US 3150619 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P 1964 B. L. BRUCKEN ETAL 3,150,619
DOMESTIC INCINERATOR Filed. 0 1;, 25, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS 8 ran L. Bracken BY ames L. Miller Th el'r A/fomey P 1964 B. L. BRUCKEN ETAL 3,150,619
DOMESTIC INCINERATOR Filed Oct. 23, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet a L/ START L2 BUTTON! :24
-- MAIN '76 HEATER 88 n2 I74 |66 |86 I88 CYCLING THERMOSTAT' TIMER l I78 wlsz 7 I90 L V q I T-- (p 2 .80
I92 COOL-OFF 7 5 THERMOSTAT 3 no CRUSHERSOLENOID CATALYST HEATERR 5 DRIVE TIMER MOTOR I50 SAFETY LOCK 5 SOLENOID S F TY I60 THERMOSTAT TIMER SW 8 0/! Timer or Hen/er! star! 2 000/ Off 3 Crusher 4 Fan-After Burner +1 Fig. 6 519' 1 INVENTORS Byron L. Bracken BY JamgsL. Mil/er The/r Attorney P 29, 1964 B. L. BRUCKEN ETAL 3,150,619
DOMESTIC INCINERATOR 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Oct. 23, 1959 ,los
3n W y M mwmfiq V M fl B f I. 0 L I a A 0 Wm w BJ .m f B 7 m United States Pate 3,150,619 DOMESTIC INCINERATOR A a Byron L. Brucken'and James L. Miller, Dayton, Ohio,
assignors; to" p a Mich; a corporation .ofiDelaware FiledOct. 23-, 1959,, Ser. No. 848,465 23 Claims. (Cl. 110-8).
This invention relates to .a domestic appliance and more particularly to an'improvedjincinerator.
The disposal of 'waste has 'long domestic households. The prior art is filled with devices for attachment to sinks to eliminate refuse by washing it after grinding-to drain. Similarly, incinerat1on has been used. for ridding the household of all combustible materials. However, the prior. art methods of incineration have relied solely upon combustionto eliminate the refuse. Such an arrangement requires an expensive fireproof chimney' for, removal of the hot products of combustion from the. incinerator. Code requirements generally call for a chimney-which isbuilt ofrnasonry or other non-combustible material and thus the problem of incineration is made more complicated and expensive. This invention seeks to solve this problem with a domestic incinerator which.
may be installed within the living area of a home and which need not be connected to a chimney'for removal of the products of incineration.
Accordingly, itis an object of this invention torprovide an incinerator wherein the refuse issubjeoted to a de structive or dry distillation process.
Affurther object of this invention is the provision of an incinerator wherein the refuse to' be incinerated is subjected to a destructive distillation process while the volatile combustible products from distillation are subjected to a subsequent catalytic combustion.
A more specific object of this invention is the provision of an incinerator having "a distillation chamber and a combustion chamber, and a first heatingmeans for initiating said distillation and a second catalytic heating meansfor initiating said combustion.
Amore general objectofthis invention is the provi sion of an incinerator which may be installed under a counter in a line of base cabinets.
Another general object of this invention is the provision of an incinerator which may be installed without requir-' ing a gravity flow or natural draft chimney.
A further object of this invention is the provision of an incinerator utilizing a mechanical draft to dilute the air exhausting from said incinerator, thereby to lower the temperature thereof and to maintain proper pressure gradients in selected portions of theincinerato'r.
It is also an object of this invention to provide a heat' exchange passageway leading to the catalytic combustion chamber which serves to preheat the air channeled to such combustion chamber and to insulate the incineration process from the outer surfaces of'the appliance cabinet.
It is also an object of this invention to provide an incinerating device with means for destructively distilling General" Motors Corporation, Detroit,:
been ,a problem in;
3,150,619 Patented Sept. 29., 1964 FIGURE. 3 is asectional view taken along line 33- in FIGUREQZ to show the .catalytic combustion burner mply? FIGURE 4 is a sectional view partly in elevation taken generally along line 4--4 inFIGURE 2 to show the prime moving air circulatihgand crushingassembly of this invention; t i v i FIGURE 5 is a sehernatic-wiringdiagram of the control systemsuitable for operating.thefincinerator of this in vention;-- v i FIGURE 6 is atimer. cycle chart illustrating the condition .ofv circuitry in FIGURE 5 at; any given instance during the prescribed control cycle. of this invention; and
FIGURE-7 is a. schematic view of the incinerator of this invention showinglthe: gaseous current patternsset up during-the operation-oh this device.
In accordance with; this invention and with'reference-to FIGURE 1, anincineraltor l0 is adapted to beinstalled beneath a counter top 12 and interposed in a line of Wall cabinets 14; The incinerator is adapted to be front loading and includes a loadingdoor 16 which. is hingedat the bottom and adaptedto be opened by a handle 18 in one portion thereof. At the bottom of the incinerator 10 an unloading doorordrawer 20 is disposed and has a.
handle 22 to assist in. slidingthe draweroutwardlyr- A control button 24 is positioned on the access door 16 and may be pushed to initiate a timed incinerating and crushing cycle', as will 'be described more fully hereinafter ltmay be recognized at thispoint that incineration is accompanied -.by.relatively.high temperatures. For this reason, the doors. 16 and 20..are locked in a closed-position during. the incinerating; process.
Reference may nowbe had toFIGURESZ and 4 for a complete disclosure of the. structural aspects of the incinerator. 10. The incinerator 10 is defined at itsouter limits bya casing 26 having a rear wall 28 and a top wall 30;. sidewalls 31, v33 serve also as the side outer limits 32, 34 of the appliance (FIGURE 1). To support the incinerator .10. and more; particularly the outer casing 26, anrimperforate base 36 is adapted to underlie the structure- An intermediatecasing 38 serves as a retainer for insulation 40' between the retainer 38 and the outer casing 26; Insulation is also included along the sides of the incinerator 10 and-gthus the insulation retainer 38" formsa ratherenclosed 'recepgtacle in which a distillation chamber 42 is disposed. The distillation chamber-42 is defined by a 'b ottqm wall 46, a rear wall 48;, a top wall 50, andsidefwalls 52, 53. An opening 54'is formed at the frontof thedistillation chamber 4 2-and-is closed by. the distillation chamber: access door 16 which. is pivotally mounted at 56. It is.-important to note that the distillation chamber 42, is substantially airtight and for this reason a heat resistant seal 58.-is usedto effect an airtight seal between the door 16 andthe chamber 42. For the same reason a seal 59.is used-between the drawer 20 and the casingopening for receivingthe drawer; The bottom of the. distillation chamber 42 issl'anted andopens intoa crushingchambershowrr generally at 60. It is in the area o fchambers 42 and 60 that the incineration by means of destructive distillation is accomplished.
To the rear of: the distillation chamber 42 isa corn.- bustioncharnber 62 which ineludes a plurality of catalyst screens 64, 66,and 68, as. well as a heater-70 for'actuating the catalyst screens. The combustion chamber 62 is formed by a panel 72 ofthe insulation retainer 38. Similarly, the top of'thecombustion'chamber is defined'by a panel74 of the insulation retainerwhich is spaced from the top wall 50 ofthe' distillation chamber. This spacing serves'to define a passageway 76'; which leads to a meteringopening 78 justabove the'door 16*and connecting the combustion chamber 62 with the atmosphere. The pas- 's'ageway 76 extends Completely across the width of the distillation chamber 42 and thus acts also as an insulati'ng air barrier between the relatively high temperatures of the chamber 42 and the relatively cool atmospheric temperatures. The passageway 76 serves an additional function in acting as a preheater for the air entering at 78 prior to entering the combustion chamber 62. Upon reach-ing the catalyst screens 64, 66 and 68, air which has traveled rearwardly through the passageway 76 provides the oxygen for the combustion process, as will be described more fully hereinafter. this point it is important to note that the inlet 78 has been recited as a metering device, since regulated quantities of air are required to complete the combustion in chamber 62. Any excess air will serve to cool the heater 70, thereby limiting the heaters ability to function properly in actuating or heating the catalyst screens to their operating temperature. The metering device 78 has'also another function in that temperature may be controlled and limited at the catalyst screens by the flow of relatively cool air through the combustion chamber. It is within the purview of this invention to include a thermally responsive device in the passageway 76 to open and close a conventional damper (not shown) which could restrict or increase air flowing to the combustion chamber 62.
A better understanding of the relationship between the distillation chamber 42 and the combustion chamber 62 may be gained from the sectional view partly in elevation in FIGURE 3. There the heater 70 is shown as overlying the top catalyst screen 68 and is retained in a frame or catalyst duct means 80 which drops into an opening 82 in the bottom wall of the combustion chamber. This view shows also the relationship of the distillation chamber 42 wherein the sidewalls 52, 53 and the rear wall 48 thereof lie in juxtaposition to the chamber 62 and more particularly to the catalyst arrangement shown generally at 69. Several openings 84 interconnect the distillation chamber 42 with the combustion chamber 62. The overall area of the openings 84 is sized to permit a negative pressure within the distillation chamber. It is important to prevent oxygen from entering the chamber 42. For this reason the air-fuel (products of distillation) mixture must be separated in the combustion chamber 62 from the fuel (products of distillation) in the distillation chamber 42. With a forced draft system to maintain a negative pressure in the distillation chamber 42, the prodnets of the distillation process will disperse into the combustion chamber 62 and through the catalyst assembly 69 wherein the noxious volatile products of distillation will be oxidized and eliminated.
A destructive distillation process is initiated by a source of heat. In the arrangement of this invention, a distillation initiation chamber, shown generally at 86, is located adjacent the bottom wall 46 of the distillation chamber. The housing 86 is imperforate and completely encloses a heater 88 and a catalytic screen 90. Heater 88 need only be large enough to bring the waste in the incinerator up to the point where it will start to decompose-approximately 1100 watts worked satisfactorily for the purposes of this incinerator. The only exit from the housing 86 is by means of a plurality of downwardly facing louvers 92 which open into the distillation chamber 42. The function of the catalyst screen 90 is to eliminate any oxygen which might enter the chamber 42 due to imperfections in assembling the incinerator. Thus, it acts as a safety device to insure the complete absence of oxygen and to insure a destructive distillation procedure rather than combustion. The only combustion in the incinerator takes place solely in the catalyst or combustion chamber 62 as the result of drawing the volatile materials over the heat activated catalyst screens 64, 66 and 68. More particularly, the energization of the heater 88 will create a source of heat which is radiated by a reflective surface 94 toward the distillation chamber 42. As the temperature of the waste placed within the chamber is 4 raised, a point will be reached at which the distillation process will commence. Once the distillation process is under way, no combustion air is required in the chamber 42 for the action is exothermic and will be self-sustaining as soon as the temperature is high enough to start the reaction.
External to both the distillation chamber 42 and the combustion chamber 62 but communicating therewith is a mechanism chamber 96. In this area is housed the machinery for setting up an air flow system and for crushing the residue from the distillation process. More particularly and with reference to FIGURES 2 and 4, the
mechanism chamber 96 includes a blower 98, a crusher V mechanism shown generally at 100, and actuated through a linkage shown generally at 102 by a motor or prime mover 104. Both the fan 98 and the crusher mechanism 100 are selectively actuated by the motor 104 depending on the positioning of a clutch solenoid 106 which through a linkage 108 positions a clutch 110. Of course, it is within the purview of this invention to use any type of clutch. For instance, the motor 104 may be reversible and provided with wound spring clutches such that blower operation will occur with the motor running in one direction and crusher operation with the motor in reverse. During the course of the incinerating cycle, the motor 104 is utilized to drive either the blower and/or the crusher. Supported from the base 36 of the incinerator is an intermediate support or housing 112 on which the motor mounting bracket 114 is afiixed. This housing 112 serves also to enclose the storage compartment 116.
The air system of the incinerator 10 will now be described in connection with FIGURES 2 and 4. A set of air restricting louvers 118 is built in to the rear wall 28 of the incinerator casing 26. In operation the inlet 99 of the blower 98 will receive its inlet air through both the metered opening 78 and the restricted louvered opening 118. It is important to note that the louvers 118 are designed to restrict air flow, thereby to provide a negative pressure in the distillation chamber 42 in the neighborhood of two inches of water or approximately one-twelfth pounds per square inch, thereby to purge air from said chamber. This air flow system will be understood more fully in connection with the explanation hereinafter of the operation of the incinerating system of this invention.
Disposed beneath the destructive distillation chamber 42 and in direct communication therewith is the crushing chamber 60. To effect the crushing concepts of this invention the crushing mechanism 100 includes a fixed pres- Sure jaw 120 and a movable pressure jaw 122, both of which jaws have a plurality of generally downwardly sloping teeth. The linkage 102 is operated by an eccentric 124 on the rotating motor shaft 126 which causes a reciprocating movement of the lever 128. This reciproeating action causes a rocking movement of the pressure jaw 122.. Such rocking movement feeds the gradually crushed residue through an opening 130 at the bottom of the crushing mechanism 100 and into an open top receptacle 132, the forward wall of which is the exposed portion of the drawer 20. Subsequent to an incinerating cycle and after the temperatures have cooled to a safe degree, the drawer 20 may be removed to empty the crushed and compacted residue from the incinerator. It should be noted that a check plate 134 lies in closely adjacent relationship to each side of the crusher jaws 120 and 122. This cheek plate on each side of the jaws restrains the residue and keeps it within the bounds of the crusher mechanism. At the bottom of the pivotal jaw 122, a downward extension 136 is pivotally mounted at 138 to a bracket 140 fastens as at 142 to the support bracket 112. It should be recognized that considerable force is exerted at this point and thus the structural mem bers including the housing 112 must be designed sufficiently strong to withstand these stresses. A similar pivo ing arrangement is included at the opposite. side of the pivoting crusher jaw.
The operation of the novel incinerating appliance of this invention will be now described in connection with the schematic view of FIGURE 7 wherein like parts will carry like numerals to those set forth in connection with the preferred construction hereinbefore. The entire combination incineration and crushing cycle will be controlled by a timer 150 which may be located inside the access door 16. It should be recognized, however, that the timer 150 should be able to withstand elevated temperatures resulting from the distillation process within the chamber 42. t is within the purview of this invention to locate the timer 150 in a relatively cooler area, such as the mechanism compartment 96. The timer 150 will include a plurality of cam actuated switches which are shown more particularly in the schematic wiring diagram of FIGURE 5. The positioning of these switches in connection with the circuitry shown will effect waste incineration in the sequence taught by the'timer cycle chart of FIGURE 6. Thus, FIGURES 5, 6 and 7 will be used in the description of the incinerator operating cycle.
A cycle will be initiated by opening the access-door 16 and placing into the destructive distillation chamber 42 a quantity of refuse which will be disposed in the area generally between the chambers 42 and 60 and immediately adjacent the distillation initiation chamber 86. The door 16 is then closed and the start button 24 pushed to start the incineration cycle. A suitable residential electrical supply L1 and L2 may be utilized for the purposes of energizing the incinerator 10. The control circuitry includes a cam actuated switch 1 in the timer and main heater circuit, a cam actuated switch 2 in the start ciremit, a cam actuated switch 3 in the cool-off circuit, a cam actuated switch 4 in the crusher solenoid circuit, and a cam actuated switch 5 in the catalyst heater or afterburner circuit. In addition to the elements described hereinbefore in connection with the construction of the device, a safety precaution is built into the circuit and includes a solenoid 154 which actuates a pair of latch bolts 156 and 158 to lock the door 16 and drawer 20, respectively, in a closed position whenever a thermostatic safety device 160 closes the circuit to the solenoid 154. More particularly, the thermally responsive device 160 is closed on a contact 162 whenever the temperatures are above 250 F. and is opened when the temperatures are below 200 F. This prevents the opening of the incinerator doors whenever temperatures within the device are at an elevated condition.
Two other thermally responsive devices are utilized for the operation of this appliance. The heater and timer cycling thermostat 164 operates between a contact 166 leading to the main heater 88 and a contact 168 leading to the timer motor 152. The thermostat 164 is adapted to close upon the contact 166 at 650 F. and below and to close upon the contact 168 at 700 F. or above. A cool-off thermostatic device 170 acts to close a circuit to the timer motor 152 whenever the temperatures within the distillation chamber 42 are below 300 and to open the circuit when above 400 F. Thus, the cool-01f thermostat prevents premature crushing while the residue is too hot. This cool-off period is shown schematically on the timer cycle chart of FIGURE 6 as that period of suspended timer operation after the thirtieth timer interval.
When the start button 24 is energized, currentwill flow through L1, line 172, the start solenoid 174, the start button switch 24, line 176, the thermostatic device 164, which is cool, line 178, the cam actuated timer switch 2, which is closed as shown in the timer cycle chart FIGURE 6, the line 180 and line 182 to the timer motor 152 and from there through line 184 to L2. The timer 150 is now energized to sequentially position the cam actuated switches 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. After a single starting increment, the cam actuated switch 5 is closed to energize the catalyst heater 70 in the afterburner, the drive motor 104 and the door and drawer safety lock solenoid 154 circuit. Of course, the door and drawer safety lock circuit de- 6 pends on the positioning of the thermostatic switch 160. As aforesaid, a high temperature within the incinerator (above 250 F.) will cause the switch 160 to close on the contact 162 and thus energize the door and drawer lock circuit whenever the timer cam'actuated switch 5 is closed.
The initiation of the destructive distillation process is etfected at the start-of the third timer pulse when the timer switch 1 is closed, thereby dropping 'out the start winding circuit by shunting and thereby deenergizing the holding circuit solenoid 174. The mainheater SS is thus energized-from L1, line 186, the timer switch blade 1, line 188, the cycling thermostatic device 164 which due to the cool situation within the incinerator is oncontact .166, the line 191, main heater 88 to L2. Since the distillation initiation chamber 86 is completelyclosed and provided with a reflective interior surface, the heat radiated will be directed through the louvers 92 into the distillation chamber 42 and upon the refuse which lies upon the louvers. As the temperature is elevated, the refuse will start to distill-the duration of the distillation or decomposing depending upon the type of refuse being burned and its own particular distillation temperature. It bears emphasizing that no combustion air is required for the reason that the action is exothermic and will be self-sustaining once the temperature is high enough to start the distillation reaction. Thus, the entire structure of the incinerator is designed to prevent air from entering the distillation chamber 42. However, it is recognized that some leakage is bound to result and for this purpose, the catalyst screen is placed in juxtaposition to the main heater 88 and serves to insure a complete absence of oxygen during the distillation process.
After the third timer pulse, it will be noted that the timer motor 152 is energized alternately with the main heater 88 under the control of the thermostatically operating switch 164. Thus, the entire incinerating process moves in stepped fashionthe heater 88 and the timer motor 152 operating alternately. More particularly, temperatures above 700 F. will position the switch 164 on a contact 168 to deenergize the main heater 88 and to energize the timer motor 152. Alternately, when distillation chamber temperatures at the thermostat 164 are below 650 F., the heater 88 will operate and the timer motor 152 will not. Throughout the destructive distillation process, the timer contact 5 is closed to energize the drive motor 104 and the after-burner heater 70 for heating the plurality of catalyst screens 64, 66 and 68.
As the destructive distillation process proceeds, the residue within the chamber 42 will be reduced. Such reduction gives off a gaseous material which is volatile and combustible. During this reduction or distillation process, the operation of the blower or fan 98 draws air towards its inlet 97 through both the restricted air inlet opening 118 and the metered air opening 78. The air drawn to the combustion chamber 62 through the passageway 76 mingles with the volatile combustible products flowing due to pressure differential from the chamber 42. Convection is not responsible for the products leaving the chamber 42. One reason is simply that as the solid refuse changes to a gaseous product, the entire mass expands and such expansion occurs through the openings 84 interconnecting the combustion chamber 62 and the distillation chamber 42. Also, a negative pressure is maintained within the chamber 42 and such negative pressure, brought about by the blower 98, is eifective to cause an egress of the volatile combustible products into the combustion chamber 62. Once in the chamber 62, the products of distillation commingle with the preheated atmospheric air entering the combustion chamber 62 from the passageway 76. This mixture is drawn across the catalyst afterburner assembly 69 andthe volatile materials oxidized. At the outlet of the catalyst assembly, the temperatures are considerably elevated. Thus, the relatively cool dilution air drawn into the mechanism chamber 96 through the louvered opening 118 mixes with the high temperature products of combustion and tempers the resultant temperature of the mixture to a degree which is suitable for being exhausted by the blower 98 through its outlet or conduit 99. This outlet 99 may be taken directly through the wall of a kitchen or room in which the appliance is installed and a conventional outside vent cover or hood placed over the exposed duct 99 to direct the relatively'cool mixture of air and products of combustion downwardly and to minimize backdrafts. It should be noted that the mixture is innoxious and at a relatively low temperature and thus need not be removed from a residence by means of expensive masonry chimney. v
In brief, refuse is decomposed in the distillation chamber 42 i nto a volatilecombustible gaseous material which is expanded out of the chamber 42 into a chamber 62 Where oxygen is added and the resultant mixture oxidized to eliminate all of the noxious products of the distillation process. Throughout the distillation of the refuse, the timer motor 152 and the heater 88 are alternately energized-the object being to supply added heat only when the chamber 42 is below 700 F. and to advance the timer toward its conclusion. Approximately twenty-nine minutes have been allowed in the timer cycle chart of this invention, however, it should be recognized that considerable leeway may be provided in this area depending on the material which is to be incinerated.
At the beginning of the thirtieth timer pulse, the cam actuated switch 3 will be closed. At this time, the timer switches 1, 3 and 5 are in a closed condition to energize the fan motor 104 to cause a circulation of air, to energize the afterburner or catalyst assembly 69 for eliminating the noxious volatile products from the distillation process and to condition the heater 88 for thermally selective energization. Note that the circuit in which the cam actuated switch 3 is located includes the cool-01f thermostatic switch 170 and the timer motor 152. This circuit is called the cool-off circuit and follows from L1, line 190, line 192, the cam actuated switch 3, the thermostatic cool-off thermostat 170, line 182, timer motor 152, and line 184 to L2. In the interval between the thirtieth and thirty-first timer pulse, the incinerating cycle is placed completely under the control of the cool-off circuit of timerswitch 3. The opening of the switch 1 prevents the operation of either the timer motor 152 or the main heater 88 through this circuit. Timer motor operation will thus depend solely on the energization through the cool-off circuit which includes the thermostatic device 170.
Since the distillation process is followed by one in which the residue is crushed or compacted and dropped into a storage bin, it is desirable to withhold this crushing operation until temperatures within the appliance are reduced below 300 F. Under the control of the distillation thermostat 164 temperatures in the distillation chamber 42 average in the neighborhood of 650 F. up to 700 F. At the conclusion of the thirtieth timer pulse, the 700 F. figure prevails as the timer runs out on the destructive distilling portion of the cycle. These temperatures must be reduced before the thermostat 170 will close to energize the timer motor 152 for starting the crushing portion of the cycle. For this reason the timer cycle chart of FIGURE 6 shows an indeterminate area on the chart on which the timer is off. The duration of this interval will depend solely on the length of time that it takes the incinerator to cool from approximately 700 F. to approximately 300 F. During such interval (timer switch 5 closed) the afterburner 70 will remain energized to oxidize any trailings from the distillation process. The closed relationship of switch 5 will also energize the motor 104 to keep the fan operating as an aid to the cooloif period. At the instant that the thermostatic switch 170 closes on the contact 171, the timer motor 152 will be reenergized and the timer pulse next following will close the cam actuated switch 4. The switch 4, in turn, will energize the crusher solenoid 106 to shift the motor 104 from driving the blower 98 to driving the crusher mechanism 100. It should be appreciated that a conventional gear reduction arrangement may be included within the motor to provide the slow powerful drive needed to pulsate the linkage 102 in pivotally oscillating the crusher jaw 122. As the jaw 122 oscillates, the downwardly facing teeth on both jaws cooperate to compact the residue and to feed it downwardly into the storage drawer below.
During the crushing portion of the incinerating cycle, the cam actuated switch 5 will remain closed to keep the afterburner catalyst heater 70 energized. In this way, any left over volatile gases from the distillation process will be eliminated as they pass through the combustion chamber 02. The circuit including switch 5 also includes the door and drawer safety lock solenoid 154 which is in series with the temperature responsive safety switch 160. A short time after the incinerator has cooled to 300 F. to reenergize the timer for crushing, the appliance will have cooled further to approximately 200 F. to open the switch and deenergize the lock solenoid 154. After this, both the door 10 and the drawer 20 may be opened. Another incineration cycle may now be started or the compacted waste residue may be removed from the slidably removable drawer 20. During the final crushing portion of the incineration cycle, the timer 152 will be energized through the circuit including the cam actuated timer switch 3. At the beginning of the thirtyfourth timer interval, the timer switch 2 will be closed to condition the control circuitry for a subsequent starting cycle. At the conclusion of the thirty-fourth timer interval, cam actuated switches 3, 4 and 5 will be opened and the combination incinerating and crushing cycle will be completed.
The foregoing has taught an improved incinerator which may be installed in habitable areas of a residence and need not be attached to a conventional masonry chimney for smoke and odor removal. The incinerator of this invention uses a destructive distillation process to reduce the waste in the complete absence of oxygen. The catalyst combustion chamber is used in conjunction with the distillation procedure to eliminate the noxious volatile combustible gases resulting from the distillation process. Mechanical draft rather than gravity draft is used to dilute the increased temperatures issuing from the combustion chamber and such mixing reduces the temperatures to a safe level which may be discharged immediately through any outside wall adjacent to which the appliance is installed. The improved cycle is completed with a crushing mechanism which both advances and compacts the residue remaining from the distillation process into a storage drawer disposed beneath the distillation chamber for subsequent removal and disposal. Although catalyst screens have been set forth in connection with the foregoing description, it should be understood that any other form of catalyst may be used-a bed of aluminum oxide pellets for instance.
While the embodiments of the present invention as herein disclosed, constitute preferred forms, it is to be understood that other forms might be adopted.
What is claimed is as follows:
1. An incinerator having a casing defining a distillation chamber, a storage chamber, and a combustion chamber, said casing having an atmospheric air inlet leading to said combustion chamber, said distillation chamber having a first heater, a first catalyst screen adjacent said heater and an opening connecting said distillation chamber with said combustion chamber, said combustion chamber having a second catalyst screen and a second heater for activating said second screen, said storage chamber having a slidably removable drawer adapted to fit in substantially air-tight relationship to said casing, means to supply atmospheric air to gases from the combustion chamber, a blower having an'inlet opening in communication with said incinerator and receiving gases-from said combustion chamber andcair from the atmosphere, an electrically controlled crusher mechanism beneath said distillation chamber, a prime mover for driving said blower and for actuating said crusher mechanism, and a timer circuit having a timer motor and a plurality of timer motor operated cam-actuated switches for sequentially controlling said incinerator, a first circuit portion in which said first'heater is connected and having a first cam-actuated switch operated by said timer motor to close said first circuit portion to said first heater -for sustaining said distillation, said first circuit portion including a first thermally responsive switch having either a first position for thermally selectively conditioning said first circuit portion for energizing said first heater or a second position for thermally selectively conditioning said timer motor for energization through said first cam-actuated switch, a second circuit portion having a second cam actuated switch operated by said timer motor to close before said first cam-actuated switch to energize said sec- 'ond heater and said prime mover, a third circuit portion having a third cam-actuated switch and a second thermally responsive switch in series flow relationship with said timer motor, said third cam actuated switch operated by said timer motor to close before said first camactuated switch opens, and said second thermally responsive switch thermally closable after a predetermined drop in distillation chamber temperature, a fourth circuit portion connected to said crusher mechanism and having a fourth cam-actuated switch operated by said timer motor to close after said predetermined drop in temperature for energizing said crusher mechanism to compact and feed the residue from said distillation into said slidably removable drawer, and means for supplying electrical energy to said circuit portions.
2. A domestic incinerator having a casing defining a substantially air-tight distillation chamber and a com bustion chamber, said casing having an atmospheric air inlet leading to said combustion chamber, said distillation chamber having a first heater, a first catalyst screen adjaacent said heater for eliminating free oxygen in said distillation chamber and an opening connecting said distillation chamber with said combustion chamber, said combustion chamber having a second catalyst screen and a second heater for activating said second catalyst screen, means to supply atmospheric air to gases from the combustion chamber, a blower having an inlet opening in communication with said incinerator and receiving gases from said combustion chamber and air from the atmosphere, a prime mover for driving said blower, an electrical power supply, circuit means connected to said power supply for sequentially controlling said incinerator including a timer having a timer motor and a plurality of timer motor operated switches, said circuit means having a first circuit portion including a first switch operated by said timer motor to close said first circuit portion to said first heater for sustaining said distillation, said first circuit portion including a first thermally responsive switch in series with said first timer motor operated switch and thermally movable either to a first position for selectively energizing said first heater or to a second position for selectively energizing said timer motor, and said circuit means having a second circuit portion including said second heater and a second switch operated by said timer motor to close before said first timer motor operated switch to energize said second heater and said prime mover.
3. The incinerator of claim 2 wherein said casing encloses a crushing mechanism in communication with said distillation chamber, and said circuit means includes thermally responsive means for preventing operation of said crushing mechanism when the temperature of said distillation chamber is above a predetermined value.
4. In combination, a waste incinerator having a casing defining an air-tight distillation chamber and a combustion chamber, means defining a passageway between said chambers, means including a heater means and a first catalyst means for said distillation chamber, means for supplying air to said combustion chamber, second catalyst means in said combustion chamber, control means including means for selectively intermittently energizing said heater means tocontrol the distillation of said waste and including means for selectively actuating said second catalyst means to oxidize the products of said distillation, and means in communication with said combustion chamber for cooling said oxidized products of distillation and for maintaining said distillation chamber under a negative pressure.
5. The combination of claim 4 wherein said last named means comprises a fan having an inlet in communication with said combustion chamber and an outlet in communication with the atmosphere.
6. In combination, a waste incinerator having a casing defining an air-tight destructive distillation chamber and a combustion chamber interconnected with said distillation chamber, heater means for said distillation chamber means forsupplying air to said combustion chamber, catalyst means for said combustion chamber, means thermally responsive to temperature in said distillation chamber 'for energizing said heater to control the distillation of said waste, means for actuating said catalyst to oxidize the products of said distillation, and means for cooling said oxidized products of distillation and for maintaining said distillation chamber under a negative pressure.
7. The combination of claim 6 wherein said means for supplying air includes an atmospheric air inlet conduit in heat exchange relationship to said distillation chamber.
8. The combination of claim 7 wherein said means for cooling is in communication with said air inlet conduit and said distillation chamber and maintains said conduit under a greater pressure than said distillation chamber.
9. In combination with an incinerating and a compacting appliance having a loading door, a distillation heater, a catalyst heater and a compactor actuator, a control system comprising, a power supply connected to the control system, a timer for controlling said appliance through periods of distillation, combustion, cool-ofi and compacting and having a timer motor and first, second, third and fourth timer switches, a first thermally responsive means connecting said first timer switch alternately to said distiilation heater or said timer motor during said distillation period, a second thermally responsive means connecting said second timer switch to said timer mot-or during said cool-off period, means for connecting said third timer switch to said compactor actuator, means for connecting said fourth timer switch to said catalyst heater, means in said timer for closing said first switch during said distillation period, said second switch during said cool-off period, said third switch after said cool-off period and said fourth switch during periods of said distillation, cool-off and compacting, and means efiective while said fourth switch is closed to prevent opening of said loading door.
10. The control system of claim 9 wherein said last named means is thermally responsive to temperatures in said incinerating andcompacting appliance.
11. In combination, an appliance for incinerating waste and having a casing defining a substantially air-tight destructive distillation chamber, an access door movable for loading said chamber with waste, means for eliminating any free oxygen from said chamber, means for thermally selectively controlling the destructive distillation of said Waste in the absence of said free oxygen, means for eliminating the products of said distillation, and thermal.- ly responsive means to prevent opening said access door while temperatures in said'distillation chamber are above a predetermined value.
12. In combination, an appliance for incinerating waste and having a casing defining a substantially air-tight destructive distillation chamber, means including a catalyst 1 1 in said chamber for eliminating any free oxygen from said chamber, means including a heating means in said chamber for selectively controlling the rate of destructive distillation of said waste in the absence of said free oxygen, and means for eliminating the products of said distilla tion.
13. The combination of claim 12 including a blower in communication with said chamber for maintaining said chamber under a negative pressure.
14. In combination with a waste incinerator having a substantially air-tight distillation chamber and heater means in said chamber for initiating and regulating said distillation, a control circuit including a timer for sequentially controlling said incinerator in a distillation period wherein said waste is destructively distilled, and means in said circuit thermally responsive to temperatures in said chamber for selectively energizing said heater or said timer in alternating fashion throughout said distillation period.
15. The combination of claim 14 wherein said circuit includes thermally responsive lock means for preventing access to said chamber during operation of said incinerator.
16. In combination, an appliance for incinerating waste and having a casing defining a substantially air-tight destructive distillation chamber, means including a catalyst in said chamber for eliminating any free oxygen from said chamber, and means including means for distilling waste in said chamber and means for selectively controlling said means for distilling Waste with respect to the temperature in said chamber, thereby to control the rate of destructive distillation of said Waste in the absence of said free oxygen.
17. In combination, an appliance for incinerating waste and having a casing defining a substantially air-tight destructive distillation chamber, catalyst means for oxidizing any free oxygen in said chamber, and means for distilling waste in said chamber including means thermally responsive to temperatures in said chamber for selectively controlling the rate of destructive distillation of said waste in the absence of said free oxygen.
18. In combination with a waste incinerator having a substantially air-tight distillation chamber and heater means in said chamber for maintaining the rate of said distillation, a control circuit including a timer for sequentially controlling said incinerator to initiate and terminate a distillation cycle, and means in said circuit thermally responsive to temperatures in said chamber for selectively energizing said heater means or said timer in alternating fashion throughout said distillation cycle.
19. In combination, an appliance for incinerating waste and having a casing defining a substantially air-tight destructive distillation chamber, catalyst means in addition to the distillation of said waste for eliminating any free oxygen from said chamber, means for electrically heating in said chamber for maintaining a destructive distillation of said waste, and means including said means for electrically heating for controlling temperatures in said chamber to selectively control the rate of said destructive distillation.
20. The combination of claim 6 wherein said lastnamed means includes a fan having an inlet in communication with the atmosphere for drawing in dilution air and in communication with said combustion chamber for withdrawing oxidized products of distillation, said fan having an outlet for exhausting the mixture of said dilution air and said oxidized products of distillation at temperatures relatively cooler than said oxidized products of distillation.
21. In combination, an appliance for incinerating waste and having a casing defining a substantially air-tight destructive distillation chamber, means including a catalyst in communication with said chamber for eliminating any free oxygen from said chamber, means including a heating means for selectively controlling the rate of destructive distillation of said Waste in said chamber in the absence of said free oxygen, and means for eliminating the products of said distillation, said last named means including a fan having an inlet in communication with the atmosphere for drawing in dilution air and in communication with said distillation chamber for withdrawing said products of distillation, said fan having an outlet for exhausting the mixture of said dilution air and said products of distillation at temperatures relatively cooler than said products of distillation.
22. In an appliance for installation in a kitchen and having a casing defining a substantially air-tight chamber, an access door movable for loading said chamber, means including a catalyst in communication with said chamber for eliminating any free oxygen from said chamber, means including heating means in said chamber and temperature responsive means selectively controlling said heating means for causing destructive distillation of waste in said chamber thereby to control the rate of destructive distillation of said waste in the absence of said free oxygen, door lock means controllable when said access door is closed to prevent opening said access door, and temperature responsive means selectively controlling said door lock means to prevent the access door from being opened while temperatures in said chamber are above a predetermined value.
23. In an appliance for installation in a domestic kitchen and having wall means defining an outer cabinet and casing means inside said cabinet defining a chamber, an access door movable for loading said chamber, catalyst duct means including a catalyst in communication with said chamber for altering gaseous products from said chamber which pass in contact with said catalyst, means including heating means in said chamber and temperature responsive means selectively controlling said heating means for controlling the rate of heating in said chamber, door lock means controllable when said access door is closed to prevent opening said access door, temperature responsive means selectively controlling said door lock means to prevent the access door from being opened while temperatures in said chamber are above a predetermined value, said wall means spaced from said casing means to form an atmospheric air inlet conduit between at least one Wall of said wall means and said casing means and coextensive with said one wall and in heat exchange relationship with said chamber to form an insulating air barrier between the relatively high temperature of said chamber and the relatively cool temperature of said atmospheric air, said conduit having one end in communication with the atmosphere and the other end in communi cation with the catalyst duct means, and blower means for effecting air flow through said conduit and said catalyst duct means, said air flow through said conduit effecting a negative pressure in the area of communication of said conduit with said catalyst duct means thereby to draw gaseous products from said chamber to said catalyst.
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