US 3153817 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 27, 1964 J. L. PEASE, JR
mam 000R mm PLASTIC com:
Filed May 29, 1961 mwzm'on.
Jmes L. Puss J2.
BY Qlluu I an ATTORNEY 3,153,3[7 METAL DOOR WI'IH PLASTIC CORE James L. Peas-e, .lr., Wyoming. Ohio, nssignor to Peasc Woodwork Company, Inc., Hamilton, Ohio, :1 corporation of Uhio Filed May 2), I961, Ser. No. 3,222 1 Claim. (Cl. 20-35) This invention resides in the provision of a composition door having a plastic core and a metal skin.
An important object of this invention is to provide a door, or other building unit, which will not warp due to moisture.
Another important object of this invention is to provide a door, or other building unit. which may incorporate metal in its construction in such a way as to greatly reduce all through temperature conductivity, and to eliminate completely any metal to metal through temperature conductivity.
A further object of the invention is to provide a com position door, or other building unit, comprised of stiles of wood or other material and rails of wood or other material, with a plastic core and a metal skin arranged so that there is no through metal.
An important object of the invention is to provide a door or building unit which incorporates metal in its construction in such a way as to prevent condensation and frosting, and to provide good insulation by proper use of a plastic foam core.
Another object of the invention is to provide a composition door or building unit in which the meta] skin may be positively and mechanically held to the stiles.
A further object of the invention is to provide a sandwich door or panel having a plastic core so arranged that extremely good column and bending strength is obtained in the unit. and so that the unit is highly resistive to rackmg.
Another object of the invention is to provide a door which is readily adapted for use with Weatherstripping of various types.
These and other objects of this invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from a reading of the description to follow, keeping in mind the foregoing objects and remarks, and with reference to the accompanying drawing, in which drawing like numerals are employed to designate like parts throughout, and in which:
FIGURE 1 is a front elevation (from the inside of a home, for example, looking at a s\vingin door) of a door constructed according to this invention,
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged section, with parts broken away and parts diagrammatically illustrated, taken on the line 2-2 of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged section, with parts broken away, taken on the line 33 of FIGURE 1,
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary side elevation, with parts broken away, of a door constructed according to this invention,
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary section taken on the line 55 of FIGURE 1,
FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary perspective view showing e incorporation of a thermal break insert in the novel door,
3,153,817 Patented Oct. 27, 1964 ice FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary perspective view showing one construction of Weatherstripping particularly suitable for use in connection with the door of this invention,
FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary perspective view showing a modification in which a magnetic sealing strip is incorporatcd in one face of the door frame,
FIGURE 9 is a fragmentary perspective view showing the novel door with a suitable cover strip,
FIGURE it) is a perspective view showing the novel door of this invention in cooperation with another form of weather strip to which it is particularly suited,
FIGURE 11 is a fragmentary perspective view of the novel door of this invention in relation to the floor and sill, and
FIGURE 12 is a fragmentary perspective view of a modification of the invention.
In the preferred form, the door or building unit of this invention comprises a pair of stiles separated by a pair of rails, a pair of metal skins covering the two faces of the unit and a substantial portion of the edges, and a plastic core. Preferably this core is formed of an expandable polystyrene material. A very satisfactory polystyrene material has been found to be that manufactured by Koppers Company, Inc. of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and sold under the trademark Dylite. Preferably the stiles and rails are made of wood but this is not absolutely necessary.
Referring now to FIGURES l and 2, the novel door of this invention is illustrated as comprising a pair of wood stiles 20 and 21. These stiles, as is well known in the trade, constitute the vertical side members of the door.
These stiles are separated by a pair of horizontal rails 22 and 23 located at the top and bottom respectively of the door. One face of the door is covered by a metal skin 24 which has a first portion 25, at either side of the door, which is bent substantially at right angles to the face portion 24 and extends along the side of the stiles 20 and 21, and a second portion 26 which is bent substantially at right angles to the portion 25 and which extends at either side into a groove 27 provided in each of the stiles 20 and 21. The other face of the door is similarly constructed and includes the face skin 28 having a first portion 29 substantially bent at right angles thereto and lying fiush against the outer sides of the stiles 20 and 21, and a second portion 36 bent substantially at right angles to the first portion 29 and extending within the grooves 27.
An important feature of this invention, as is clearly shown in FIGURE 2, is that the metal portions 26 and 30, which lie within the grooves 27 provided in the stiles 20 and 21, do not touch one another. Thus, although the door is substantially encased within the metal skins 24 and 28, there is no through metal between the face skins 24 and 28; there is a gap between the metal portions 26 and 30 which lie within the grooves 27.
The interior of the door as defined by the stiles 20 and 21, rails 22 and 23, and face skins 24 and 28, is filled with a plastic material, preferably an expandable polystyrene material 31 of the type previously mentioned. Such a material is an excellent insulator.
The arrangement of the skins 24-26 and 2830 is important. Not only does this eliminate any through metal as just described but also it enables a mechanical holding of these skins on the stiles 20 and 21.
The preferred manner of constructing the door or panel of this invention, therefore, is to locate the skins 2426 and 28-30 with respect to the stiles 20 and 21 as shown in FIGURE 2. The horizontal rails 22 and 23 are then forced between the stiles 20 and 21 at the upper and lower ends thereof. In addition to this mechanical holding of the skins on the stiles, it is preferred that a suitable adhesive, preferably one that is thermosetting, is first applied on the interior of each skin and the faces of each stile and rail.
After the stiles, skins and rails have been put together in the manner just described, the unit is placed in a press or container under sufiicient pressure to maintain the face skins 24 and 28 in the position shown in FIGURE 2. Following this the interior of the unit is filled with small beads of expandable polystyrene material by blowing these beads into the unit through an orifice 32 such as is provided in the rail 23. No pressure as such is used when filling the interior of the unit with these beads. Some of these beads 33 are diagrammatically illustrated in FIGURE 2 for purposes of comparison. It should be understood, however, that there will be no beads in this form in the finished core; all
V such beads will have been converted to the homogeneous plastic core 31.
After the unit has ben filled with the beads 33 of expandable polystyrene material, they are then converted, as just indicated, into the homogeneous plastic core 31 by the use of steam probes which enter the interior of the unit through a plurality of small orifices 34 located in the rails 22 and 23. The probes extending within the unit from either end thereof to the center mayvhave a series of staggered holes whereby when steam is forced through these probes and holes the core is cured practically instantaneously, on the order of seconds, whereafter the probes are withdrawn. The foam material closes in so that there are no voids in the core. The core thus formed will also be held to the interior sides of the face skins 24 and 28 by the adhesive earlier mentioned.
As is also best seen in FIGURES l and 2, other features may be employed in the novel panel described. and 21 may be beveled as indicated at 35 in order to prevent a phenomenon known in the industry as photographing. This eliminates from view, as one looks at the outside of the skin 24 and 28, a line of demarcation between the stiles 20, 21 and formed core 31.
In addition, it may sometimes be desirable to employ a brace rail 36 centrally of the unit. This rail 36 may have one or more orifices 37, see FIGURES 1 and 5, therein through which the beads of expandable polystyrene material may pass when the interior of the unit is being filled. The rail 36 may extend between the stiles 20 and 21 or, as shown in FIGURE 1, it may extend between the stile 21 and a lock block 38, preferably of wood, into which various hardware, such as door handles and locks, may be anchored. As shown in FIGURE 1, the lock block 38 abuts the stile 20 and the rail 36. The lock block 38 will normally always be used and it does not depened on the presence of any brace rail 36. This member 38 may be secured to the stile 20 in any desired manner.
In FIGURES 1 and 3 provision is made for a pair of kick plates to be located within the unit immediately adjacent the inner sides of the face skins 24 and 28. Accordingly, a plate 39 is secured by adhesive or in other desired manner, to the skin 28. Adhesive is also applied to the other side of the plate 39-50 that it will be secured to the plastic core eventually formed. Similarly a kick plate 41 may be fastened to the skin 24.
In FIGURE 6 there is illustrated the use of a thermal break insert 43 which may be inserted within the groove 27 between the metal portions 30 and 26 which also extend into this groove. The insert 43 fills the gap between the metal portions 26 and 30 within the grove 27, thus making doubly sure that there is no through metal contact in the unit, and it may also cooperate with weather stripping applied in the door frame thus making the unit as associated with the frame even more air tight.
When the unit of this invention is to be utilized as a door, it is preferable to provide a slight bevel for one edge thereof to enable the door to open and closeeasily. This bevel, which may be on the order of three degrees, is generally indicated at 44 in FIGURES 2 and 3.
In FIGURE 7 the composite door of this invention is shown in combination with a door frame generally indicated at 45 and including the stop 46. A piece of flexible weather stripping 47, preferably vinyl, is attached to the stop 46 and clamped between this stop and the frame 45.
A variation, one often preferred, of the arrangement of FIGURE 7 is shown in FIGURE 10 wherein weather stripping comprised of a head 48 and flat portion 49 is held between the stop 46 and jamb 45a.
In FIGURE 8 a modification of the door unit is disclosed which incorporates along one edge of the stop 46 a groove corresponding to the periphery of the door and in which groove there is inserted magnetic material 50, preferably magnetic vinyl in a vinyl jacket. The material 50 will cooperate with the metal door face to insure an air tight condition when the door is closed.
In FIGURE 9 a cover strip for the upper and lower ends of the door is shown. Preferably this strip 51 is T-shaped, the leg 52 of the T fitting in a groove provided in the rails 22 and 23. The leg 52 is maintained in the groove by reason of its being forced therein and also by reason of corrugations provided therein. Ordinary wood doors are usually beveled at the top and bottom but this would be ditficult to do with the door of this invention which includes the metal as an integral part thereof. The cover strip 51, however, may easily be given this rounded shape thus making the unit completely satisfactory in all respects for use as a door in place of ordinary wood doors heretofore known.
In FIGURE 11 the relationship between the rounded cover strip 51 provided at the bottom of the door and the threshold 53 on the floor 54 is shown. Good results are obtained when the strip 51 is made of vinyl material.
FIGURE 12 illustrates an arrangement similar to that of FIGURE 11. In this instance a flexible vinyl bulb 5111 is used. The threshold 53a cover the juncture of the floor 54 and sill 54a, and the bulb 51a effects an air tight arrangement with the threshold 53a.
It is believed that the invention has been fully described in the foregoing passages. It is to be understood that modifications may be made in this invention without departing from the scope and spirit thereof. It is also to be understood that while the invention has been disclosed as embodied in certain particular structures and arrangements, the invention is not to be limited to such structures and arrangement except insofar as they are specifically set forth in the subjoined claims.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new and what is desired to be protected by United States Letters Patent is:
A building unit comprising a pair of parallel stiles; a pair of parallel rails extending between end portions of the stiles; the outside of each stile having a longitudinal groove therein; a pair of metal skins substantially enclosing said stiles and rails; and a plastic core within said skins; one of said pair of skins being adhered to one side of the unit defined by said stiles and rails, and the other of said pair of skins being adhered to the opposite side of the unit; each skin having parallel edges formed by flanges extending around outside portions of the stiles and into said grooves, the width of the grooves being' greater than the combined thicknesses of the portions of i the skin flanges exending into them and the thickness of the stiles being greater than the combined widths of the edges of the skins by virtue of all of which the stiles and mils serve to position the skins so that their edges will be aligned in common planes while the portions of the skin flanges which extend into the grooves of the stiles are held in positively spaced relationship to one another throughout their lengths whereby to provide an air gap which prevents the transfer of heat and cold from one of said skins to the other of said'skins and whereby the stiles serve as both alignment and spacing means.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENT S Rnpp Apr. 2, 1901 Shields -June 21, 1938 Clements June 19, 1951 Fleet Dec. 9, 1952 Dennison Sept. 10, 1957 Anderson June 10, 1958 Ries Nov. 17, 1959 Viets Feb. 16, 1960