|Publication number||US3156394 A|
|Publication date||Nov 10, 1964|
|Filing date||Apr 28, 1960|
|Priority date||May 4, 1959|
|Publication number||US 3156394 A, US 3156394A, US-A-3156394, US3156394 A, US3156394A|
|Inventors||Achille Pellerin, Denis Martin, Maurice Alles, Pierre Camatte|
|Original Assignee||Commissariat Energie Atomique|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (6), Classifications (15)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Nov. 10, 1964 M. ALLES ETAL 3,156,394
APPARATUS FOR CUTTING A CASING 0F MALLEABLE MATERIAL CONTAINING A SOLID MATERIAL Filed April 28, 1960 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. 1.. FIG. 2
Nov. 10, 1964 M. ALLES ETAL 3,156,394
APPARATUS FOR CUTTING A CASING OF MALLEABLE MATERIAL conmmuc A sous MATERIAL I5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 28, 1960 Nov. 10, 1964 M. ALLES ETAL 3,156,394
APPARATUS FOR CUTTING A CASING OF MALLEABLE MATERIAL CONTAINING A SOLID MATERIAL Filed April 28, 1960 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 United States Patent Filed Apr. 28, 1960, Ser. No. 25,389 Claims priority, application France, May 4, 1959, 7 4
1 Claim. in. 22s-94 On leaving atomic piles cylindrical bars of irradiated fissile material should, in view of their subsequent employment, be released from their protective metallic casing.
This is called dc-casing, which consist of two operations:
Severing the casings (in general, at the extremities of each bar).
Extrusion of the bar, e.g. by a hydraulic jack.
The severing should carry away neither pieces of scrap nor fragments of the casing. Furthermore, the severing tools should not come into contact with the irradiated material since there would result a very serious radioactive contamination of the surroundings.
Finally, this radioactivity necessitates a remote control which, like the rest of the apparatus, should be as simple as possible.
Similar conditions can also exist in other industries.
Our invention provides an effective and simple apparatus for severing a casing of malleable material containing a solid material, being particularly adapted to the severing away of the casings of cylindrical elements enclosing radioactive material.
The apparatus according to the invention for severing a casing at right angles to its longitudinal axis consists of clamping the periphery of the casing between at least two first jaws arranged perpendicular to the axis of the casing and located in a single plane, and in addition between at least two other jaws arranged in the same fashion but located in another plane parallel to the first-mentioned plane and then rotating the assembly of the said other jaws about the axis of the casing keeping them all clamped against the casing while the said first walls remain stationary.
Preferably the jaws are positioned so that the two parallel planes, in which they are located, are adjacent.
In the case of casings containing several bars of fissile material end to end along the length of the casing, the jaws are applied in such a manner that the plane which separates the first jaws from the second jaws coincides with the plane of separation between the ends of two successive bars.
The apparatus according to the invention for carrying out the novel method comprises means for holding the casing fixed, means for periodically advancing the casing, .two adjacent sets of jaws each comprising at least two jaws arranged about a space adapted to receive the casing and at right angles to the longitudinal axis of this space, members for holding, guiding and clamping each of said jaws against the casing and means for rotating one of the sets of jaws about said axis.
The number of jaws in each of the two sets can vary. One could for example have three jaws located in the same plane, pointed towards the axis of the casing and forming between them an angle of 120. According to a preferred form of the invention, the jaws are arranged in pairs, the two jaws of which are face to face to one another; one could also have 2, 4, 6 or 8 jaws per set, the two sets not necessarily comprising the same number of aws.
3,156,394 Patented Nov. 10, 1964 ice The means for supporting the casing are constituted for example by a channel.
The means for holding the case, preferably comprises a movable carriage adapted to abut one end of the element carrying the casing and a removable abutment adapted to abut the other end of the element.
The means for periodically advancing the element are preferably constituted by the same carriage, a jack, and transmission and control means for advancing the carriage under the action of the jack.
The members for holding, guiding and clamping the walls may be formed as cams, each of which is provided with a lever connected to a jack. The cams preferably have the general shape of circular plates having a central opening and adapted to rotate about the axis of this opening under the effect of the action of the corresponding jack.
To sever a casing, the element is placed in the channel and is held on one side by the carriage and at the other, axially, by the abutment, which is located at the distance appropriate to the plane of the cut. The first set of jaws, more specifically the clamping jaws which are provided with at least one tooth capable of penetrating to a small extent into the casing, ensures the centering of the casing and its clamping in the immediate vicinity of the plane of severing; the rectilinear movement of these jaws radially towards the axis of the casing is controlled by one of the cams adapted to rotate about the same axis; the rotation of the cam is produced by pulling on the lever with which this cam is provided.
The second set of jaws, which is generally similar to the above and which serves for shearing, grips the casing by means of a mechanism identical to that of the clamping jaws. Furthermore, the cam which is associated with this second set of jaws is adapted to continue its rotation while the jaws grip equally: that is in addition to its rotation caused by the rotation of the jaws and consequently it cuts the casing; in the particular case where the elements contain a fissile material and are provided with exterior flanges, the rotary movement of the walls has the effect of severing the flanges.
The two important features of the invention are thus:
(a) severing by rotary shearing which permits, for most casing configurations and easing metals, a clean severing and avoids contact of the severing tools with the central material.
(b) the operation of the machine by simple rotation of two cams can be controlled by pulling on two levers.
The principal advantages of the machine according to the invention are as follows:
The plane of the break is flat, without the initiation of fracturing on the casing, the subsequent extrusion opera- .tion thus being facilitated.
The severing tools are not in contact with the irradiated material.
Simple control by pull rods which can easily traverse a certain thickness of lead, concrete, water or any other protective material. The use of jacks for the driving force ensures that the machine is easily rendered autom-atic.
Setting up and dismantling almost instantaneous, whereby decontamination is made easy and personnel are exposed for only a short time to radiation, if any, emitted by the machine.
There is practically no forced sliding, whereby there is a reduction of the wear of the components.
Absence of chips and fragments of the casing.
Speed and simplicity of operation.
Space required very much reduced.
Manufacture easy and of standard technique, whereby the price is low.
Referring to the accompanying diagrammatic FIG- URES 1 to 11, there is described hereinafter an example, which is not limitative, of an embodiment of the machine for cutting casings according to the invention. The arrangements which are described with regard to this example should be considered as forming part of the invention, it being understood that all equivalent arrangements could also be used without departing from the scope of the invention.
Corresponding elements in the different figures have identical reference numerals.
FIGURES l to 6 are views of the essential elements embodied in the machine according to the invention:
FIGURE 1 shows a section of the casing taken in a plane normal to the axis of the casing.
FIGURE 2 is an axial section of the same casing showing the bars of fissile material.
FIGURE 3, the plane of which passes through the axis of the casing, represents diagrammatically the abutment for axial positioning and the clamping and shearing jaws.
FIGURE 4, the plane of which is normal to the axis of the casing, shows several jaws in positions corresponding to different instants during the working cycle of the machine.
FIGURE 5, the plane of which is parallel to that of FIGURE 4, represents the control cam of the clamping aws.
FIGURE 6, the plane of which is parallel to those of FIGURES 4 and 5, shows the control cam of the cutting aws.
FIGURES 7 to 11 shows in perspective the machine for cutting the casings according to the invention in a more detailed fashion:
FIGURE 7 is a view of the machine and the principle associated elements.
FIGURE 8 shows the rear portion of the machine, limited by the plane of the break, seen in the same direction as in FIG. 7.
FIGURE 9 represents a shearing jaw.
FIGURE 10 shows the front part of the machine limited by the plane of the break, seen in the direction opposite to that in FIG. 7.
FIGURE 11 shows the positions of two co-operating jaws at the beginning of the shearing period.
According to FIGURES 1 and 2, the metallic casing t 1 on which the work is to be eifected is constituted by a tubular part 2 stiffened by longitudinal external ribs 3; it is seen from FIGURE 2 that at the interior of this casing 1 a certain number of cylindrical bars 4 of irradiated fissile material are stacked one behind the other and held immobile by their setting in the casing 1. The casing 1 should be severed between two successive bars, such as 4 and 4'; the breakage xx' should be as flat as possible.
The first breakage should be effected between the first and the second bars. For this purpose an advantage mechanism (not shown) positions the casing 1 so that the plane xx of the breakage to be effected and the Working plane of the machine coincide (see FIGURE 3). An abutment 5 is located for this purpose in the appropriate position. As the bars 4 all have the same length, the arrangement is foolproof.
The clamping jaws 6, provided with a rectilinear movement in a plane immediately adjacent a plane of the breakage towards the axis of the casing 1 ensure the centering and clamping of the latter (FIGURE 4).
The displacement of these jaws 6 is brought about by rotation of the cam 7 (FIGURE 5) which can itself be simply controlled by the pull rod 8. The position A in FIGURE 5 corresponds to the rest position and the position B to the clamping position.
The jaws 6 each have a tooth 9 (see FIGURES 3 and 9); during the clamping each of these teeth makes its impression on the body of the casing 1, thus initiating a breakage in the plane of the subsequent cut.
The shearing jaws 10 (FIGURES 3 and 6), identical to the clamping jaws 6 but located symmetrically with regard to these in the plane xx, are pushed forward by a cam 11 which can be controlled by a pull rod 12.
The position C in FIGURE 6 corresponds to the rest position and the position D to the clamping position.
The shearing jaws 10, due to their teeth 9, reinitiate breakage on the casing in the plane xx.
This operation is so far identical to the preceding operation (clamping) but if the pull on the rod 12 is maintained the cam 11 continues its rotary movement; the casing 1 constitutes a stop and limits inward movement of the jaws 10 which become locked with the cam 11 and are carried on in a rotary movement as soon as their rectilinear movement (clamping) is arrested.
The cylindrical casing is severed by the shearing-stress due to the circumferential spreading of the clamping-jaws 6 and shearing jaws 10.
The primary purpose of the radially inward movement of the jaws is to take a firm grip on the casing rather than to furrow a groove. Upon rotation of the shearing jaws, the terminal portion of the casing is twisted and broken from the main portion of the casing secured against rotation by the clamping jaws 6.
There is no risk of grooving the radio-active material within the casing, since the depth of the imprint in the casing wall can be adjusted so as not to exceed the thickness of the casing wall.
The shearing jaws 10, in their rotary movement, move the piece of the casing between the axis xx and the abutment 5 (FIGURE 3) with respect to the casing 1 which remains stationary and clamped.
The shearing of the casing 1 (flanges 3 and body 2) takes place during this rotation, the body of the casing 1 being held by the jaws 6 and the piece to be severed being carried around by the jaws 10.
The position E (FIGURE 6) corresponds therefore to the actual break.
The cams 7 and 11 are then brought back to their respective positions A and C, withdrawing the jaws 6 and 10 from the centre; this has the effect of releasing the part of the casing containing the bar, which falls, and of allowing the advance of the rest of the casing 1.
The same process may be repeated to sever the casing between the second and third bars and so on.
FIGURE 7 shows in greater detail the operation of the machine for severing the casings according to the invention in a particular embodiment.
There is shown the machine itself, bordered by the fixed plates 13 and 14 from which extend levers 15, 16 and 17 and a lever 18 carrying the abutment 5.
The casing 1 is supported by the channel 19 and moved along the channel by the carriage 20 which is itself drawn by a cable 21 controlled by a pulley 22.
The levers 15, 16, 17 and 18 are connected by their rigid rods 8, 12, 23 and 24 to respective pneumatic jacks 25, 26, 27 and 28; the jack 29 serves to cause rotation of the pulley 22. These jacks are supported by a rigid support framework P which is submerged under a depth of water suificient for biological protection. They are supplied with compressed air for actuation in one or the other direction by a distributor valve which is placed successively in the positions which control the various operations. The various phases of the working cycle are described hereinafter.
While the distributor valve is in its rest position (see FIGURE 7), compressed air is supplied:
To the abutment jack 28 by the orifice 30.
To the advancing jack 29 by the orifice 31.
To the clamping jack 25 by the orifice 32.
To the cutting jack 26 by the orifice 33; the other orifices being open to the atmosphere, the rods 8, 12, 23 and 24 are completely protracted.
The withdrawal jack 27 is at all times supplied with compressed air by the orifice 34, its upper orifice 35 always being open to the air and its rod 23 being in the upper position.
The advancing carriage 20 is in the forward position.
The casing 1 (containing its bars) is advanced in the channel 19.
The distributor is then placed in the abutment position; the compressed air is then supplied:
To the jack 28 by the orifice 36 (the orifice 30 then being open to the air) which raises the abutment, i.e. the assembly of the pieces 18, 5 and 37.
The abutment 5 is then located at the axis of the machine.
In the advancing position the jack 29 is supplied through the orifice 38 (the orifice 31 being open to the air). The pawl 39 connected to the rod of the jack 29 turns the ratchet 40 through a certain angle. The pulley 22 connected to the ratchet 40 draws the cable 21 which causes the carriage 20 to advance, whereby the casing 1 is advanced until its front end contacts the abutment 5. The casing 1 is then locked between the abutment 5 and the carriage 20 in such a way that the plane of the cut to be obtained between the first and the second bars coincides with the working plane of the machine.
The rod of jack 29 does not completely reach the position corresponding to the end of the advancing movement, that is to say that the carriage 20 continues to exert a certain force on the casing 1 during all the following operations.
In the clamping position the jack 25 is supplied with compressed air through the orifice 41 (the orifice 32 then being opened to the air). The rod 8 causes the clamping cam 7 to pivot by means of the lever 15 (see FIGURE 8). The cam 7, by means of its clamps 42, causes the eight clamping jaws 6 to slide in their slots cut in the plate 13; the slots are bounded by the raised portions 43 integral with the fixed plate 44 which is circular and has a central opening.
The jaws 6, forced towards the centre of the casing 1, ensure the centering and clamping of the latter.
The teeth 9 of the jaws 6 (see FIGURE 9) make their impression on the body of the casing, thus initiating a breakage at the plane of the future cut.
As the jack 25 remains supplied with compressed air during the following operation, the jaws 6 constantly ensure the clamping and thus the immobility of the casing 1.
In the cutting position, the jack 28 is supplied with compressed air through the orifices 30 (the orifice 36 then being opened to atmosphere); the rod 24 descends and causes the crank on 37 connected to the abutment 5, which serves as its axis, to pivot.
The abutment 5 being screwed onto the piece 18 with a step to the right, it moves away slightly from the casing during pivoting of the crank rod 37, this pivoting being limited by appropriate stops which are not shown. The rod 24 continuing its downward movement causes the assembly of the pieces, 18, 5 and 37 constituting the abutment to pivot; the purpose of this is to free the opening of the machine for the withdrawal of the cut bars.
The jack 26 is supplied with compressed air by the orifice 46 (the orifice 33 then being open to atmosphere); the rod 12 causes the cam 11 (identical to the cam 7) to pivot by means of the lever 16.
As for the clamping operation, the jaws (see FIG- URE 10), identical to the jaws 6, are given a rectilinear movement towards the centre of the casing 1 and ensure the clamping of the latter and, more precisely, of the part which it is desired to tear out.
The teeth of the jaws 10 also initiate breakage in the plane of the subsequent cut.
The lever 17 is fixed to a circular bored plate 47 which, like the plate 44, has raised portions 48 limiting the sliding of the jaws 10. This plate 47 can turn with respect to the body 14.
This operation is so far identical to the clamping 6 operation since the jack 27 holds the plate 47, and thus also the slides of the jaws 10, fixed with respect to the body 14.
The jack 26 being constantly supplied with compressed air by the orifice 46, a constant pull is exerted on the rod 12; the cam 11 cannot eifect this rotary movement since the jaws 10 cannot be displaced rectilinearly in the slots in the piece 47, the casing 1 preventing their advance. As soon as the clamping of the casing 1 is effective, the pieces 16, 10, 17 and the periphery of the casing 1 become locked.
Since the return jack 27 has a smaller diameter than the jack 26, the three pieces 16, 10, 17 and the casing 1 pivot about the axis of the casing and the lever 17 displaces the piston of jack 27 downwards in spite of its resistance.
During this rotation, the jaws 10 turn about the axis of the casing with respect to the jaws 6 which remain stationary; each pair of jaws one fixed 6 and the other rotary 10 become shears which by pure shearing simultaneously cut the eight ribs 3 (see FIGURE 11).
The jaws 10, during and after the shearing of the ribs 3, carry these on during their rotation, the ribs 3 in their turn carrying on the body 2 of the part of the casing 1 between the abutment and the shearing plane (the length of this piece of casing corresponding to the length of one bar). At the shearing plane, between the jaws 6 and 10, there is produced a torsion of the body of the casing 2 which causes severage at the precise vicinity where the teeth 9 have already made their impression: the casing 1 is thus cut. Due to the presence and the shape of the teeth 9 and 9' of the jaws 6 and 10, these jaws ensure a clean shearing of the body 2 of the casing without grooving the material of the bars 4.
The distributor valve is then placed in the ejection position. The jack 26 is then supplied with compressed air by the orifice 33 (the orifice 46 being open to the air); the jack 27 is constantly supplied with air at 34 and the orifice 35 is constantly open to the air; the lever 17, as well as the cam 11, resumes its initial position.
The jaws 10 due to their pins 49 and to the ramps 50 resume their initial positions during the rotation of the cam 11.
The part of the casing containing the bar is released.
The jack 25 is supplied with compressed air through the orifice 32 (the orifice 41 being open to the air). The lever 15 returns to the initial position; the same applies for the jaws 6 due to their pins 49 and the ramps 50.
The remaining of the casing 1 supported on the channel 19 is freed.
The jack 29 remaining supplied with compressed air at 38 can at this moment move towards the end of its forward movement, carrying the pawl 39, the ratchet 40, the pulley 22, the cable 21, the carriage 20 and the casing 1; the latter advances the piece of the casing previously detached and causes it to fall in front of the machine into a reception channel (not forming part of the machine) which is not illustrated.
In the rest position, the jack 29 is supplied with compressed air by the orifice 31 (the orifice 38 being open to atmosphere); the rod 51 moves out from the jack 29 and causes the pawl 39 to pass behind the following tooth of the ratchet 40.
The angle between each tooth of the ratchet 40 corresponds to the length of the bar 4.
The machine is ready to begin the cut between the second and third bars.
It should be noted that:
When the casing is entirely cut, the carriage 20 is brought back manually to its rearward position with the aid of the wheel 52 after disengagement of the pawl 39.
Between the actual machine and the assembly of jacks there is a biological protection traversed by the control rods such as 12.
Although the machines constructed are controlled by 7 pneumatic jacks, they can also be controlled by any other means.
Apparatus for serving a casing containing solid materials at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the casing, the casing having longitudinally extending spaced ribs, comprising a plurality of clamping jaws disposed in a plane at right angles to and about the long axis of the casing, a plurality of shearing jaws disposed in a second plane at right angles to and about the long axis of the casing and adjacent said first plane, said clamping jaws and said shearing jaws fitting between and engaging said ribs when engaging the casing, means for moving said clamping jaws and said shearing jaws into engagement with the casing, a trough supporting said casing, means for moving said casing stepwise in said trough in pie-determined amounts to bring said casing into position for engagement by said clamping jaws and said shearing jaws, said means for moving said clamping jaws into clamping engagement including a first circular cam disposed about said casing, a first central axial opening in said cam receiving said casing, said means for moving said shearing jaws into engagement with said casing including a second circular cam, a second central axial opening in said second cam receiving said casing, channels in said cams receiving said jaws and ramp and pin means for each of said jaws for moving said jaws into engagement with said casing when said cams are rotated, after engagement of the casing by said shearing jaws, rotation of said cam for said shearing jaws moving said shearing jaws with respect to said clamping jaws first shearing said ribs and then shearing said casing in a plane between the plane of said shearing jaws and the plane of said clamping jaws.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 9,262 9/52 Richards 83-54 358,884 3/87 Roberts 225-102 X 1,366,693 1/21 Kemble 225-102 X 1,444,923 2/23 Kempton 83-54 2,106,274 1/38 Frayer 225-94 2,479,950 8/49 MacPheat 83-207 2,507,452 5/50 Moore 83-207 FOREIGN PATENTS 781,897 8/57 Great Britain WILLIAM W. DYER, Primary Examiner. RAPHAEL M. LUPO, Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US9262 *||Sep 14, 1852||l l i a m t|
|US358884 *||Mar 8, 1887||Machine for shearing metal bars|
|US1366693 *||Oct 18, 1919||Jan 25, 1921||Abner C Harding||Severing blooms|
|US1444923 *||Dec 2, 1920||Feb 13, 1923||Westinghouse Electric & Mfg Co||Fan blade|
|US2106274 *||Dec 22, 1933||Jan 25, 1938||Lamson & Sessions Co||Apparatus for cutting bar stock|
|US2479950 *||Sep 9, 1947||Aug 23, 1949||Western Electric Co||Device for centralizing strip material|
|US2507452 *||Jul 22, 1948||May 9, 1950||Poor & Co||Stock length gauge for shearing machines|
|GB781897A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3255940 *||Aug 17, 1964||Jun 14, 1966||Landis Machine Co||Torsional impact severing machine|
|US3966104 *||Mar 5, 1975||Jun 29, 1976||Dayco Corporation||Apparatus for severing reinforced elastomeric conduit|
|US6869000||Jun 3, 1996||Mar 22, 2005||Synthes (U.S.A.)||Apparatus for cutting bodies having a non-circular cross section|
|US7673544 *||Dec 22, 2005||Mar 9, 2010||Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute||Separation and receiving device for spent nuclear fuel rods|
|DE19821892C1 *||May 15, 1998||Dec 30, 1999||Bbc Reaktor Gmbh||Cutting apparatus for cutting away cover plate of fuel element storage frame to allow shielding material replacement|
|DE19822588C1 *||May 20, 1998||Nov 11, 1999||Bbc Reaktor Gmbh||Cutting equipment for cutting away a cover plate of a fuel element storage frame to allow shielding material replacement|
|U.S. Classification||225/94, 376/261, 376/454, 976/DIG.274, 225/102|
|International Classification||B23D21/00, B23D21/14, G21C19/36, G21C19/34|
|Cooperative Classification||B23D21/14, B23D21/00, G21C19/36|
|European Classification||B23D21/14, G21C19/36, B23D21/00|