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Publication numberUS3151410 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 6, 1964
Filing dateAug 18, 1961
Priority dateAug 18, 1961
Publication numberUS 3151410 A, US 3151410A, US-A-3151410, US3151410 A, US3151410A
InventorsAnthony Stinis
Original AssigneeAnthony Stinis
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Sky writing apparatus
US 3151410 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 6, 1964 A. sTlNls 3,151,410

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5 Sheets-Sheet 2 A. STINIS SKY WRITING APPARATUS Oct. 6, 1964 Filed Aug. 18, 1961 Oct. 6, 1964 A. snNls 3,151,410

SKY WRITING APPARATUS Filed Aug.` 18, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 ATTORNEY.

rdrffrrr/ffrfr l m96 mmf zo Il m o United States Patent O 3,15L410 SKY WRHNG APPARATUS Anthony Stinis, 85-43 Chevy @hase St., .lamaiea Estates, NSY. Filed Ang. 18, 1951, Ser. N 132,339 2 Claims. (Cl. tti-213) This invention relates to an apparatus and method of sky writ'mg wherein a number of planes flying in formation co-operate in producing the writing.

It is known to use a plurality of planes for forming sky writing wherein each plane is assigned a certain part of a letter. Such prior systems may use records, similar to player piano records and consisting of a blank provided with slots shaped in the pattern it is desired, for the particular plane to write. The slotted blank is used to make and break an electric connection thereby generating signals of a desired duration and placement. These signals are generated in a particular p-lane and are then transmitted to the other planes over separate communication channels.

In prior art sky writing systems, it is also conventional to transmit identical synchronizing signals which serve to synchronize the various letter or character patterns for the ditferent planes. In such systems, the patterns are determined by a selector system in each plane; the selection being accomplished by multi-contact switches which normally represent expensive and complicated equipment.

An object of the present invention is to simplify and render more economical present system-s of sky writing.

A further object of the invention is to control the sky writing by a formation of planes from perforated tapes on a lead plane.

Another object of the invention is to control sky writing from the aum'liary controlled planes by transmitter of radio or audio frequency tones, selectively radiated from the control plane by perforated message tapes.

A feature of the invention is a moving message tape located in the control plane, wherein perforated characters or letters are sensed by photoelectric cells to control the transmission of separate radio frequencies from the control plane to the other planes, whereby the planes will emit smoke patterns of said characters.

ln accordance with the present invention, a number of planes y in parallel and with substantially equal speed following a straight line so that they are at all times aligned at right angles, or any type of angle desired, to the direction of iiig t, each plane being equipped with smoke emitting apparatus.

The emission of smoke puffs is determined by a plurality of transmitted discrete frequencies situated in the radio or audio band, which control an equal number of planes from a central or lead plane. On the control plane, the messages inscribed on perforated tape are sensed to activate a group of photoelectric cells in accordance with a dot pattern representing the characters of the message. Transmitters on the lead plane energized selectively and photo-electrically radiate a series of discrete frequencies under the control of the photoelectric cells. When these frequencies are selectively received by a controlled plane, it responds by emitting smoke pus in accordance with the dot pattern of the characters in a message.

More than one message may be handled by two perforated tapes, which utilize switching from one to the other, controlled by reset perforations located on the tapes at the end of a message. The reset perforations are photoelectrically scanned to switch between tapes and messages.

Other advantages of the present invention will become apparent when considered in connection with the following specification and drawing, wherein:

FIGURE 1 is a perspective View of a message tape for sky writing in accordance with the present invention.

F ICC FIGURE 1a is a block schematic diagram of a perforated tape and the radio transmitting apparatus located in the control plane.

FIGURE 2 is a circuit schematic corresponding to the block diagram of FIGURE la.

Referring to FIGURE l, one manner in which a script is formed is illustrated. 'Each letter or character is composed of a pat-tern of apertured dots on la perforated tape A or B on which the letters E, V and B are typically represented. The numbers l to 5 in the first vertical column of the letter E correspond to the planes 1 to 5 from which the smoke puits are to be emitted. Plane 1 represents the lead plane on which the control apparatus consisting of perforated tapes A and B and radio transmitters (f5, f2,

3, fd) or the like are located. Planes 2 to 5 represent the controlled planes on which the single or multi-tone receivers for picking up the discrete (f5, f2, f3, f4) frequencies are situated for controlling the corresponding smoke valves, respectively.

It is apparent then that any character or dot pattern (as the letter E) appearing on the perforated tape will cause the formation of airplanes to emit puffs of smoke representing the vertical columns of apertures, which form an E in FIGURE l. For example, to form the first vertical column of dots contained in the letter E (see FIGURE l), the control plane l will emit a puff of smoke directly when dot l is scanned photo-electrically. Simultaneously, control plane ll radiates four lseparate frequencies, f2, f3, f4, and f5 from its four radio transmitters respectively located thereon. The radiated frequencies, f2, f3, f4, and f5 are picked up by corresponding radio receivers in planes 2, 3, 4 and 5 (not shown). Upon receiving its characteristic frequency, each controlled plane emits a puff of smoke from its smoke valve thereby contributing to the formation of the pattern of five dots, as the iirst vertical column in the sky writing of the letter E.

Referring to FIGURE la, a perforated tape l is moved by means of a motor 2 past a block of light 3 registering with a corresponding bank of photo cell-s 3 aligned therewith. The taped message, consisting of perforated characters, is conveyed between the lights 3 and photo cells 4, will operate a corresponding array of relays 1 to 5 selectively. The pattern of operated relays 1-5 corresponds selectively to the vertical columns of dot patterns previously illustrated in connection with FIGURE 1 and the letter E, for example.

Thus, the first vertical pattern of dots from which the chacacter E is formed, produces a selective pattern of photo cells 1 to 5 activated, and the corresponding array of relays I to 5 energized. Similarly, the second column of dots characterizing the letter E contains only dots 1, 2 and 5. Consequently, when the perforated tape A passes in front of the photo cells, only cells 1, 2 and 5 and corresponding relays 1, 2 and 5 operate. The control plane 1 directly emits a puit of smoke from its exhaust smoke valve 1 and simultaneously transmits two radio frequencies, namely 12 and f5, which are picked up by planes 2 and 5 to control the emission of puffs of smoke from their exhausts, respectively.

It should be noted that the other two transmitter frequencies f3 and f4 are not radiated for the second column of dots, so that planes 3 and l do not respond by emitting puffs of smoke from their exhausts respectively.

In this manner, the second column of dots in forming the letter E is written and the planes continue to ily in formation scanning the successive columns of dots which constitute the complete characters and message.

By way of summary, the sky writing of letter E in accordance with the present invention involves a pattern of radiated radio or audio frequencies sent by the control plane I to the other planes in accordance with the following scheme:

E Letter E Transmitted Planes Frequencies Plane 2 f2 Plane 3 f3 Control Plane 1 Plane 4 fd Plane 5 f5 The pattern of signalled frequencies for the letter E and the resultant puffs of smoke from the various planes are represented in the above table, where the vertical dots in the formation of the letter E represent smoke puffs from each planes exhaust, respectively.

The power for the sky writing system shown in FIG- URE la is applied from the +12 volt source 26 when the on switch 22 is thrown to operate the A latch relay 2.4. The reversible DC. motor which moves the perforated tape or belt 3, is simultaneously energized by the same +12 volt source. The A tape 3 bearing a perforated message thereon is displaced by the D C. motor 2 between a block of lights 4 energized by the relay 24 and a corresponding block of photo cells 5 aligned with the lights and registering therewith.

The block of tive photo cells S corresponds in number to that of the plane formation. rl`his block of photo cells is selectively operated by the perforation patterns which make up a character on the endless tape A. More particularly, each vertical column of perforations illustrated in FIGURE l for the letter E is sensed as a unit by the photo cell block 5. When the photo cells are energized Vin accordance with the perforation pattern of FIGURE l, they energize selectively a group of ive photo cell relays 31 to 35. When the photo cell relay l operates, it causes the smoke valve 1 of the lead or control plane to emit a puff of smoke directly from its exhaust. The controlled planes 2 to 5 only pu smoke upon the reception of their own characteristic tone frequency as transmitted thereto from the control plane 1. When cell relays 2 to 5 are operated by the perforated patterns on the tape A, radio transmitters 2, 3, 4 and 5 .selectively radiate single tone frequencies f2, f3, f4 and f5, from the control plane, to control the action of the exhausts in the controlled planes. The end of a message on the tape A is signalled by the presence of a reset perforation placed at the end of the message as illustrated in FIGURE l. The reset perforation is instrumental in operating a sixth photo cell 6 from reset light 7, whereupon reset A relay 36 operates. As a consequence of the reset operation, B latch relay operates together with cross-over switch 33 and on switch 23 to initiate the movement of perforated message tape B by the D.C. motor 2 and power switch 23 for sending a second message. At this point, tape A is stopped by olf switch 39 having been operated by the reset dot. The second tape B sends its message translated into puffs of smoke in the control and controlled planes in a manner corresponding to that previously described for tape A. ln the operation of tape B, a similar bank of photo cells 5B and lights 4B are seelctively operated by the tape to energize photo cell relays 1 to 5 in the manner previously described for tape A. At the end of the message sent by tape B, a reset perforation thereon correspondingly controls the switching reset B relay 27 to stop tape B message.

The lead pilot then can push start switch on A or B for another start on whatever message is desired. These tapes are accessible to lead pilot and can be changed during flight in a matter of minutes for a different advertiser.

It is significant that the tapes A and B can be changed by the lead pilot in a matter of only two minutes while in flight so that the planes can write dilferent characters without landing, This is virtually impossible to do with other known methods of sky-writing. Previously all planes had to land and all stepping switches changed in all 5 planes by the 5 pilots in order to write a different message. This took approximately one hour or more, on the ground, plus time taken in landing, taking off and climbing back up to 10,000 feet, which could take another hour or more all told.

In the sky writing circuit shown in FIGURE 2, which corresponds to the block schematic of FIGURE ia, transmitters 2, 3, 4 and 5 may be either radio frequency or audio frequency tone transmitters, and are present only on the control plane l. The tone receivers individual to the controlled planes 2-5 are not shown, but they utilize conventional radio or audio apparatus, apparatus capable of picking up their own individual frequency or tone. The group of transmitters 2-5 can be selectively operated from either tape A or tape B through the common group of photo cell relays 1 5 actuated by the Vvertical patterns of perforations, forming the characters in the manner previously illustrated in FIGURE 1.

Also, conventional photoelectric cells 5 and photo cell relays are suited to the system described.

The l2 volt DC. motor 2 may be operated in a forward direction or reversed by means of switch 41 and its speed may be controlled by potentiometer 4Z and drive gears 43.

rihe smoke valves which control oil sources connected to the exhaust pipe of the planes are conventional, and well-known in the art of sky writing.

It should be appreciated that single or multiple tones or double tones in communications bands, for example, between the audio and radio range or in the microwave range may be utilized for the disclosed system without departing from the spirit of the invention. It should also be appreciated that other scanning and sensing methods corresponding to applicants optical and photoelectric devices rnay be utilized in the practice of the invention without departing from the spirit thereof.

Likewise, the single radiated frequencies f1., f2, f3 and f4 disclosed may be combined with tones; also carrier frequencies may be transmitted, modulated by audio tones without thereby departing from the spirit of the invention.

Whereas a particular embodiment of the invention has been described, it should not be construed as limiting, and it is desired therefore that the invention be interpreted as broadly as the scope of the appended claims.

What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is as follows:

1. In apparatus for selectively controlling the emission of sky writing smoke from the exhaust pipes of a. plurality of airplanes flying in formation, one of said airplanes being the control airplane and the remaining being controlled airplanes, the combination comprising a plurality of perforated message tapes, mounted on rollers, drive means operatively connected to said rollers to drive said tapes, each said tape having a plurality of rows of perforations formed therein, one row for each controlled airplane in such formation (alternately energizable), scanning means operatively connected to said tapes, there being one group of scanning means for each said row of perforations, and a plurality of radio transmitters, each transmitting on a different frequency, one for each said controlled airplane, said transmitters being connected to said scanning means and adapted to transmit signals corresponding to each said row of perforations as scanned by said scanning means, said perforated message tape, scaning means and radio transmitters being located in said control airplane, and a plurality of radio receivers tuned to the frequencies of said transmitters and adapted to receive signals from said transmitters, there being one such receiver in each said controlled airplane, and smoke control valve means controlling the emission of sky writing smoke in each of said controlled airplanes, each of said receivers being operatively connected to the smoke control valve means in the same controlled airplane to control the emission of smoke therefrom in accordance with the signals received from its associated transmitter.

2. In apparatus in accordance with claim l, wherein the 6 scanning means includes a plurality of photocells which References Cited in the le of this patent are activated through the perforations on said perforated UNITED STATES PATENTS message tape, said photocells bemg situated on one side of the perforated message tape and a light source being 19561351 Hershey APL 24, 1934 provided on the opposite side thereof to transmit light 5 2,069,851 Rosenberg Feb 9, 1937 through said perforations to said photocells, said photo- 2,345,152 Remey Mar. 28, 1944 cells being in circuit with said transmitters, there being 2,345,153 Remey Mar. 28, 1944 one such photocell for each row of perforations and hence 2,674,820 Hansen Apr. 13, 1954 for each transmitter. 3,114,214 Pike Dec. 17, 1963

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1956351 *May 13, 1930Apr 24, 1934Associated Electric Lab IncSignal control system
US2069851 *Oct 9, 1933Feb 9, 1937American Epok IncIncandescent lamp cinematographic apparatus
US2345152 *Nov 7, 1940Mar 28, 1944John T RemeySkywriting with a plurality of airplanes
US2345153 *Nov 7, 1940Mar 28, 1944Remey John TMethod of and recorded control for skywriting
US2674820 *Dec 23, 1949Apr 13, 1954Hansen Rolf KrohnProduction of smoke signs in the air
US3114214 *Jun 24, 1960Dec 17, 1963Skywriting Corp Of AmericaProduction of smoke signs in the air
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5992065 *Jan 21, 1998Nov 30, 1999Arthur H. BondAerial message system
US7082706Jun 5, 2001Aug 1, 2006Skytypers, Inc.Systems and methods for creating aerial messages
US8161672 *Oct 29, 2008Apr 24, 2012Ji-Yeon SongApparatus of generating messages
US20100257764 *Oct 29, 2008Oct 14, 2010Ji-Yeon SongApparatus of generating messages
DE1290003B *Aug 23, 1966Feb 27, 1969Ind Instrumentations IncEinrichtung zum Abfuehlen verschluesselter Daten, die auf einem nichtleitenden Aufzeichnungstraeger in Form von in bestimmter Weise gruppierten metallischen Code-Elementen angebracht sind
DE102012022925A1Nov 24, 2012May 28, 2014Michael WissmannDevice for generating text messages in airspace by skywriter during aerial advertising process, has aerosol generator provided in unmanned rotary-wing aircraft
U.S. Classification40/213
International ClassificationG09F21/16, G09F21/00
Cooperative ClassificationG09F21/16
European ClassificationG09F21/16