Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3153022 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 13, 1964
Filing dateOct 3, 1958
Priority dateOct 3, 1958
Also published asDE1127591B
Publication numberUS 3153022 A, US 3153022A, US-A-3153022, US3153022 A, US3153022A
InventorsHarold Calkins William, Murray Edwards Walter
Original AssigneeDu Pont
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Monomer-polymer acrylic sirups
US 3153022 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

MONQMER-POLYMER ACRYLIC SKRUPS il/illiani Harold Cailrins and Walter Murray Edwards,

" Wilmington, DeL, assignors to E. 1. du Pont de Nemours and Qompany, Wilmington, DeL, a corporation of Delaware N Drawing. Filed Oct. 3, 1958, Ser. No. 765,066

5 Claims. (Cl. 26086.1)

This invention relates to new compositions of matter containing partially polymerized methacrylates suitable for use as laminating compositions and more particularly to monomer-polymer sirups of methacrylic ester compositionsin which the polymer contains polymerizable double bonds, processes for their preparation and use.

Prior to the present invention no wholly acrylate or methacrylate monomer polymer sirup has been available to the fabricator that was stable, had a useful viscosity,

' and a polymer content having polymerizable double bonds, such that the sirup-could be molded at a high rate to give, in the presence or absence of pigments, fillers or the like, markedly improved laminate articles, in which some or all of the copolymer present in the sirup was insoluble and had superior weathering, stiffness, and crazeresistant properties. This invention provides such sirups and methods of using them. 7

- Objects of the present invention are to provide copoly mer in monomers sirups that are stable to polymerization on storage and in which the polymer contains polymerizable double bonds; a process for producing these sirups; and processes for their polymerization and laminate products produced therefrom. Another object is to provide copolymer in monomers sirups of acceptable viscosity with relatively high concentrations of copolyor phenylene C H.,, in which Y is an alkylene, polyalkylene, alkylene oxide, or polyalkylene oxide, and in which the R and R groups are hydrogen and/or alkyl groups.

.. .The aforesaid copolymers are formed in a mixture of monomeric methyl'methacrylate andone or-more of the aforesaid polyfunctional compounds, and the resulting sirup can be mixed with or absorbed by fibrous materials and thereafter molded, polymerized and cured to give weather-resistant articles which contain significantly less soluble polymer than was prese'nti'n, the original sirup.

- The sirups of the invention are shelf-stable, have a flowable viscosityto permit easy use, a ratio of copolymer to ice which produce fabricated plastic products on final polymerization that possess superior physical properties and surface qualities, and that are capable of being formed at the'rapid rates demanded by modern industry.

Copolymer in monomers sirups of the invention are made from any suitable organic compound containing mono unsaturation such as vinyl acetate, styrene, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, etc. and more especially from the methacrylic esters such as methyl methacrylate together with a cross-linking agent containing more than one unsaturated bond such as divinyl benzene, ethylene dimethacrylate, ethylene diacrylate, vinyl methacrylate, allyl methacrylate, methallyl methacrylate, diallyl ita conate, the dimethacrylic esters of diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, etc. ethyl methacrylate may be used with other polymerizable compounds such as the acrylate esters and the like, in which use the methyl methacrylate constitutes at least 50% by weight of the resin content of the composition used. Such comonomers can be chosen to modify properties of the sirup and product laminates. Care should be exercised in choice of comonomer or comonomers so as not to affect adversely laminate weatherability, heat resistance, stability, etc.

in whichXis 1 1mg monomers to provide a minimum of shrinkage, and a minimum exotherm of polymerization, consistent with good physical properties of the product laminates. .Moreover, the'sirup can be polymerized to products having 7 superior-weatherability in which some or all of the copolymer present in the sirup is insoluble. Furthermore, the sirups of the invention contain cross-linking agents Effectiveness for subsequent molding is obtained ifa sirup has a relatively low exothermicity and a low shrinkage. A sirup with low exothermicity is one that on polymerization of its monomer content gives a minimum heat of reaction. Such a sirup is produced by increasing the polymer-to-monomer ratio, for the higher the polymer content, the lower will be the exothermicity of the polymerization of the sirup.

Monomer-polymer sirups disclosed in copending ap plication, S.N. 694,513, have been made by partially polymerizing methyl methacrylate with the use of transfer agents and the proper type and quantity of initiator leading to storable and shippable sirups to which a crosslink agent may be added. The polymers in the sirups of that case contain no polymerizable double bonds and thus remain soluble on further polymerization, even in the presence of a crosslinking agent. 1

The sirups of the present invention having bulkviscosities in the range of 0.5 to 50 poises constitute balanced formulae-containing polymers. of low inherent viscosity, 0.25 to 1.0. and preferably 0.30 to 0.60 and with correspondingly high'polymer content and suitable quantities of crosslinking agents to provide optimum physical properties and desirable curing characteristics. The inherent viscosity is determined at 20 C; in chloroform solution at a concentration of 0.50 gram/ml, according to the method described in F. W. Billmeyer, Textbook, of Polymer Chemistry, Interscienc'e Publishing Inc. (1957), p. 128.

The sirup of. the invention may be prepared by any suitable process such, for example, as by partially copolymerizing a monomer (i.e. methyl methacrylate) with an above-described polyfunctional compound by a process that will produce the prescribed sirup. By such a method, a suitable chain transfer agent is present during,

copolymerization of the monomers to limit the inherent viscosity in accord with prior art processes, such as aliphatic mercaptans having 1 to 18 carbon atoms as de Patented Oct. 1 3, 1964 until the solution has reached a predetermined viscosity, thereafter the hot solution is quenched either by cooling with the subsequent addition of a polymerization inhibitor or by the additionof cold monomer containing a 4 EXAMPLE I A stirred, water-jacketed kettle provided with a reflux condenser was charged with 116 parts of inhibitorfree,

Polymerization mmbi monomeric methyl methacrylate, 0.70 part of ethylene More specifically, a sirup having a viscosity between din ethacrylate and about 0.51 part of lauryl mercaptan. about 1 and 50 poises at 25 C. and preferablybetween he es ting solution was heated to 80 C. :1 and 2 and 15 poises at that temperature, can be produced from then 9-039 P Of alpha,alphaalobisisobutyrommle methyl methacrylate and 0.05 to' 1.0 mole percent of Solved in P Of methyl methaerylate added- The 7 said polyfunctional compound such as ethylene dimethjacket temperature was adjusted to 80 C. :5 C. and .g l t i a ti d jagketedketfle under reflux t t the kettle contents were allowed to reach reflux temperapheric pressure in the presence of a predetermined small lure, At the end of 25 minutes after the amount of initiator (e.g. from 300 to 500 ppm.) of addition of the initiator, the reaction was quenched by alpha,alphaazodiisobutyronitrile and from 0.05 to 1.0 h addition of a 25 C. Soluti n COHtainiIlg (3-0049 Parvt mole percent and preferably from 0.1 to 0.4 percent of a of hydroquinone dissolved in 10.7 parts of methyl rnethchain transfer agent. The amount of the polyfunctional acrylate. compound used varies with the copolymerization charac- The resulting P had a Viscosity of about Poises teristics of that compound with methyl methacrylate, for at 25 C-, an inherent viscosity of about a p y example. allyl methacrylate, methallyl methacrylate and Cement Of about and a g Shelf st y, vinyl methacrylate are used in amounts from 0.05 to 10.0 stantially 110 @0101 Change or ViSCOSitY change after 30 mole percent. The resulting solution is heated at a temy perature between 50 and 150 C. and preferably 95 C. to 105 C., until the predetermined viscosity has been EXAMPLE H p attained d until the initiator -2 mm lzeen reduced 7 A stirred resin kettle fitted with a flux condenser and to polymenzatlon 1s stopped a Water bath was charged with 2428 parts of inhibitorby coohng In any sultalil? manner for examp le and free methylmethacrylate, 12.5 parts of ethylene dimethpre ferably by the addmon from 1 to 9 ppelcent. by acrylate and 9 parts of lauryl mercaptan. The resulting Welght f cold f d .methaclylate Contammg i h solution was heated to'90"; 0.75 part of alpha,alpha'- hydroqumone toAmhiblf completelyrthe polymenzanon azobisisobutyronitrile dissolved in 50' parts of methyl of the methyl mehacryate' methacrylate was added. The water bath was removed The Stable thus rg p an ertlcle f and the kettle contents were allowed to reach reflux mel'ee that i Sold to fabrleitiors fer use In g P- temperature, ca. 101 C. Samples were taken periodicaleratiOnse f F fillxes the Stable l With a ly from the reaction mixture and measured for viscosity. Suitable pe y l lnlilafof, and P e ly a filler, When the viscosity reached about 10' poises (on a sample and Subjects the feslllilng mlXt'ilfe 1 l 1f filler cooled to 25 C.), the reaction mixture was quenched is added) lie 11 moldlfig Operailol? 1n Whlch t l 15 by cooling the flask in an ice-water mixture. This point Converted to a Solid Shape Simultaneously Wlth the P was reached in about twenty-six minutes after the addilymerization of its mon er Content tion or" the initiator. 0.088 part of hydroquinone was The sirup of the invention contrasts witnprevrously h dissolvgd i h resultant mixture, described sifups In that the lf f P e 1n the P The resulting sirup contained no detectable initiator, can undergo further polymerlzation to give a laminate had a viscosity of about 10 poises at 25 C., had a poly- Or .Coatmg mw or an of i copolymer i mer content of about 26%, an inherent viscosity of about Q Present h S,1ruP has-become gg g i f 0.62 and a good shelf stability, i.e., substantiallyno color more cms h.nku.1g agent l be a e I e Sump change or viscosity change after 30 days. to improve faoncability, physical properties and the Th f 1 b {an d weathering of the molded product, particularly when 6 precess 9. lxamp e i Su ltanl up mate}! fibrous reinforcement is present 1 for the preparation of the following srrups which contain As shown in the examples, the copolymer content of copolymers of mfithyl meihacrylaie a ethylene f the sirup may vary from 24 to 40% by Weight of h acrylate, allyl methacrylate, or allyl acrylate. Laminates Sirup composition p I v produced by the further polymerization of these sirups The examples which f ll describe p eferred i. either with or without an additional crosslinking agent ments of the invention for makingthe sirup in which contain substantially less soluble polymer than does the parts are by weight unless otherwise noted. sirup from which it was made.

' Table Compound Chain Methyl Oopolymer Solub1e* Transfer Meth- Inherent Content Viscosity Polymerin Example '1 Agent 4 acrylate Viscosity in of Sirup at 25 C. Laminate Kind Amount (Percent) (Percent) Chloroform (Percent) 1 (Percent) (Percent) 0.10 0.36 99.54 0.45 30 15.5 15 0.25 0.36 99. 39 0. 49 28 9.0 10 0. 40 0. 36 99. 24 0.63 I 29 30.0 7 0. 50 0.36 99.14 0. 61 20 11.0 e 4 3.0 0.36 99.0 0.48 28 9.0 16 5.0 0.36 94.64 0.51 40 20.0 0 8.0 0. 36 91. 0. 53 28 11.0 f 1 10.0 0.36 3 89. 69 0.60 28 a 15.0 1 5.0 1.0 94. 00 e -.0. 27 37 13.0 0.0 1.0 91.00 0.29 39 22.0 3.0 0.36 I 96.04 0.47 29 14.5 11

a Ethylene dirnethacrylate. b Allyl methacrylate.

9 Allyl acrylate.

d Lauryl mercaptan.

e Sirup mixed with 0.85% benzoyl peroride, 0.0% additional ethylene dimethacrylate and heated in a press at C. for 7 to 10 minutes.

I Sirnp mixed with 1.0% benzoyl peroxide and heated in a press at 115 C. for 7 to 10 minutes. *=Extractablc in chloroform at BP of chloroform.

Any suitable free-radical polymerization initiator may be used-such as peroxygen initiator, e.g., benzoyl peroxide, diethyl peroxide, diisobutyl peroxide; the azo initiators of the Hunt Patent US. 2,471,959 issued May 31, 1949, and the like. To produce a sirup, only part of the methyl methacrylate is polymerized. The initiators present in the sirup after polymerization will, even at or below room temperature, and at a slow rate, continue polymerization. Sirup that contains initiator is potentially viscosity-unstable. No more than small amounts of the initiator should beused, therefore, to insure that,

when quenched, there is insufiicientinitiator remaining to cause undesirable polymerization.

Two factors govern the choice of conditions for a practical polymerization cycle. The conditions are such that the polymerization rate is fast enough to be economically attractive; secondly, the conditions should be such that the initiator is almost completely reacted. The polymerization rate can be calculated from the initiator concentration and temperature by equations well known in the chemical literature (see P. J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry, Cornell University Press (1953) p. 114). The

approixmate amount of initiator which can be added to the polymerization system and still not have too much remaining after siruping can be calculated in accordance with the formula X ==l -2Pt/H, where X is the weight percent of initiator added prior to polymerization, H is the half-life of the initiator and P1 is the polymerization time. Any acceptable method for measuring the half-life of the initiator can be used; for example, 40 grams of a solvent such as diphenyl ether, or another suitable solvent for the peroxide, is heated in a flask under an amosphere of CO up to the temperature at which the decomposition rate is to be measured, normally between 40 C. and 140 C. Two grams of the peroxide is added with stirring to the heated solvent, and samples of 4 to 6 grams of the solution are removed from the flask at predetermined intervals.' The sample is collected under a C0 atmosphere, cooled immediately, and stored on Dry Ice.

by the use of a standard iodometric method using starch as the indicator. 7

If peroxide concentrations are plotted against time on semi-log paper, a straight line is normally obtained, at least for the first few minutes of the reaction. The slope 6 layer is placed on the surface; and the sirup may be used as a laminating layer for wood, plastic and other sur-' faces. Subsequent to the aforesaid operations in matched metal molds, or by contact process, the sirup is polymerized under some pressure, e.g., 0.1 to 2000. p.s.i. and temperatures between room temperature and 150 C., to substantially 100% polymer or by any other suitable molding process; For optimum properties, the products should be'cured under elevated temperatures up to 130 C. and pressures up to 1000 p.s.i. until the monomer content of the sirup has been reduced to a low level (preferably less than 1%). Where low pressures are used, it is sometimes necessary to eliminate dissolved gases by evacuation of the sirup prior to use.

The methacrylate sirups of the invention, due to their remarkable stability, are capable of being shipped from the point of manufacture to the fabricator without undesirable polymerization of monomer content. The fabricator is able to store the sirup without danger of polymerizationuntil he Wishes to use it. The sirup can then be combined with the fibers, fillers, etc., as described;

These 1 samples are subsequently analyzed for peroxide content 40 of this line is related to the velocity constant k by the equation k d In c a: concentration dt t=time in minutes The half-1ife= The viscosity of thesirup can be measured by any standard method such as Gardner Tube,'Brookfield Viscosimeter or the like. In the specification and claims, the

viscosity given was measured by comparison with standard agents other than those described in the examples which may be added to the sirup at this stage, in amounts up to v 20% by weight. Any suitable polyunsaturated, crosslinking agent maybeused, such as, for example, propylene ,dimethacrylate, ethylene diacrylate, divinyl benzene, diallyl phthalate, triallyl cyanurate, etc.

The final polymerizationis conducted by techniques 7 similar to those presently used in polyester laminating and potting technology. IThe sirups may be mixed with inert additivessuchas glass fibers, powdered metals, pigments, natural and synthetic fibers and other toughening, filling, coloring and/or strengthening materials;

.sheets may be madebypouring the sirup on a corrugated 'or flat surface before or after a fabric, metal or glass molded,-laminated or otherwise treated, without excessive exothermicity, to polymerize the monomer content to superior products.

We claim:

1. A stable sirup consisting essentially of methyl methacrylate monomer; a polymerizable monomer having the formula:

O O O and phenylene -(C H in which Y is a member of the group consisting of alkylene, polyalkylene, alkylene oxide and polyalkylene oxide radicals and in which the R substituents are members of the class consisting of hydrogen and alkyl groups; and copolymers of methyl methacrylate and said polymerizable monomer, the amount of said polymerizable monomer present in the sirup being from 0.05 to 10.0 mole percent of free and combined methyl methacrylate monomer and polymerizable monomer, said sirup having an initiator content of less than 20 parts per million and a viscosity of between .5 and 50 poises at 25 C., the copolymer being present in said sirup in the amount of 24 to 40% by Weight of the sirup, said copolymer having an inherentviscosity of between 0.25 and 1.0 as determined in chloroform at concentrations of 0.5 g./deciliter at 20 C., said sirup containing a stabilizing amount of inhibitor.

2. The sirup of claim 1 in which the polymerizable monomer is' ethylene dimethacrylate.

3. The sirup of claim 1 in which the polymerizable copolymerizing at a temperature between 50 C. and

C...said methyl methacrylate and said polymerizable monomer in the presence of an aliphatic mercaptan' having '1 to 18 carbon atoms, to form a sirup containing copolymer, quenching the copolymerization reaction when the sirup. has a viscosity between 0.5 and '50 poises at 25 C. and a copolymer content in the amount of 24 to 40% by weight of the sirup, said copolymer having an inherent viscosity of between 0.25 and 1.0, as determined in chloroform at concentrations of 0.5 g./ deciliter at 20 .C., said polymerizable monomer having the formula: I

' o112=o 3=oHQ i in which X is a member selected from the group consisting of divalent radicals having these formulas:

and phenylene (C H in Which Y is a member of the group consisting of alkylene, polyalkylene, alkylene oxide and polyalkylene oxide radicals, and in which R substituents aremembers of the class consisting of hydrogen and alkyl groups; said polymerizable monomer being present in said sirupin the amount of0.05 to 10.0

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,335,133 Renfrew Nov. 23, 1943 2,349,768 Strain May 23, 1944 2,413,973 Howket a1. Jan. 7, 1947 2,462,895 1949 Quinn Mar. 1,

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,153,022 October 13, 1964 William Harold Calkins et a1.

Itis hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat T ent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.

Column 2, lines 37 and, 38, for "crosslink" read crosslinking column 4, line 9, for "part" read parts columns 3 and 4, in the table under the heading "Inherent Viscosity in Chloroform", first line thereof, for "0.45" read 0,46 same columns 3 and 4, under the table, footnote for "0.0%" read 1.0%

Signed and sealed this 23rd day of February 1965.

(SEAL) Attest:

ERNEST W. SWIDER' EDWARD J. BRENNER i Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2335133 *May 30, 1942Nov 23, 1943Du PontTooth reconstruction
US2349768 *Feb 18, 1939May 23, 1944Pittsburgh Plate Glass CoResinous composition and preparation of the same
US2413973 *Oct 21, 1942Jan 7, 1947Du PontPhotopolymerization of vinyl and vinylidene compounds
US2462895 *Jan 30, 1945Mar 1, 1949Du PontPreparation of modified polymeric methyl methacrylate
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3291558 *Aug 27, 1962Dec 13, 1966DegussaTreatment of leather
US3296225 *Dec 21, 1962Jan 3, 1967Monsanto ChemicalsFunctional polymers containing pendant acyloxy groups and process for preparing same
US3355415 *Dec 26, 1962Nov 28, 1967Monsanto ChemicalsNew polymeric materials
US3378533 *Mar 31, 1964Apr 16, 1968Bayer AgProcess for the production of stable prepolymerizates and shaped articles thereof
US3638709 *Dec 11, 1969Feb 1, 1972Dow Chemical CoMethod of suspending immobilized biological specimens in a transparent gel in a transparent container
US4340648 *Jun 30, 1980Jul 20, 1982The B. F. Goodrich CompanyPolyvinyl chloride substrates coated with single package water-based compositions
US5112509 *Dec 22, 1988May 12, 1992Texaco, Inc.Non-dispersant, shear-stabilizing, and wear-inhibiting viscosity index improver
US5298327 *Jan 23, 1989Mar 29, 1994Lumenyte International CorporationHigh temperature plastic light conduit and composition of matter therefor
US6271281Aug 26, 1999Aug 7, 2001Medennium, Inc.Homopolymers containing stable elasticity inducing crosslinkers and ocular implants made therefrom
US6780899Oct 24, 2002Aug 24, 2004Medennium, Inc.Homopolymers containing stable elasticity inducing crosslinkers and ocular implants made therefrom
U.S. Classification526/82, 526/327, 526/87, 526/321, 526/328.5
International ClassificationC08F220/00, C08F220/14
Cooperative ClassificationC08F220/14
European ClassificationC08F220/14