US 3151616 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1954 P. M. SELFON 3,151,616
AUTOMATIC TRANSFUSION APPARATUS Filed July 25. 1962 m M FIG. 3. lh [it I 29 H F16. 4
INVENTOR 4| A2 E 4? 43 46 Paul M. Selfon ATTORNEY United States Patent 0 3,151,616 AUTOMATIC TRANSFUSION APPARATUS Paul M. Seifon, 1801 Placid St., Philadelphia 15, Pa. Fiied July 25, 1962, Ser. No. 212,422 2 Claims. (Cl. 123214) This invention relates to automatic transfusion apparatus, and, more particularly, to apparatus which is portable, self-contained and automatic in its operation.
The classical method of injecting more than a few cubic centimeters of fluids intravenously into a patient is by gravity flow. To create a pressure head which is sufiicient to force the fluid into the veins, the container is suspended from a rack or support mounted on a bed or table. It is important to maintain a substantially constant flow of fluid to prevent injury to the patient and suflicient time to ensure the proper absorption of the fluid into the body, and since the changes in the level of the fluid in the container as the injection proceeds are of the same order of magnitude as the difference in height of the container and the patient, the head on the fluid is continually changing and the entire procedure requires frequent checks to ensure proper operation. In addition, the container in such transfusion equipment is usually suspended and permitted to swing free. This presents little problem in a relatively empty room and when the patient is stationary, but the free swinging container does present a problem when the quarters are cramped and the container is subject to bumping or when the patient is being moved. There is a need for a substantially stationary, portable, forced feed transfusion apparatus which is automatic in its operation and can be moved without danger during the transfusion.
It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide a new and improved transfusion apparatus.
It is another object of this invention to provide a new and improved transfusion apparatus which is automatic in its operation.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a new and improved apparatus for the injection of fluids into animal tissue in a safe and constant manner.
It is yet another object of this invention to provide a new and improved fluid injection apparatus which is portable, automatic in operation and safe, even in transit.
Other objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent as the following description proceeds, which description should be considered together with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a sectional view of the transfusion apparatus of this invention;
PEG. 2 is a perspective view of a portion of the housing of the apparatus of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a side view of the apparatus mounted for operation; and
FIG. 4 is an end view of a portion of the equipment of FIG. 3.
Referring now to the drawings in detail, the reference character 11 designates the arm of a patient being treated. The treatment apparatus is contained in a housing 12 supported over the arm 11. Within the housing 12 is contained a flexible container 13 of plasma, whole blood or the like. The container 13 may be made of any suitable flexible, sterile and impermeable material such as a synthetic resin. Such containers are now quite common, and the particular material from which the container is formed does not form a part of this invention. Two rollers 14 and 15 are mounted for rotation within the housing 12 and along pairs of racks 16 and 17 supported within the housing 12 on either side wall in any desirable manner. An electric motor 18 is mounted coaxially with one of the rollers 15 and is connected by a pair of coiled wires 19 to a stationary battery 20, which may be mounted on the exterior of the housing 12 in a location conveniently accessible. The rollers 14 and 15 are connected together and to the motor 18 by any desirable operative means, such as by gearing, represented herein at 21 and 22. Each roller 14 and 15 is provided with gears proper for meshing with the racks 16 and 17. A tab 23 extends from the back end of the container 13 with a perforation 24 therethrough. The housing 12 is formed in two mating parts, each part carrying an internal stud 26 and 27. The stud 27 is hollow and has an internal bore sufficiently large to accept an end of the stud 26, which passes through the perforation 24 in the tab 23 of the container 13 and into the bore of the stud 27. At the forward end of the housing 12 are two stop blocks 27 and 28, one in each part of the housing 12. A tube 29 extends from the forward end of the housing 13 in communication with the interior of the container 13, and carries a hollow injection needle 31 at the end. A small switch 32 is mounted on one of the blocks 27 and is connected in any suitable manner with the battery 20, a light 33 and a buzzer 34 which are mounted on the exterior of the housing 12. The blocks 27 and 28 have a groove extending through each of them for the passage of the tubing 29, or, if desired, to form a passage connecting the interior of the container 13 and the tubing 29. As better shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the housing 12 is mounted on the side rail 45 of a litter by clamps 43 and 44. A pair of soft collars 41 and 42 surround the arm 11 to form a resilient cushion between the arm 11 and the housing 12. The litter, comprising side rails 45, patient supporting web 48, legs 46 and handles 47, actually bears the Weight of the housing 12 and the equipment on the clamps 43 and 44. A rubber cushion 49 is provided between each of the clamps 43 and 44, and the clamps are connected to the side rail 45 by means of set screws 51.
In operation, the housing 12 is separated and a fresh container 13 of the desired fluid is inserted therein. The two parts of the housing 12 are then reassembled with the end of the stud 26 passing through the perforation 24 in the tab 23 and into the lower stud 27 This serves to fit the two parts of the housing 12 together properly and to anchor the container 13 against the forces acting upon it. The rollers 14 and 15 are either in the position shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 or are moved into that position before the housing 12 is assembled. The two parts of the housing 12 may be fastened together by any suitable means such as screws, latches, clips, or the like. The tubing 29 is connected to the housing 12 with the end of the tubing in communication with the interior of the container 13. For this purpose, the end of the tubing 29 which enters the container 13 may be equipped with a perforating needle or the like. When the equipment is ready for operation, it is mounted on a stretcher, bed or litter by clamps 43 and 44, the injection needle 31 is then inserted into the arm of the patient and the apparatus is turned on. Before the injection needle is inserted into the arm of the patient, the rollers 14 and 15 may be manually moved over the end of the container 13 to eject any air from the tubing 29 and the needle 31. The housing 12 may have a switch also mounted on its exterior for connecting the motor 18 to the battery 20. When the switch (not shown) is closed, the motor 18 is energized by the battery 20, and begins rotating the rollers 14 and 15. To reduce the size and weight of the overall apparatus, the motor may Well be a small, high speed motor connected to the rollers 14 and 15 by a train of small reducing gears to ensure that the rollers rotate slowly. As the rollers 14 and 15 turn, they move toward the right as shown in FIG. 1 and gradually compress the container 13 between them. As the container 13 is compressed, its contents are gradually squeezed out through the tubing 29 and the needle 31 into the arm of the patient. By using a high gear ratio between the motor 18 and the rollers 14 and 15, the rollers may be caused to move very slowly at a constant rate. When the rollers 14 and 15 have at least reach the end of their travel as defined by the blocks 27 and 28, roller 14 contacts switch 32. The switch 32 opens the circuit between the battery and t e motor 18, and also closes the circuit between the battery 20 and both the light 33 and the buzzer 34. In this manner, the operation of the apparatus is terminated, and the completion of the injection is signalled to those in attendance. The buzzer serves to call the attention of the attendant, who may not be immediately by the patient when the apparatus stops, that the injection has been completed, and the light indicates which of several units in operation at the same time is through.
Of course, this specification describes but one form which the apparatus of this invention may assume. There are many other, equivalent structures. For example, the motor 18 is shown connected to the battery 20 by long, coiled wires. Other forms of connection between the two could just as well be used. Conductive tracks could be provided along one inside Wall of the housing 12 to be connected to the battery 20, and the motor '18 could be provided with sliding brushes to contact the tracks. Manual means for moving the rollers 14 and 15 can also be provided projecting from the side of the housing 12 so that the rollers can be easily moved when necessary by hand. Further, instead of two rollers which squeeze the foil container 13 between them, a single roller compressing the container against a portion of the housing 12 may be used. As mentioned above, the blocks 27 and 28 are grooved to form a passageway for the tubing 29 or to form channels for the passage of the fluid being expelled from the container 13. Neither the buzzer 34 nor the light 33 are necessary, but they are a convenience, specially when the equipment is being used in a dispensary treating many individuals, such as a military field hospital. Since several patients may be simultaneously receiving injections of various fluids, and since the number of operating personnel is usually small, the signals, both aural and visual, are of value. The housing 12 is made of material which is light in weight and which may be subjected to standard cleansing and sterilizing techniques and materials without undo eflect. Also, the complete unit is readily disassembled for cleaning. The racks 16 and 17 may be mounted so that the rollers 14 and 15 may be manually removed by turning, and the tubing 29 and the needle 31 may be detachable.
This specification has described a new and improved portable motorized injection apparatus for automatically injecting fluids into a living animal body. The apparatus of this invention may assume many forms, only some of which have been described herein. In view of the fact that the above descriptions may suggest to others 4 in the art other forms for the invention without departing from the spirit thereof, it is intended that this invention be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. Apparatus for injecting parenteral fluids into animal tissue automatically, said apparatus comprising a housing formed in two separable halves, each half having opposite side walls and end walls, track means supported on the opposite side walls of each of said halves, a pair of mating rollers within said housing, one roller of said pair being mounted on the track meansin each half of said housing to be guided thereby, a readily collapsible container for parenteral fluid situated within said housing between said rollers so that said container is collapsed between said rollers as they move along said tracks, electric motor means for driving said rollers, at a slow contant rate, tubing connected at one end to one end of said container for dispensing the parenteral fluid forced from said container, mating end walls of said two housing halves being formed to accommodate said tubing so that it freely passes through said housing, puncturing means connected to the other end of said tubing for penetrating the tissue into which the fluid is to be injected, said halves of said housing being arranged to be readily separated to permit the ready insertion and removal of said container and said tubing, said apparatus further including a selfcontained electrical power supply for energizing said motor means, electrical signaling means coupled to said apparatus for signaling the end of the operation, and means for supporting said apparatus in a substantially fixed position adjacent the tissue into which the fluid is being injected.
2. The apparatus defined in claim 1 further including first electric switch means mounted on a wall within said housing, said first switch means being connected in series with said power supply and said electric motor, and second switch meansmounted on a wall within said housing and connected between said power supply and said signaling means, each of said first and second switch means being actuated by a roller at the end of its travel to interupt the energization of said motor and to energize said signaling means.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,763,273 Strauss et al June 10, 1930 1,863,994 Parietti June 21, 1932 2,168,080 Allen Aug. 1, 1939 2,483,924 Moulinier Oct. 4, 1949 2,703,084 Tomlinson Mar. 1, 1955 2,706,755 Krasno Apr. 19, 1955 2,761,445 Cherkin Sept. 4, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 337,990 Switzerland June 15, 1959