torque of installation. The sizes of these rods may be kept to the comparatively small diameter required to function in tension (and not in twist) delivered thereto by the guy wires attached to the thimble eyes 13 or 13A.
While the installation tool 15 has been described as being applicable to the bar 67 after removal from the latter of the usual digging head, it is to be understood that some digging heads have means on them which, without their removal from the bar 67, will accept adaptors to which other tools may be connected. Thus, as illustrated in FIG. 10, such an adaptor is shown at 71, having at 73 the equivalent of the square end 61 of the bar 67. This adaptor is attached by bolt 75 to the tool 15. The other end of the adaptor has an appropriate shape (hexagonal, for example) with a hole through it (as in the FIG. form) for attachment to the appropriate socket in the power digging head. Under such circumstances it is not necessary to remove the power digging head for attachment and operation of the tool 15.
In view of the above, it will be seen that the several objects of the invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained.
As various changes could be made in the above constructions and methods without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
1. The method of driving a screw anchor having a guy rod, a Wrench-engaging portion and a screw at one end of the guy rod and a shoulder-forming portion at the other end thereof, comprising the steps of telescoping the guy rod of the anchor into a torque tube adapted to receive said rod and having a Wrench portion at one end adapted to receive and form a coupling with said wrenchengaging portion and at its opposite end structure to latch with said shoulder-forming portion to hold the anchor captive, simultaneously forcibly turning and applying a direct axial force to the anchor to drive the latter and said torque tool into the ground and thereafter unlatching the anchor and torque tube tool and retracting the latter from the anchor in the ground by a retractive movement of the tube.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein said retractive movement is purely axial.
3. The method of driving an earth screw anchor having an elongated guy rod supporting a screw at one end thereof, wrench engaging means integral with the guy rod proximal to said screw and a shoulder forming portion on the guy rod adjacent the opposite end of the latter, comprising the steps of engaging said wrench engaging portion with a wrench, simultaneously supporting said shoulder forming portion of said guy rod and in a direction to restrain the movement of said wrench away from said wrench engaging portion, positioning said anchor in a location with the guy rod extending along the line of the desired completed installation of said anchor, simultaneously rotating said wrench and applying substantial direct axial thrust thereto to screw said anchor into the earth to the desired depth, releasing said shoulder forming portion of said guy rod and withdrawing said wrench from the Wrench engaging portion on said anchor.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,756,003 North Apr. 22, 1930 1,800,504 Chance Apr. 14, 1931 2,074,107 Gardner Mar. 16, 1937 2,304,271 Merriman et a1. Dec. 8, 1942 2,379,472 Bowman July 3, 1945 2,468,319 Adams Apr. 26, 1949 2,632,486 Fetsko Mar. 24, 1953 Dedication 3,148,510.R0ss J. Sullivan, Centralia, M0. METHOD OF INSTALLING EARTH ANCHORS. Patent dated Sept. 15, 1964. Dedication filed Oct. 30, 1975, by the assignee, A. B. Uhance Uompany. Hereby dedicates to the Public the entire remaining term of said patent, [Ofiicz'al Gazette Mamh 9, 1.976.]