US 3154494 A
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3,154,494 FABRIC LAUNDRY COMPOSITIONS Richard C. Speak, Fullerton, and Paul H. McConnell,
Glendale, Calif., assignors to United States Borax &
Chemical Corporation, Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of Nevada No Drawing. Filed Aug. 7, 1961, Ser. No. 129,535
3 Claims. (Cl. 252-96) This invention relates to improved compositions for washing fabrics. More particularly, this invention provides a multifunctional composition which when put into a washing machine releases the various laundry ingredients in a predetermined sequential manner.
The improved composition of this invention comprises an inner core of a dry solid bleach and contiguous therewith an outer coating of a fabric washing agent completely enclosing the bleach core. The invention provides a substantially dry stable composition in which the bleach content is not reduced or lost and the outer coating is not altered on standing.
It has been recently discovered by those skilled in the art that to obtain the optimum benefit from each of the various ingredients used to wash fabrics it is necessary to delay the addition of bleach to a point part way through the wash cycle. There are several reasons for this, one being that some of the solid bleaches will interfere with the cleansing action of certain soap detergent products. Another, and very. important reason, relates to the optical brighteners used in all present day soap and detergent products. At the start of washing when these optical brighteners are free in the washing solution, their effectiveness is limited by contact with bleach. If, however, they have a chance to become affixed to the fabrics being washed, their resistance to bleach is dramatically increased resulting in a higher level of brightening effectiveness. At the same time the effectiveness of the bleach is maintained. Still another reason relates to the use of bacteriostats and bactericides in present day soap and detergent products. While it is a well-known fact that chlorine in addition to being an effective bleach also has bactericidal properties, the bactericidal action of chlorine is short lived and soap and detergent manufacturers have added bacteriostats and bactericides to their products to give additional protection. As with the optical brighteners, the effectiveness of the bacteriostats and bactericides is limited by contact with bleach. If, however, they have a chance to go into solution and contact the fabric being washed before the addition of bleach, their resistance to the bleach is tremendously increased resulting in an extremely higher level of effectiveness.
Delayed addition of bleach is not the only advantage of the present compositions; they also facilitate the use of theproper amount of bleach and provide ideal dilution thereby providing safety for fabrics. Still further, the present invention provides a dry stable composition in which solid type chlorine bleaches can be used and in which the available chlorine content is substantially unaltered on standing and additionally the stability of the outer coating of fabric washing agent is not impaired.
It is, therefore, a principal object of this invention to provide a multifunctional laundry composition which releases the various ingredients in a predetermined sequential manner.
A further object of the present invention is to provide cases, REFERENCE Patented Oct. 27, 1964 a composition which delays the addition of bleach to a washing solution while at the same time providing the proper amount of bleach with ideal dilution thereby affording maximum safety for fabrics.
Another object of this invention is to provide a dry stable composition containing a solid type chlorine bleach in which the available chlorine content remains substantially unaltered on standing.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a timely addition of bleach to a washing machine without interruption of the washing cycle.
Other objects will appear as the description proceeds.
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, said invention then comprises the features hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims, the following description setting forth in detail certain illustrative embodiments of the invention, these being indicative, however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principle of the invention may be employed.
Broadly stated, the present invention comprises a composition comprising an inner core con a substantiall dr solid bleach and contiguous therewith and completely enclosing said core, saiTouter coating comprising at lawmalFed from the group consisting of wa er-soluble soa s, water-soluble synthetic organic detergents, andfi'ater cong ggirom the foregoing broadly stated paragraph, it will be seen that the compositions of the present invention comprise two distinct portions: an inner core portion comprising a dry solid bleach, and an outer portion completely enclosing the bleach core comprising a fabric washing agent. In the present specification the term fabric washing agent is used to designate soaps, synthetic organic detergents and water conditioners. It must be clearly understood that while the outer coating is contiguous with and completely surrounds the inner core of bleach, the two portions are not admixed. It is this particular combination that for the first time provides a way to simultaneously add all of the necessary laundry ingredients while at the same time providing the solution of the laundry ingredients in a sequential manner whereby maximum effectiveness of the components is obtained.
The use of the present composition is simplicity itself. All that is necessary is to drop a tablet into the washing machine, close the door and turn on the machine. No further additions of laundry washing ingredients are necessary. The outer coating starts dissolving almost immediately in the wash water and goes completely in solution in from about 1 to about 5 minutes, the inner bleach core remaining intact until the outer coating has dissolved. Thus, the ingredients of the outer coating first go into solution, followed by solution of the blea'ch, which, as noted previously, permits the detergent, etc., and the bleach to work together more effectively in the washing solution. Further, the present composition permits the use of an effective bleach with safety, there being no local heavy concentration of bleach which would burn the fabric in the washing machine. Still further, the present compositions provide sequential solution of the necessary laundry ingredients without interruption of the washing cycle.
As noted in the foregoing broadly stated paragraph, the
EXAl illllilt bleach Waves cyanuric acids 1 oroisocyanuric acid, dichloroisocyanuric acid, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, and potassium dichloroisocyanurate, dimethyldichlorohydantoin, n-chlorosuccinimide, the oxygen bleaches such as the alkali metal mono persulfates, the alkali metal perborates, sodium hydrosulfite and the inorganic chlorine bleaches such as the alkali metal and alkaline earth hypochlorites, are all equally applicable to the present invention. In the preferred embodiment of our invention we use a solid sodium-born mull-EJ153 as disclosed in US. Patent No. 2,977,314.
Attention is again directed to the fact that the inner core consists essentially of a substantially dry solid bleach; however, if desired, minor amounts of innocuous materials such as a pigment (ultramarine blue), binders, etc., may be added.
Referring now to the outer coating, as noted previously,
this comprises the fabric washing agent which basically is at least one material selected from the group consisting of water-soluble soap, water-soluble synthetic organic detergent, and water conditioners. It is to be clearly understood that suitable additives, e.g., binders, fillers, builders,
optical brighteners, perfume, colorings, bacteriostats, etc'.', may be added to the outer coating to provide properties regarded as desirable in any particular instance. Thus, the outer coating can consist of soapj'or synthetic detergent or water conditioner or any combination of these materials alone or in combination with the various suitable additives. Illustrative of some of the various additives used by those skilled in the detergent and soap art are builders (borax, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate, etc.), corrosion inhibitors (sodium silicate), anti-redeposition agents (carboxymethyl cellulose), fabric brighteners (fluorescent or optical pigments), perfume, fillers (talc), binders (gums, starches, dextrins), coloring, suds stabilizers and suppressors, preservatives and bacteriostats and bactericides (trichlorocarbanilide, trichlorosalicylanilide, tribromosalicylanilide). Each ingredient is selected to perform a specific function. The corrosion inhibitor protects the metals used in washing machines. The anti-redeposition agent is used to aid in preventing removed soil from redepositing on the fabric being washed. The suds stabilizer or suppressor aids in tailoring the sudsing characteristics of the product. The optical brighteners aid in maintaining fabric whiteness or brightness.
As to the soap which may be employed in the outer coating, there may be enumerated the water-soluble salts of myristic, palmitic, stearic, behenic, oleic, lauric, abietic, capric, caproic, ricinoleic, linoleic, hydrogenated and dehydrogenated abietic acids, the surface active hydrolysis products of tallow, coconut oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame, linseed oil, olive oil, corn oil, castor oil, and the like.
Illustrative of the synthetic organic detergents useful in the present invention, there may be mentioned long chain alkyl aryl sulfonates such as sodium octyl-, nonyl-, dodecyl-, decyland tetradecylbenzene sulfonates, N-long chain acyl N-alkyl taurates such as sodium oleoyl methyltaurate, sodium palmitoyl methyl taurate, sodium or potassium lauroyl methyl taurate and the corresponding acyl ethyl taurates, long chain alkyl oxyethylene sulfates such as sodium or potassium laurylpolyoxyethylene sulfate, sodium laurylmonooxyethylene sulfate, sodium octadecylpolyoxyethylene sulfate and sodium cetyl polyoxyethylene sulfate, long chain alkyl aryl oxyethylene sulfates such as ammonium, sodium or potassium nonyl-, octyl-, and tridecylphenol monoand polyoxyethylene sulfates, long chain alkyl sulfates such as sodium lauryland stearylsulfates, long chain alkyl isethionates such as sodium oleic isethionate, sodium lauric isethionate, sodium diisopropyl naphthalene sulfonate, sodium isopropyl naphthalene sulfonate, sodium isobutyland diisobutyl naphthalene sulfonate, sodium isohexyl enzene sulfonate,
monobutyl biphenyl sodium monosulfonate, monobutylphenylphenol sodium monosulfonate, dibutylphenylphenol sodium disulfonate, lower alkyl sulfates and sulfonates such as sodium sulfate derivative of 2-ethyl hexanol-l, sodium 2-ethyl-l-hexenyl sulfonate, sodium isooctyl sulfonate, sodium isononyl (also triisopropylene) sulfonate, lower alkyl esters of aliphatic sulfocarboxylic acids such as sodium diamyl sulfosuccinate, sodium diisobutyl sulfosuccinate, sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, sodium triamyl sulfotricarballylate, sodium triisobutyl sulfotricarballylate, and sodium tri-nbutyl sulfotricarballylate.
While the foregoing sodium salts of the above detergents are preferred, other alkali metal and amine salts may be employed, as, for example, those with potassium, ammonium, lower alkyl amines such as methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine and isopropylamine, lower alkylolamines such as mono, di-, and triethanoland isopropanolamines, cyclic amines such as cyclohexylamine, morpholine, and pyrrolidine and the like.
The above-mentioned detergents may be used alone or may be employed as mixtures. Additionally the detergents can be used in combination with the water-soluble soaps and water conditioners. The term water conditioner as used in the present specification and claims designates those compounds which sequester, or inactivate water hardness and aid in cleaning, and the term is fully intended to include both the inorganic and organic complexing agents, sequestering agents and chelating agents. Referring first to the organic type of chelating and sequestering agents, the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid type and its salts are among the most effective. While these foregoing materials are preferred, there are numerous other types of organic products offered and reference may be had to the book Chemistry of the Metal Chelating Compounds, by Martell and Calvin, for many further examples. Illustrative of the inorganic water conditiofiers useful in the present invention are the zeolites (hydrated silicates of aluminum and either sodium or calcium or both), sodium carbonate, sodium phosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium metaphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and sodium tetraphosphate. While the sodium salts of the inorganic compounds are preferred, the other alkali metal salts such as the potassium and lithium salts may be used.
When any of the soaps or synthetic organic detergents are used alone or in combination and when the water conditioners are used in combination with the soaps and synthetic detergents, it will be found that no other binder material is necessary. However, due to their crystalline nature, when a water conditioner is used alone as the outer coating it is preferred that a binder is used so as to give structural strength to the coating.
Thus, the outer coating of the present invention can consist of each of the fabric washing agents alone or in combination with the various additives. The following examples are given to illustrate some of the innumerable combinations which may be used to produce coatings applicable to the present invention:
1 Soap Synthetic organic detergent III Water conditioner 1V Soap Synthetic organic detergent V Soap Water conditioner 6 VI XV Synthetic organic detergent Percent Water conditioner Granular soap 5 v11 Borax 23.7 s 5 Trisodium phosphate Synthetic organic detergent Twjasodmfn Pymphosphate 10 water conditioner Optical bnghtener 0.1 m Perfume 0.2 Soap Water 1.0 Optical brightener 10 XVI Perfume Borax 20 Trisodium phosphate 30 Water conditioner Tetrasodiugl pyrophosphate 30 Optical brightener 15 ff Anti-redeposition agent sodPlm metaslhcate 10 Binder Sodium bicarbonate 5.0 Gum arabic binder 4.7 Synthetic organic detergent Perfume Suds stabilizer XVII gg gg g Sodium bicarbonate 5.0 'l'risodium phosphate colormg 'letrasodium pyrophosphate 3O Soa 25 Borax I 20 wag conditioner mfiataslhcate 15 Corrosion inhibitor gg fi gggfi t Anti-redeposition agent Starch binder Optical brightener Perfume Perfume 80 XVIII Synthetic organic detergent Granular soap 65 Water conditioner Tetrasodium pyrophosphate 10 Suds suppressor Borax 24.4 Corrosion inhib tor Optical brightener 0.2 Anti-redeposition agent P rf 0 2 gpti al rig r Trichlorosalicylanilide 0.2
o oring Perfume 4 XIX The following examples, in which parts are by weight, 0 Sodmm lauryl sulfate 20 are illustrative of specific outer coatings applicable to the Borax 6 invention. The examples are in no way intended to limit carboxylPethyl cellulose the present invention and are given only for illustrative Teuzawdmm Pymphosphate 16 purposes. SOdlllIIl sulfate 55 X111 Optical brightener 0.1 Percent Tribromosilicylanilide 0.2 Monobutylphenylphenol sodium monosulfonate 12 Perfume 0 3 Sodium tripolyphosphate 45 Anhydrous m 5 The optical or fluorescent bl'lghI1'1l:S mentioned precarboxymethyl cellulose 2 vlously and referred to in the foregoing examples are Optical brightens; 1 colorless dyes developed for brightening and whitening Sodium lf t 5 fabrics. More than seventy different fluorescent bright- P f 0'2 eners are listed in the Color Index. Representative of the XIV chemical types encountered are: Sodium alkylwazyl sulfonate 25 (1) H H N Carboxymethyl cellulose 1.7 l I Tetrasodiurn pyrophosphate 16 Q G Sodium sulfate 55 Optical brightener 0.1 H N Perfume 0.2 Water 2.0
EN NH .N N=K N HN CH=CH NH N M Q G H NH SO;Na s0,Na NH (3) Nao,s SO Na CH;O 'CONH s NHCO-QOCH: 0 O
H CH1CHIOH CHQO EN CW CW Any of the fabric optical brighteners may be used alone or in combination as desired.
There are innumerable other combinations of ingredients, well known to those skilled in the soap and detergent art, which could be used as the outer coating of the present invention and it would be unnecessarily redundant to repeat the same here. Any of the outer coatings can be used to enclose any of the dry solid bleaches. In the preferred embodiment of our invention we use a substantially dry outer coating, since this type of coating is more stable and in the instances where the inner core comprises a chlorine containing bleach this type of coating offers superior protection to the bleach and prevents loss of available chlorine on standing.
As stated previously, it is only necessary to the present invention that the outer coating comprise at least one of the fabric washing agents, namely, soap, synthetic organic detergent or water conditioner. The various additives can be added according to the discretion of the formulator.
The inner core of bleach and the outer coating are preferably combined in amounts of from about 1:1 to about 1:5 bleach to outer coating. However, the amounts of bleach to coating are immaterial to the present invention and may be varied according to the desires of the formulator, it only being important to the present composition that the core consist essentially of a bleach and the outer coating is contiguous therewith and completely encloses the core.
The present compositions can betprepared by first compacting a bleach material and then encapsulating the compacted bleach with a coating. If desired, the outer coating can be preformed in two separate halves, each having OCH;
a cavity therein, the bleach can be compressed to the desired shape and then deposited in the cavity formed in one half of the coating and the other half of the preformed coating can then be pressed on top, forming a finished composition having a core of bleach and a coating contiguous therewith and completely enclosing the same. Another method of making the present compositions is to form one half of the coating with a cavity, fill the cavity with bleach powder, put the rest of the coating material on top and then press the entire mass to the desired shape. It is immaterial to the present invention what method is used to form the present composition as long as the finished product comprises an inner core consisting essentially of bleach and having an outer coating contiguous therewith and completely enclosing the core.
The rates of solution of the two components can be varied, if desired, by altering the degree of pressure used in forming the finished product, or, if desired, by altering the basic composition of the outer coating.
Other modes of applying the principle of the invention may be employed, change being made as regards the details described, provided the features stated in any of the following claims or the equivalent of such be employed.
We, therefore, particularly point out and distinctly claim as our invention:
1. A substantially dry, stable, multifunctional Washing and bleaching laundry tablet for sequential introduction of, firstly, effective amounts of fabric washing agents and laundry additives and, secondly, effective amounts of bleach into a laundry washing solution, which tablet consists of (l) a solid, substantially dry, water-soluble core and (2) a solid, substantially dry, water-soluble coating contiguous with and completely enclosing said core, said core consisting essentially of a bleach selected from the class consisting of oxygen and chlorine water-soluble solid bleaches, and said coating consisting essentially of at least one water-soluble fabric washing agent selected from the class consisting of soaps, non-soap synthetic organic detergents, organic sequestering agents, and inorganic water softeners, said coating being formulated and present in an amount such that when said tablet is exposed to said laundry solution said coating requires a minimum period of time within the range of from about one to about five minutes to substantially completely dissolve, the inner core remaining intact until the outer coating has dissolved, whereby exposure and introduction of said bleach into said laundry washing solution is delayed for at least said minimum period of time, and said bleach is introduced into the laundry washing solution with freedom from local heavy concentration for affording maximum effectiveness of said laundering agents and maximum safety for the articles to be laundered.
2. A substantially dry, stable, multifunctional washing and bleaching laundry tablet for sequential introduction of, firstly, effective amounts of fabric washing agents and laundry additives, and, secondly, effective amounts of bleach into a laundry washing solution, which tablet consist of (l) a solid, substantially dry, water-soluble core and (2) a solid, substantially dry, water-soluble coating contiguous with and completely enclosing said core, said core consisting essentially of a bleach selected from the class consisting of oxygen and chlorine water-soluble solid bleaches, and said coating being essentially composed of a major amount of at least one water-soluble fabric washing agent selected from the class consisting of soaps, nonsoap synthetic organic detergents, organic sequestering agents, and inorganic water softeners, and a minor amount of at least one laundry additive the laundering function of which in said laundry washing solution would be adversely affected by the substantially simultaneous introduction of said bleach, said coatingjgeing formulated and p nti ta lr lsushfiaiihegsa d table p Fos'fid laundry solution saidgqatingrequires a minimum period of time within the gauge of from about on't'o'aboiit 10 .fififil lfiiwi lfi i l lbi mp fi91)! dissolve tbs inner core remaining intact until the outer coating has dissolved, whereby exposure and introduction of said bleach into said laundry washing solution is delayed for at least said minimum period of time, and said bleach is introduced into the laundry washing solution with freedom from local heavy concentration for affording maximum effectiveness of said laundering agents and maximum safety for the articles to be laundered.
3. The composition of claim 2, wherein said core contains a chlorine-containing bleach and said coating contains a fabric optical brightener.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 871,612 11/07 Nesfield 252l87XR 1,810,664 6/31 Kritchevsky et al 252188 1,854,235 4/32 Stoddard 252 93 1,950,956 3/34 Wilhelm 252 -187 1,950,957 3/34 Wilhelm 252l87XR 2,409,718 10/46 Snell et al 25299 2,576,205 11/51 Appersou 25299 2,740,689 4/56 Easton et a1. 252186XR 2,863,800 12/58 Gottfried 252363.5XR 2,903,430 9/59 Butler 25299 2,977,314 3/61 Stephanou et al 25299 2,979,936 4/ 61 Houser et a1 68-17XR FOREIGN PATENTS 1,074,188 1/ Germany.
JULIUS GREENWALD, Primary Examiner.