US 3160011 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 8, 1964 w. OGDEN 3,160,011
PRACTICE MEANS Filed July 31, 1962 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 5 v :EE I
i I I8 I I I l I I FIG. I 1 i l I l 1 Q I l s 4 INVENTOR a WILBUR L. OGDEN 1 BY ROBERT L.KAHN
ATTORNEY Dec. 8, 1964 w. L. OGDEN 3,160,011
PRACTICE MEANS Filed July 31, 1962 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 3
INVENTOR WILBUR L. OGDEN BY ROBERT L.KAHN
ATTORNEY 1964 w. L. OGDEN 3,160,011
PRACTICEI'MEANS Filed July 51, 1962 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 224 55 237 MSD E MSF M5 lOl 250 INVENTOR WILBUR L. OGDEN BY ROBERT L.KAHN
ATTORNEY FIG. 6
Dec. 8, 1964 w. L. OGDEN 3,160,011
PRACTICE MEANS Filed July 51, 1962 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 an M TR] TRZ 233 232 244 242 K20 l KZF 230 24' K20 INVENTOR WILBUR L. OGDEN ROBERT L.KAHN
ATTORNEY Dec. 8, 1964 w. L. OGDEN 3,160,011
PRACTICE MEANS Filed July 31, 1962 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR WILBUR L. OGDEN BY ROBERT L.KAHN
ATTORNEY United States Patent I 3,16tl,tll.1 PRACTICE MEANS Wilbur L. Ogden, Aurora, ill., assiguor, by mesne assignments, to J. Myer Schine, New York, Nil. Filed July 31, 1962, Ser. No. 213,707
Claims. (Cl. 735 379) This invention relates to practice means useful for showing the distance that would be covered by a golf ball, football, and other objects in outdoor games which is hit (or kicked) as in a real game wherein it is not practical to duplicate the complete playing conditions in the game. For example, in the case of golf, a driving range utilizing the present invention will permit a golf ball to be hit by a player in normal fashion and give an indication of the distance covered by the ball, as Well as an indication of a hook or slice without the necessity for the golf ball to travel more than about feet .or so along the drivingrange. Thus normal playing conditions as far as the player is concerned may be maintained with the practice means giving accurate distance readings while restricting the operation of the game from the normal dimensions of a game driving range.
The same general possibilities may be obtained with a practice means embodying the present invention wherein a football is directed toward a goal from predetermined REST position. The present invention may be utilized for other gameswhcre a ball or other object starts from a predetermined Rest position and is directed in some man ner toward a goal or target area.
A practice means system embodying the present invention includes electronic time measuring means having a simple, fool-proof means for initiating a timing cycle simultaneously with the inset of ball travel from a predetermined Rest position and simple, fool-proof means at a target area for terminating the timing cycle, said system also including a solid medium for transmitting a shock wave between two regions in a general target area. One or more regions may be considered as a bulls eye or precise target where electric circuit control means are disposed. The remainder of the general target area contains all possible areas of ball impact toward which a ball will travel from its initial starting position.
The normal conditions under which systems embodying the present invention operate involve the presence of dirt and physical abuse of the parts actually used by a player. In addition, the entire electronic system is frequently exposed to adverse weather conditions and a complete system may be located in places where it is difiicult to obtain service. Furthermore, the general target means for receiving the impact of a ball, as well as electric switch means, must withstand considerable abuse and should be simple and reliable. It is therefore important that all components of a system in their several functionings, as well as in their joint relationships, provide long, useful and good operating characteristics.
The practice means embodying the present invention makes use of computing means hereinafter specifically disclosed for measuring the sum of two time intervals. One time interval is the transit time of a ball starting from its normal Rest position and hitting some part of a target area. The other time interval is the time taken by a shock wave in traveling from the region of impact of the ball on the target area to a .bulls eye region where electric circuit control means are located. The computing means translates the sum of these two time intervals into corresponding distance indication.
The determination of the end points of the sum of the two time intervals is of the utmost importance, since this sum is directly related to the distance indication to be given by the practice means. The total time interval involved is quite short, of the order of about milliseconds (.030 seconds). Insofar as the instant of time at the end of the time interval is concerned, that will always be readily fixed by electric switch or transducer means at one or more selected target (bulls eye) regions. A serious problem has been present with regard to the means for exactly determining the instant of time at the beginnin g of the time interval to be measured.
It has been suggested that an electric transducer be provided at the region where the ball is initially resting, the transducer providing an electrical pulse in response to the mechanical shock incident to the hitting (or kicking) of the ball from its initial Rest position. This is not completely satisfactory, as it is possible to drive a ball from its support with minimum shock to the .ball support. This is particularly true of a ball which is perfectly hit (or kicked). A transducer which is sufficiently sensitive to respond to shocks of a low level may be damaged by a poor player. It has also been proposed that a photo cell and light beam combination be used, with the light beam traversing the projected path of the ball after the ball has started on its course. This is undesirable due to false operation. In the case of golf, many players swing the club head in such manner asto cut off the light beam in front of the golf tee and initiate a false start. if the light beam is sufficiently forward of the golf tee to avoid this, then there is a strong possibility that a ball may fail to cut oil the light beam or that the accuracy of the system will suffer. A similar diihculty will .be present with football.
The present invention provides a system which is simple, fool-proof and free from false operation.
In order that the invention may be understood, reference will now be made to the drawings wherein:
FIGURE. 1 is a front elevational view of the game practice means according to the preferred embodiment of the invention;
F lGURE 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken substantially along the line 2-2 of FIGURE 1 in the direction of the arrows showing the tee and the hook and slice transducers;
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged sectional view taken substantially along the line 33 of FIGURE 2 in the direction of the arrows showing the photo-sensitive element within the tee;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged view of the pocket and lac-- ing for holding the target transducer in its proper position; 7
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the line 5+5 of FIGURE 4 in the direction of the arrows showing the target transducer; and i FIGURES 6, 6A and B when disposed in side by side position show a schematic wiring diagram of the electrical system embodying the present invention.
For convenience, the game will be described with reference to its application to golf. It will be understood, however, that this application is exemplary and is not intended to limit the application of this invention.
The golf game is intended to duplicate actual playing conditions and a regulation golf ball may be placed upon tee 10 and the player may stand on a driving mat ll while addressing the golf ball with a golf club. Cage 12 is provided to confine the flight of the golf ball and to prevent the ball from being driven into other areas. Cage 12 has side walls 13 and overhead Wall 14 of canvas or a suitable net material supported on tubular framework 15. Tubular framework 15 of cage 12 supports target wall 19 against which a driven ball will impinge and produce shock waves detectable by one or both of a pair of target switches 2i) secured and laced within pockets 21 (FIG. 4) formed in target wall 19. Target switches 20 are disposed at proper heights to be hit by golf balls driven generally in a straight line path in what v.9 would correspond to a drive down the fairway of a golf course.
Target switches 26 receive rough treatment due to direct hits, and in being shaken by target wall 19 each time a golf ball strikes target wall 19. While switches 20 must be of rugged construction to withstand such rough treatment, each must also be sensitive enough to detect slight shock Waves travelling along the target wall and resulting from lightly hit balls or from balls hitting the target wall along its periphery. To meet these requirements, special switch Ztl (FIG. 5) is employed having metal coil spring screwed on bolt 25a secured to insulating block 26 carried on the bottom of metallic tube 27. Coil spring 25 has metallic contact 28 thereon for movement into contacting engagement with wall 27 of the tube to complete an electrical path from terminal 29 for coil spring 25 to terminal 30 of metallic tube 27 when a shock wave travelling along target wall 19 vibrates tube 27 and coil spring contact 28 into engagement with one another. Even slight shock waves travelling along the target wall will cause tube 2.7 and contact 28 to complete a circuit. Another advantage in this target switch arrangement is the ease of installation and replacement. Pocket 21 need merely be unlaced and a new switch 20 and wires can be attached.
An important feature of the invention is the construction of tee 1d and the use of a photo-sensitive element therein for detecting the removal of the ball from tee It In the present embodiment, photo-sensitive element 35 is disposed at the bottom of upright tubular member 35, the top open end of which receives the golf ball. When a golf ball is placed on tubular member 36 (FIG. 2), the golf ball closes the opening in the tubular member 36 and photo-sensitive element 35 is no longer exposed to light coming through the tubular member 36. In the daytime, daylight coming into the top of tubular member 36 when no ball is present is sufficient to significantly change the resistance of the photo-sensitive device even on a cloudy day. In the night time, light is furnished by overhead lamp 37 extending outwardly from tubular framework 14 of cage 12 to tee 10 and the driving area.
As shown in FIGURES 2 and 3, photo-sensitive element 35 is supported in a circular recess within block 38 and tubular member 36 rests on block 38. Molded plastic insert 39 is provided to secure tee 10 to driving mat 11 resting on boards of a driving platform. Photosensitive element 35 is connected by electrical leads 4t) to computer 41 shown in FIGS. 6, 6A and 6B, the circuitry of which will be discussed.
In addition to tee It), driving mat 11 positions slice transducer 4-3 and hook transducer 44-, both of which are situated forwardly of tee 10 and to the left and right sides thereof, respectively. The hook and slice transducers contain a coil, a permanent magnet and armature (not shown). The transducer can be a conventional electromagnetic device for generating a potential pulse when the transducer stem is hit by a club. The transducers are so polarized that a positive potential pulse is generated and applied to leads 45. Hook and slice transducers 43 and 44 are located in driving mat 11 and are bolted to the wooden floor of the game so as to withstand abuse.
Referring now to FIGURES 6, 6A and 6B, tee indicates the normal station for a ball prior to its movement toward a target area. The tee, the details of which will be described later, includes light sensitive resistance element 35 which has the property of having maximum resistance in the absence of light and a greatly reduced resistance depending upon the amount of light falling thereupon. Such light-sensitive resistors are available in the market and some involve cadmium sulphide as the photo-electric element. As an example, such a cell may have a resistance of about 10 megohms in darkness and have a resistance of about 1500 ohms in a bright light. Light sensitive resistors 35 is connected between terminals 51 and 52. Terminal 51 has connected thereto one end of resistor 54 whose other end is grounded. Resistor 54 should have a resistance which is small compared to the resistance of light-sensitive element 35 in the absence of light. Between terminal 51 and terminal 55 there is connected capacitor 56. Capacitor 56 is simply a blocking capacitor and has a value of about ,4 microfarad. Between terminal 55 and ground, resistor 57 is connected. This resistor has a high value such as about 1 megohm which may be about the same or even somewhat larger than the value of resistor 54.
Both resistors 54 and 57 serve to discharge capacitor 56 after each operation and the time constant of this circuit should be short in comparison to the time taken by a player in getting ready. function point 55 is connected to one terminal of half wave rectifier 59, the other terminal of which is connected to junction point 60. Rectifier 59 may be a conventional crystal rectifier and in the circuit illustrated, is adapted to pass positive pulses. Junction point 6% is connected to control grid 61 of grid controlled gas tube TA. Gas tube TA has its cathode 62 connected to control grid 61 through capacitor 63 and the cathode is also directly connected to screen electrode 65. Cathode 62 is connected through cathode resistor db to junction point 67. From junction point 67 a connection goes to one terminal of relay holding capacitor 63, the other terminal of the capacitor being connected to junction point 6%.
Connected across capacitor 63 is a winding of relay K12. Between junction point 69 and ground are connected resistors 7tl and 71 in series, the junction point between the two resistors being indicated by 72. From junction point 69 a connection goes to one terminal of the winding of relay K2 (FIG. 6A), the other terminal of this relay winding going to junction point 73. From junction point 73 a connection goes to anode 74 of target grid controlled gas tube TGA. Target gas tube T GA has screen electrode '75 and cathode 7d grounded and has control grid '77 connected to junction point 78. Between control grid 77 and ground there is connected capacitor 79 Junction point 78 is connected to a terminal of target switch 2 3. Target switch 20 is connected by wire 3 to fixed contact 82 of a push to calibrate switch PTC. Co operating with lower normally open contact 82 is movable armature 83 of switch FTC. Movable armature 83 is connected by wire 8 to junction point 85 on Wire 86. Wire 86 goes to terminal 87 of target switch 20.
Returning to switch PTC, which switch, as its name implies, is used to enable a calibrating operation, movable armature 83 is normally dead. This movable armature is mechanically tied to movable armature 39, this armature 89 being connected by wire 90 and resistor 91 back to junction se. Resistor 91 can have a value about equal to that of resistor 54. Movable armature 89 in its normal position connects with fixed normally closed contact 91- which is connected by wire 93 to junction point 94 (HG. 6B). Junction point 94 is one terminal of a low voltage direct current power supply for bias purposes, the other terminal of which is 95. Terminal )5 is connected by Wire 96 to screen grid 65 of tee gas tube TA (FIG. 6). Terminals 9d and have capacitor d8 connected between them. Connected across capacitor 98 is rectifier 99 in series with transformer secondary winding 1%. Terminal 94 is negative to terminal 95.
Referring to FIGURE 6, junction point 1291 on Wire 96 is connected to one terminal of rectifier 102, the other terminal of which is connected to normally closed Contact KILZA against which there is disposed movable armature K123 actuated by relay winding K12. Movable armature K1213, in the energized position of the relay, cooperates with fixed normally open contact KlZC which is connected to wire 1% having junction point I104. From junction point M94, wire Hi5 goes to one terminal of dropping,
resistor 16 3, the other terminal of which is connected to junction point 52. I
Referring now to movable armature K123, this armature is connected to wire llltl having junction point 111. From junction point lllll wire 112 goes to junction point 113. Junction point 113 has one terminal of the winding of relay connected thereto, the other terminal of which winding is connected to anode 114 of grid controlled gas tube RTA. This gas tube has screen grid 115 and cathode 136 connected to junction point 117, which point is connected to one terminal of grounded bias resistor 118 and is'also connected to one terminal of capacitor 119 whose other terminal is connected to control grid 12% of this gas tube. Control grid 1% is connected to junction point 121 and from this junction point one branch goes through resistor 1232 to junction point 123. From junction point I125, wire 124 is connected back through a resistor 125 to junction point 78.
Returning to junction point 121, wire 126 constitutes the other branch going to fixed contacts 127 and 1280f reversing switch section RT and switch section LT. Switch RT is a reversing switch and has movable switch contact connected by wire to contact lfitl of transducer id. Transducer has its other contact 131 connected to junction point 1.23. Reversing switch RT has fixed contact 332 connected to fixed contact 133 of reversing switch section LT.
Fixed switch contact 133 cooperates with movable contact 134 which is connected to terminal lild of transducer Thistransducer has, its remaining contact 136 connected to junction point 137 which in turn is connected to junction point 123. Transducers 44 and 43, in the case of golf, would be disposed forward and to the right and loft, respectively, of tee. Depending upon the setting of reversing switches RT and LT (for right or left-handed players), transducers and 43 show a hook or a slice or vice versa. These transducers are adapted to generate a positive potential pulse at 136 or 135, as thecase may be, when hit by a club head.
Junction point 13) is connected through resistor 13$ to junction point which in turn is connected to control grid Mil of grid controlled gas tube LTA. Gas tube LTA has its screen Ml and cathode 142 connected to junction point ill. Cathode M2 is also connected to one terminal of capacitor" 1 whose other terminal is connected to control grid Mil. Control grid lad is also connected to fixed contact 133 of reversing switch section LT.
Gas tube LTA has its anode 1455 connected through the winding of relay Ki; to junction point 113. Relay K5 has movable armature KSA normally bearing against fixed normally closed contact In the energized position of relay K5, armature KSA cooperates with fixed normally open contact K33. Movable armature KSA is connected by a wire to fixed normally closed contact KdA which cooperates with movable armature K68 of relay K6. In the energized position of relay K6, armature K63 cooperates with fixed normally open contact K60 Armature K613 is connected by wire Mo to movable armature KZA of relay K2 (FETG. 6A). Wire 146 also extends to fixed normally open contact KTA of relay KT Referring to the bank of contacts for relay K2, in addition to movable armature KZA, there are movable armatures K23 to KZE, inclusive. Only armature KZC has a live normally closed contact KZF which is con nected by wire to one terminal of the winding of relay K7. The other terminal of this relay winding is connected through the windings of relays K4 and Kid in series to ground. Relay K7 has its armature K78 connected by wire M7 to normally open contact K28 and to armature KSA of a relay K3. Relay K3 has additional armatures KSB and KBC. Movable armature K3A is normally disposed against normally closed contact K31). Movable armature K38 cooperates with normally open contact K3113 which is connected to normally open contact KZH of relay K2. Armature KEB is connected by wire 148 to armature K213 and is connected around through resistor 1% to armature KZE. Armature KSC is connected to armature KZD. Normally closed contact K3F is connected to normally open contact K2] of relay K2.
Referring now to relay K4, this has movable armature K41 which bears against normally-closed grounded contact K43. Relay K19 has armature KltlA which cooperates with normally-open contact KltlB connected to one terminal of grounded capacitor 150. Relay contact KlilB is also connected to a continuation of wire 11%. Going back to relay K4, armature IUiA is connected by Wire 1512 to movable armature KSA of relay K8.
Relay KS has one terminal of its winding connected to movable armature KZE by wire 1553 and has the other terminal connected by wire 154 to armature KSIA of relay K). Movable armature KQA is connected through resistor 155 to the high side of grounded capacitor 156. Armature K9A normally is against normally closed grounded contact K913. Relay K9 has itswinding con-' nected across the terminals of rectifier 157 with one terminal grounded and the other terminal connected by wire 158 to collector electrode 159 of PNP transistor 16d. Transistor 16d has its base electrode 161 connected through bias resistor ldZ to emitter electrode 163. Base i161 is also connected through resistor 164 to normally open contact KEB of relay K8.
Branching from wire 154 is one terminal of variable resistor 165, the other terminal of which is connected to one terminal of capacitor 166. The other terminal of this capacitor is connected by wire 167 to normally open contact KZK of relay K2.
Referring to transistor lldti, emitter electrode 163 is connected by wire 169 to terminal 1% (FIG. 6B) of a source of direct current at high potential. Terminal 170 in this system is the oositive terminal with the negative terminal grounded. This source of potential includes capacitor fill, rectifier 1'72 and transformer secondary winding 173 connected as illustrated. The high potential terminal of transformer winding 173 is connected to junction point 175' from which wire 1% goes to armature K713 of relay K7.
Transformer secondary windings 10d and 173 are part of a power supply transformer 177 having some additional windings. Thus transformer 177 has secondary winding 178 having center tap 179 connected to wire 18d. Wire 13% is connected to contact 136 of transducer 43 (FIG. 6) and is also connected to one terminal of grounded Zener diode lfll across which is connected filter capacitor 182. Secondary winding 1'78 has its end terminals connected to the anodes of full Wave rectifier RCTi. This rectifier has its cathode 183 connected to junction point 184. Gas regulator tube VSTl has its cathode 1S5 grounded while anode 14% of this voltage regulator tube is connected to resistors 137 and 188 in series to ground. Junction point 18% between these two resistors is connected by wire 1% back to junction point 535 (FIG. 6).
Anode 1% of tube VSTI is also connected to junction point 191 connected to a high voltage filter system. This high voltage filter system has resistors 192 and 193 connected in series to junction point 184. Resistor 194 is connected between junction point 18 and wire 195 going to normally open contact KQLL of relay K2 (FIG. Returning to the filter system, grounded capacitors 1% and 197 have their high potential terminals connected to the terminals or resistor 193. The filter capacitor also includes capacitor 193 having one terminal grounded and the other terminal connected by wire Ztlil to relay armature KZC.
Returning to power transformer 177, secondary winding Zili has center tap 2&2 going to junction point 203. Junction point N3 is connected by wire 2M to movable contact MSA of manual switch MS. This manual switch has two stable positions, one for normal operation as shown and one for calibration. Returning back along wire 204 to junction point 203, a connection goes to capacitor 2% whose other terminal is connected through junction point 266 and resistor 2W7 to anode 2th; of voltage regulator gas tube VSTZ. This tube has cathode 299 connected to wire 2M. Junction point 2% is connected to cathode 2.11 of full wave rectifier RCTZ. The anodes of this rectifier are connected to the end terminals of secondary winding Ztlll.
Referring to voltage regulator tube VST2, anode 2% is connected to wire 212. Between wires 212 and 2M are connected in series, resistors 2.13 and 2M. Junction point 215 of these two resistors is connected by wire 216 to normally open contact MSB of switch MS. Normally open contact MSB cooperates with movable contact MSC which is connected through resistor 217 to control grid 218 of gas tube GT. Cathode 219 of this grid controlled gas tube is connected to screen grid 22%} and is also connected by capacitor 221 to control grid 213 and is grounded for AG. by capacitor 219a. Cathode 219 of this gas tube is also connected by wire 222 to normally closed relay contact KSF. Anode 223 of this gas tube GT is connected to one terminal of the winding of relay K1, the other terminal of which is connected to wire 224- going to the anode of gas tube TA. Across the winding of relay K1 is connected capacitor 225.
Relay Kl has armature KlA which cooperates with normally closed contact KllB. This last named contact KllB is connected to wire 226 which in turn is connected to wire M3 at junction point 227. Wire 22s continues on through junction point 227 to armature KltlA of relay Kltl. Junction point 228 also connects wire 2% through wire 229 to junction point 191 of the filter and also to normally open relay contacts KSE and KZH.
eferring now to manual switch MS, movable contact MSA cooperates with normally open grounded contact MSD and with normally closed contact MSE connected by wire 23% to cathode 231 of triode TRl. This tube has its control grid 232 grounded and its anode 1233 connected to junction point 234. Junction point 234 is connected by wire 235 to normally closed contact MSF. This contact cooperates with movable contact MSC which also cooperates with normally open contact MSB which is connected by wire 23s to normally open switch contact 237 of switch PTC.
Returning to junction point 234, this is connected through resistor 244) to cathode 241 of triode TRZ. Control grid 242 of this triode is connected through resistor 243 to junction point 73. Anode 24d of triode TRZ is connected to one terminal of capacitor 245 and the other terminal of this capacitor is connected to anode 233 of tube TR Capacitor 245 is the one whose potential determines the computer measurement and, accordingly, the value of this capacitor is important. Preferably, this capacitor is of the non-electrolytic type.
Referring to winding K9, this actuates seven wipers of seven banks of stepping switches. These stepping switches are of conventional construction and have their banks indicateQalphabetically from A to H inclusive. The output of the stepping switch banks illuminate lamps on a light score panel, not shown since it is of conventional form and connected to the system by means of connector plugs J1 and J2. For convenience, each bank is provided with a pair of wipers disposed in a straight line as indicated. The stationary contacts for each bank are disposed in a semi-circle so that the full travel of each wiper for a bank is a bit less than 180. Thereafter, the opposite wiper becomes eiiective. This is simply a convenience to permit the use of conventional stoppers without rendering the wiring unduly complicated.
Referring to the A bank, this has the A wiper connected by wires 247 and 176 to junction point 175. In the rest position, the A bank wiper is on a dead contact. For ease in consideration of the action of all of the wipers in all of the banks, clockwise rotation will be assumed. In the particular example where golf scoring is provided ill and where the distance is in yards, it has been found convenient to provide 35 separate steps for each wiper in each bank for covering the entire range of contacts. It is understood that this number is exemplary and may be varied to suit the particular game. Since all of the banks are part of one stepping switch structure, it will be understood that the various wipers will move together. In the A bank, the end stationary contacts are both dead. All of the remaining contacts are connected together and connected by wire 248 to a terminal of the winding of relay K3, the remaining terminal of this winding being grounded.
Referring now to the B bank, this has its wiper connected by Wire 249 to normally open contact K7A. The stationary contacts for the B bank are part of a light score indicating arrangement (not shown) usual in many games. For example, the first nine contacts in this bank may be dead. The next ten contacts may be connected together and will go to a light for indicating 100. The following ten contacts can be tied together and connected to a light for indicating 200. Thereafter, all the remaining contacts except the last one which is dead will be connected to the 300 lamp.
The C bank has its wiper connected by wire 25d to normally closed contact K53. The stationary contacts on this bank are connected as follows. The end contacts are dead. The contacts corresponding to 20, 120, 220, and 320 are all connected together to a 20-yard indicating lamp. The remaining contacts are connected in a corresponding pattern. It should be noted that the 100, 200 and 300 contacts are dead, since the B bank will take care of the hundreds.
The D bank has its wiper connected by wire 252 to normally open contact K66. The stationary contacts on this bank are connected to a different bank of lamps (not shown) on the same light panel but the connections are identical insofar as yardage is concerned, with the C bank. The D bank is only eiiective for showing the yardage on a hook. If the ball goes straight, the B and C banks show the yardage and the D bank is inoperative.
The F bank has its wiper connected by wire 2% to normally open contact KSC. This F bank is connected to its own series of lamps on the light panel (not shown) but otherwise duplicates the function of the C bank only when a slice (in the case of golf) occurs. In other words, if the ball does not go straight, the C bank will not light its lamps and instead, the D or F banks will be efiective. It is to be understood that there is a single panel containing all the scoring lamps with certain of the lamps being illuminated from different switch sections through plugs If. and J2.
Going back to the E'bank, its wiper is connected by wire 256 to anode 244 of triode TRZ. All of the stationary contacts in this bank are dead except the very last one for one operating range of the wiper. This contact indicated by 257 is connected by wire 253 to anode 233 of triode TRil. It will be seen that when the wiper for the E bank is on contact 257, capacitor 245 will be short circuited. This prevents any over-run of the stepping switch in case a long drive, beyond the score range, is hit.
Now referring to the H bank, this bank has its wiper connected by wire 260 to armature KZD. This bank of contacts provides the potential to match the potential in capacitor 245 after the capacitor has discharged during thetime interval being measured. It will be noted that beginning with the first contact in the H bank, adjacent contacts are connected to each other by calibrated resistors. The very last contact in this bank is dead. The accuracy of the calibrations may be controlled by the following means. The first contact in the H bank is connected by wire 262 to wiper 263 of switch SW1. Wiper 263 can cooperate with any one of a number of contacts 264 to 2268 inclusive. Adjacent contacts are connected by resistors and one of the end contacts, in this instance 254, is connected by wire 27% through resistor 271 to junction i) point 106. The potential of wire 270 is stabilized by diode 271a which breaks down and conducts current when the potential exceeds a certain value.
In corresponding fashion, the next to the last contact in the bank is connected by wire 272 to wiper 273 which can play over fixed contacts 274 to 273 inclusive. Between these fixed contacts, resistors are connected and end contact 278 is connected through resistor 279 to one terminal 280 of a variable resistor, the other terminal of which is grounded.
It is understood that switches SW1 and SW2 are manual switches for calibration purposes. Sometimes it may be desired to read higher or lower scores to compensate for other factors, such as the grade of balls used.
Referring now to power transformer 177, this is provide with primary winding 282 connected to junction points 283 and 284 respectively. Junction point 283 is connected through door safety switch 235 to supply wire 286. Junction point 234 is connected through a fuse.
(not shown) to supply wire 287. The winding of relay K11 is connected across junctions 283 and 284. This relay has movable armatures K11A and K113. K11A is connected to wire 224. This armature cooperates with normally open Contact KllC which is connected by wire 290 to armature KIA of relay K1. Armature KitlB is connected by wire 291 to energize ready lamps in boxes J1 and J2 in the scoring system. Armature K113 co operates with normally open contact K111) which is connected by wire 292 to normally closed relay contact K31). The two normally closed contacts of relay K11 (not shown) are both dead.
The operation of the system is as follows. Assume that door safety switch 285 is closed. Primary winding 282 of the power transformer and the winding of relay K11 will both be energized. It should be understood that the power to both the power transformer and to the winding of relay K11 may be controlled by a coin operated switch. With the winding of relay K11 energized, armatures KllA and KllB will be pulled against their normally open fixed contacts KllC and K111), 'respectively.
With the power transformer energized, a highrectiiied potential from the cathode of rectifier RCTl will be impressed upon junction 184. Going to the left of thejunction, filtering through resistors 193 and 192 will occur and the potential at 191 will be stabilized at some lower value than junction 184 by operation of gas tube VSTl. The stabilizing potential at junction 191 will be impressed upon junction point 228 and will go up wire 226 through contacts KlB and KIA along wire 296 to contacts K116 and K11A to wire 224 and along wire 224 to the anode of grid controlled gas tube TA.
At this point it might be observed that the various gas tubes are normally biased to cutoff. The bias of TA is obtained by the rectified potential originating with secondary winding 100 of the power transformer. The negative terminal 94 of this biasing source of potential is conducted along wire 93 to contacts 92 and 89 of switch PTC, then along wire 90 and through resistor 91 to control grid 61 of gas tube TA. The remaining gas tubes are biased from Zener diode 1251.
Returning to the biasing power supply, the positive terminal 95 is connected through wire 96 to junction point 101 and thence continuing along wire 56 to the cathode and screen of gas tube TA. The potential of cathode 62 of tube TA is clamped to ground through resistor 66, relay Winding K12, resistors 70 and 71.
Going back to power supply transformer 177, when secondary winding 201 is energized, a high potential on cathode 211 of rectifier tube RCT2 (this potential is lower than the potential at cathode 183 of RCT1) is impressed upon junction point 296. Gas tube VST2 pulls this potential down to a stabilized value. The potential at anode 208 of gas tube VST2 is impressed by Wires 212 upon one terminal of capacitor 245 and anode 244 of triode TR2.
This positive potential appears on the other terminal of capacitor 245, on junction point 234 and on anode 233. Control grid 232 of triode TR! is at chassis ground while cathode 231 is also at ground (gas tube TA is not conducting). The return path for'current from the power supply regulated by VST2 is through wire 230, switch contacts M813 and MSA, wire 2M to cathode 209 of regulator gas tube VST2. I
Thus a charging circuit for capacitor 245 is created through triode TRl. As capacitor 245 charges, the potential of junction point 234 and anode 233 will drop with respect to the positive potential of anode 244. When capacitor 245 is fully charged, the potential at anode 244 and the corresponding terminal of capacitor 245 may, for example, be plus 70 volts with respect to ground whereas the potential of junction point 234 and anode 233 will be practically zero. It might be observed that for cathode biasing purposes, chassis ground is not at the most negative potential but slightly above negative, due to the action of Zener diode 181 in the high voltage power supply. Zener diode 181 passes current in a reverse direction from an ordinary diode and maintains a constant voltage drop with varying current. Center tap 179 is the most negative point in that section of the power supply and current flowing through Zener diode 181 makes chassis ground slightly positive with respect to point 179. Thus to have a complete circuit for the power supply section, including winding 17%, RCTl and associated filter circuitry, current flows from winding 178 through tube RCTI, through its associated load to chassis ground, through chassis ground, Zener diode 181 and to center tap 179. At any rate, the potential across capacitor 245 when fully charged results in triode TR2 cutting off.
A positive pulse passing through capacitor 245 when it first begins to charge is transmitted from junction point 234 along wire 235 through switch contacts MSF and MSC through resistor 217 to control grid 218 of gas tube GT. This positive pulse, however, will not trip this gas tube for the reason that cathode 219 is biased to a potential which is positive to the maximum potential impressed upon capacitor 245. Thus as previously pointed out, the maximum potential for charging capacitor 245 can be about 70 volts. Cathode 219 of tube GT is normally biased to more than 70 volts and may, for example, be biased to plus volts. This is obtained through the following circuit: Wire 2522, relay contacts K31 K3C, KZD, wire 269, to the wiper of the H bank, wire 262, through the resistance network to wire 27%, resistor 271, junction point 106, wire 105, junction point 104, wire 103 to junction point 227. Junction point 227 can be at, say, about volts, this being the potential across voltage regulator tube VSTI; It might be observed that the potential of cathode 219 of gas tube GT will be less than the potential at junction point 227 due to the voltage drop through the various resistors in the network which may be traced from junction point 106 through resistor 271, the resistors between contact 264 and wiper 263, wire 262, the resistors in the H bank, wire 272, and thence through the various resistors to variable resistor 280 to ground.
The system is now ready for operation and it is assumed that a golf ball covers the tee and keeps light sensitive element 35 dark. The tee is of resilient, tough material as indicated at 36. When the ball is hit from the tee, the resistance of element 35 drops from a high value to a very low value. As a result, the potential of terminal 51 in a voltage dividing network from junction 106, wire Hi7, resistor Hi8, light sensitive resistor 35, junction point 51, resistor 54 to ground suddenly jumps positive. The positive pulse is transmitted through capacitor 56 and passes through rectifier 59 to appear on control grid 61 of tube TA. Conduction of the tube occurs and as is well known, once conduction is established in such tubes, the control grid losses control.
Diode 59 is biased on by the negative voltage obtained from power supply junction 94- to provide a ground return for grid 61 of tube TA through resistor 57. With the ball in place on the tee, the resistance of light sensitive element 35 is very high, so that the voltage appearing across resistor 54- is small. Capacitor 56 has a certain small charge on it with the positive terminal connected to junction 51 and the negative terminal connected to junction 55. Since only minute leakage current flows through capacitor 56, junction 55 is for practical purposes at the grid bias potential. When the ball is removed from the Tee, as stated, the resistance of light sensitive element 35 changes from its very high value to a very small value. Capacitor 56 charges to supply voltage, through 57, 56, 35 and 1% with junction 53 being positive. The charging current flowing through 57 causes a positive pulse to appear at the anode of diode 59 and thus at grid 61, causing tube TA to conduct. Capacitor 56 is now charged to the full supply voltage with a positive charge at junction 51. Junction 55 is returned to the grid bias potential. When a ball is again placed on the tee, light sensitive element 35 changes from a very low resistance to a very high resistance. This removes the supply from junction 51 causing junction 51 once again to go to a small value of voltage. When this happens, capacitor 56 discharges through resistor 57 and resistor 54, causing a large negative voltage to appear momentarily on junction 55. This negative pulse biases diode 59 off, thus preventing this voltage from appearing across grid 61 and therefore insuring stable operation of tube TA.
With tube TA conducting, the potential of cathode 62 normally at ground jumps. Current flows through resistor 66 and the winding of relay K12 so that the potential of junction point 69 jumps positive. Current flow through resistors 70 and, 71 causes the potential of junction point 72 to jump sutficiently so that the potential of cathode 231 of triode TR} becomes higher than the ground potential of control grid 232 and definitely and sharply cuts triode TRI off.
Returning to junction point 69, a positive potential is impressed through the winding of relay K2 upon anode 74 of gas tube TGA. It should be observed that the ball is in transit and has not as yet caused target switch 20 to be closed. However, K12 is energized and pulls down armature K12B to contact KlZC. Previous to the operation of relay K12, rectifier 102 had permitted the potential of junction point 101 to be about equal to ground. In practice, capacitor 150 connected between ground and wire 3.10 will be charged to a low potential, wire 110 being positive to ground. As has been previously pointed out, chassis ground is slightly negative to terminal 95 of the bias power supply. When capacitor 150 is fully charged, the potential of wire 110 rises to the point where rectifier 102 prevents passage of any further current to point lilll.
When relay K12 is energized, the potential at junction point 104 (assumed to be plus 150 volts), is applied through windings of relays K6 and K over wires 1N and 112 to the anodes of gas tubes RTA and LTA. If the ball goes straight, neither of these gas tubes becomes conductive. If however, one of the transducers such as, for example, 44 operates, then a positive pulse from transducer 44 is transmitted to the control grid of tube RTA in the assumed example.
When gas tube TGA breaks down, the potential of junction point '73 jumps and causes the potential of control grid 242 in triode section TR2 to become positive. Triode section TR2 now conducts and capacitor 245 begins to discharge through resistor 24% and triode section TR2. When the ball strikes the target area and the shock wave closes switch 2%, the positive potential from junction point 189 in the power supply is impressed upon control grid 77 of gas tube TGA and causes it to conduct. The flow of current through gas tube TGA immediately lowers the potential of control grid 242 of triode section TR2 and causes it to cut off. It should be noted that i2. as capacitor 245 discharges, the potential of junction point 234 rises causing the potential of cathode 241 to rise. Hence the sudden drop of potential of control grid 242 in triode TR2 terminates the discharge action of capacitor 245.
When gas tube TGA conducts, relay winding K2 is energized and energizes the bank of contacts associated therewith. When relay armature 42B closes down against KZH, 150 volts of potential from wire 229 is impressed on a circuit comprising resistor N9, wire 153, the winding of relay Kit, wire 154-, armature K9A and grounded contact KS B. At the same time relay armature KZE and contact KZK close so that the potential impressed on resistor 109 also charges capacitor 166, the charging rate being controlled by variable resistor 165. Relay K8 closes and causes armature KSA to close against normally open contact KSB. Armature SKA is connected by wire 152 to armature KdA which is grounded. The ground potential V is impressed through resistor 1.64 upon base electrode 161 of transistor T69. Normally transistor base 161 is biased through resistor tee to the same potential as emitter electrode 163 by wire 169 going to junction 170 of a transistor power supply. When base electrode 161 has its potential pulled to ground (normally the bias is positive), a pulse of current will go from emitter electrode 163 to collector 159 and through to junction 158 through the winding of relay K9 to ground. Rectifier 157 permits the induced potential to short to ground upon deenergization thereof. Relay Kh operates and advances the wipers of the stepper bank one step. The connections between relays K8 and K9 are such that when relay K8 operates, K9 cannot operate, and vice versa. Thus the relays alternatively act with the adjustment of variable resistor 165 controlling the speed of operation of the two relays.
When relay K2 is energized, armature KZC and normally open contact KZL close. This provides a charging circuit from junction point 184 through resistor 124, wire 1.95, relay contacts K21. and K2C, wire 200, to capacitor 198. Capacitor 198 has considerable capacitance in the microfarad range, such as for example about 70 microfarads, which is sufficient to operate a relay when discharging. Relay armature K21) and normally open contact K2! close but this does not change any circuit conditions so long as relay K3 remains deenergized. Relay contacts KZA and K26 involve the lamp circuits of the score board and for the present need not be considered.
With the lamp circuits energized through the relay contacts KZA and KZG, the stepping switch moves through its various positions. Control thyratron GT and the associated circuits provide a balancing bridge for two potentials being matched. One is across capacitor 245. The other potential is in the voltage divider network including the potentiometer wiped by the wiper in the H bank of the stepping switch. The potential from capacitor 245 impressed upon grid 218 of control tube GT through a path extending from one terminal of capacitor 245, junction 234, wire 235, contacts MSF, contact MSC, resistor 217, and grid 218. The potential on cathode 219 of tube GT is that derived from the'voltage divider network in bank H and is impressed over wire 222, contacts K21) and K2], wire 2649, and the wiper in the 1-! bank. Cathode 219 has a current path to ground from the above traced path to the wiper in the H bank, and then through the resistors in the H bank, wire 262, wiper 263, resistors in the SW1 switch, wire 27% to the diode to ground. At this point it might be noted that at the initial Rest posi tion when capacitor 245 is fully charged, the potential impressed upon grid 218 from capacitor 245 is minus volts in the example here and the voltage impressed upon cathode 219 is plus volts. As capacitor 245 discharges during the flight of the ball, the potential appearing on grid 21% steadily becomes more positive and as the wiper steps along on the H bank, the voltage divider network formed thereby reduces the positive potential appearing on cathode 219 simultaneously. As these two potentials change, the tube approaches its potential cut-in value. With a longer drive, the capacitor will have less time in which to discharge and hence the voltage appearing on grid 218 will be or" a greater negative value and conversely with a shorter drive, the capacitor will have had a greater time in which to discharge, and the negative potential appearing on the grid 218 will finally be of a smaller negativevalue. Obviously, if the capacitor 245 is allowed to completely discharge, the potential appearing on the grid 2 18 will be positive. This is the condition attained if a ball fails to terminate the discharge of the capacitor 245.
When the grid potential on grid 218 and cathode potential on cathode 219 reach the right proportions of the cut in value for thyratron GT, the tubewill fire and cause the temporary energization of relay K1. With the energization of relay Kit, contacts KIA and KlB open the high voltage circuit leading through these contacts to wires 2% and 224- leading to tube TA and also leading to target tube TGA and to the control thyratron tube GT. With the deeuergization of target thyratron TGA, the circult through this tube leading to relay K2 is broken and relay K2 deenergizes, and opens its contacts KZE and K213 which are in the energizing circuit for relay Kt Armature K58 controls transistor 160, which in turn controls stepping switch Kh. Thus'the stepping switch is stopped at a position such that the potential on cathode 219 is substantially matched with the potential on grid 213 of control thyratron GT. All wipers will stop together and some will be completing score indicating circuits to score board connector plugs J1 and J2. As the stepping switch moves along, the various yardages will be indicated upon the score board (not shown) as various lamps thereon are lighted in succession until the stepping switch stops. This stopping position shows the final or total yardage travelled by the ball. When relay K2 deenergizes, a path is completed through contacts KZC andKZF of this relay to relays K7, K4, and Kill from charged capacitor 398 which was previously charged during the operation of relay K2. Capacitor 1% discharges over wire Elli) and through these contacts KZC and K2 to energize relays K7 and K4 and K10 to provide a short fixed time for observing and reading the yardage the ball travelled, and which is indicated of the panel (not shown) to which plugs the lights on 11 and 12 are connected. Relay K7 maintains through its contacts K'IA and KFB yardage lights on the score board. Relay K4 insures the stopping of the drive mocha- Once capacitor 193 has discharged to the point where its voltage is no longer able to maintain readout relays K7, K4, and Kid, these relays deenergize and in so doing the sliceor hook tubes are extinguished, and the contacts K iA and K41- close to complete an energizing circuit for stepping relay K which begins to cause the stepping switch to operate as it turns on transistor 160 and which in turn operates relay K9. The stepping switch will continue to move through its various positions until the stepping switch meets its home position whereupon the wiper in bank A is no longer engaging a contact, that is connected to wire 248 which is in the energizing circuit of relay K3. Hence relay K3 deenergizes and stops the further energization of relay K8. If during the foregoing operation, the golf ball had sliced or hooked, the transducer 44 or 4-3 would have been operated and its respective tube would have been energized. Whenever relays K6 or K associated with a hook or a slice respectively are energized, they move their respective contacts to break the energizing circuit leading through their normally closed contacts through the T1 connector plug to the light circuit over wire through the wiper in the F bank, which bank of contacts controls the energiza'tion of lamps in the light panel (not shown) through the J2 connector plug. As the wiper in the H bank moves across the contacts in the H bank, the potential on cathode 219 on the control tube changes until it reaches the threshold value forthe appropriate value set on grid 218 by the charge in capacitor 245. Upon the breakdown of control tube GT, relay K1 energizes and opens KIA and KIB contacts to break the high voltage circuit leading through these contacts and over wire 224 to the anode to tee TA. Since whichever one of tubes LTA 0r RTA that was originally energized upon the ball hitting the target must remain energized during the readout operation, it is necessary that the voltage therefor which normally is supplied from cathode 62 of tube TA through the normally closed contacts K12A and K123 be re-routed from the power supply from junction point 227 through contacts, now closed KlZC and K12B, wire 110, junction 111, wire 112 to junction point 113. Relay contacts KltlA and K10B are closed during the readout time, as are the readout relays K4 and K7 which stop a stepping switch and permit the reading of the yardage recorded on the light panel bank through plug connector I 2 and the appropriate slice or hook designation therefor.
A previously stated, push to calibrate switch PTC is used to force a calibrating operation on the system of the invention. When actuatedarmature 89 moves into contact with normally open contact 237 to thereby place a positive potential from junction point 215 in the power supply on junction point which is connected to control grid 61 of tube TA. This causes tube TA to conduct in a manner aspreviously described and thus switch PTC in effect simulates the removal of the ball from the Tee which produces the same effect by sending a positive pulse through rectifier 59 to cause conduction of tube TA. Tube TA therefore can be switched to its state of conduction by pulse control from light-sensitive resistor 35 or by a potential artificially applied thereto through armature 89 of switch PTC.
As the same time armature 83, which is ganged to armature 89, places a short circuit across target switch 20 to simulate closure of the switch as happens when a ball hits the same. This causes the potential on junction point 139 in the power supply and junction to be applied to control grid 77 of target gas tube TGA, thus causing the tube to conduct in the same manner as if a ball had hit the target switch 20 to cause relay K2 to energize and the other circuits to operate in the manner as previously described. Switch FTC thus provides a check by which operation of the system can be determined and is used in conjunction with SW1 and SW2 to I calibrate the system. 7
Manual switch MS is a transfer switch providing an operate position and a calibrate position. in the calibrate position movable contacts MSA and MSC contact normally open contact MSD and normally open contact MSB, respectively. Contact MSB is connected by wire 216 to junction 215 on one end of resistor 214 in the voltage regulated power supply, and movable contact MSA is connected by wire 2M to the opposite end of resistor 214. This, then places a positive potential from ground on grid 218 of tube GT whenever switch MS is in the calibrate position and this potential is the same as exists in normal operation whenever a drive of a preselected distance, such as yards, is recorded. Upon the operation of switch PTC (Push to Calibrate), operation of same described earlier, stepping switch K9 changes the potential of cathode 219 of tube GT, progressively lowering this potential, until it almost equals the potehtial of grid 218, set by operation of switch MS. When the potential of grid 218 is almost the same as potential of cathode 219, tube GT conducts energizing relay K1, op-
crating the other circuits as prevoiusly described. Control terminal 2% of the variable calibrate resistor provides adjustment to calibrate the circuit for the preselected distance, such as 180 yards.
This switch, therefore, whenever it is actuated takes control of tube GT from capacitor 245 and assumes control itself. Switch MS is thus used for initial calibration of the system since it can stop the stepper switch and lights at the proper point and can also be used in conjunction with switch PTC to check out the operation of the entire circuit.
While the invention has been shown and described in a preferred embodiment it is realized that modifications can be made without departing from the spirit of the invention and it is to be understood that no limitations on the invention are intended other than those imposed by the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a game system of the type wherein a ball is propelled from a normal Rest position toward a target area, the combination of a support upon which the bail will normally rest, a photo-sensitive element in said support, said ball normally preventing access of light to said photo-sensitive element, said element being exposed to light falling on the top of said support in the absence of said ball, circuit control means at said target area, electronic time measuring means, connections between said photo-sensitive element and time measuring means for initiating a time measuring cycle and connections between said circuit control means, at the target wall for terminating a time measuring cycle.
2. A game system as set forth in claim 1 in which said support is a flexible well-like ball support.
3. A game system as set forth in claim 1 in which said support is Well-like, and said photo-sensitive element is at the bottom of said well-like support.
4. The construction according to claim 1 wherein said circuit control means at said target area includes a metal tube, a coiled helical spring carrying a movable contact at one end, said spring being mounted so that the axis of said spring is normally coincident with the tube axis, said tube and movable contact being disposed in a pocket within the flexible target wall material and being able to withstand the rough usage without loss of sensitivity.
5. A golf game according to claim 1 wherein means are provided forwardly of the ball support and laterally disposed with respect thereto for generating a potential pulse in the event of impact on said means by a golf club whereby a hook or a slice will be indicated.
6. In a practice game apparatus wherein a ball is normally at rest and a player starts the ball in flight toward a target region, the improvement comprising: means for supporting the ball in the Rest position until the player produces a physical impact on the ball to move the ball into flight, said means having an aperture therein which is covered by the ball when the ball is in its Rest operation and which is uncovered as the ball leaves said means for supporting the ball, photo-sensitive means receiving light through said aperture means when said ball is not covering said aperture, said photo-sensitive means receiving substantially no light through said aperture means when the ball is resting on said supporting means, said photo-sensitive means changing its electrical characteristics in response to a change in intensity of light impinging thereon, timing circuit means responsive to a change in the electrical characteristic of said photo-sensitive means to begin a time measuring operation, target means responsive to the arrival of the ball in the target region to produce an electric signal to terminate the time meas uring operation, and translating means for translating the elapsed time measured by said timing circuit means into distance indications to indicate to the player a dis tance the ball should travel.
7. In a practice game apparatus wherein a ball is normally at rest and .a player starts the bail in flight toward a target region, the improvement comprising: tee means for supporting the ball in its Rest position while awaiting a physical impact produced by the player to start the ball in flight, said tee means having a hollow portion therein for receiving the ball, photo-sensitive means re ceiving light through said hollow portion in said tee means when said ball is not resting on said hollow portion and receiving no light through said hollow portion when the ball is resting thereon, photo-sensitive means changing its electrical characteristics in response to a change in intensity of light impinging thereon, timing circuit means response to a change in the electrical characteristic of said photo-sensitive means to begin a time measuring operation, target means responsive to the arrival of the ball in the target region to produce an electric signal to terminate the time measuring operation, and translating means for translating the elapsed time measured by said timing circuit means into distance indications to indicate to the player a distance the ball should travel.
8. In a practice game apparatus wherein a ball is normally at rest and a player starts the ball in flight toward a target region, the improvement comprising: means for supporting the ball in the Rest position until the player produces a physical impact on the ball to move the ball into flight, said means having an aperture therein which is covered by the ball when the ball is in its Best operation and which is uncovered as the ball leaves said means for supporting the ball, photo-sensitive means receiving light through said aperture means when said ball is not covering said aperture, said photo-sensitive means receiving little light through said aperture means which the ball is resting on said supporting means, said photosensitive means changing its electrical characteristics in response to a change in intensity of light impinging thereon, timing, circuit means responsive to a change in the electrical characteristic of said photo-sensitive means to begin a time measuring operation, a vertical target means blocking the fli ht of the ball, said target means located a relatively short distance from said means for supporting the ball to arrest flight of the ball short of what its unblocked flight would be, said vertical target means generating shock waves due to the impingement ofthe ball thereagainst, transducer means secured to said target means and in response to a shock wave producing an electric signal to terminate the time measuring operation, said transducer means comprising an insulating block, a spring element mounted on said insulating block, and
' a conductive tube encircling said spring element, and
located adjacent to said spring element for contact therewith in response to a shock wave, and, translating means for translating the elapsed time measured by said timing circuit means into distance indications to indicate to the player a distance the ball should travel.
9. In a practice game apparatus wherein a ball is normally at rest and a player starts the ball in flight toward a target region, the improvement comprising: means for supporting the ball in the Rest position until the player produces a physical impact on the ball to move the ball into flight, said means having an aperture therein which is covered by the ball when the ball is in its Rest position and which is uncovered as the ball leaves said means for supporting the ball, photo-sensitive means receiving light through said aperture means when said ball is not covering said aperture, said photo-sensitive means receiving less light through said aperture means when the ball is resting on said supporting means, said photosensitive means changing its electrical characteristics in response to a change in intensity of light impinging thereon, timing circuit means responsive to a change in the electrical characteristic of said photo-sensitive means to begin a time measuring operation, target means responsive to the arrival of the ball in the target region to produce an electric signal to terminate the time measuring operation, and translating means for translating the elapsed time measured by said timing circuit means into distance indications to indicate to the player a distance the ball should travel, a plurality of sensing means each located on a side of said means for supporting said ball, said sensing means sensing whether or not the player properly propelled the ball, and a plurality of indicating means each of said indicating means responsive to one of sensing means to indicate the manner in which the hall was not properly propelled.
10. In a practice game apparatus wherein a hall is normally at rest and a player starts the ball in fiight toward a target region, the improvement comprising: neans for supporting the hall in the Rest position until the player produces a physical impact on the hall to move the ball into flight, said means having an aperture therein which is covered by the ball when the ball is in its Rest position and which is uncovered as the ball leaves said means for supporting the ball, photo-sensitive means receiving light through said aperture means when said ball is not covering said aperture, said photo-sensitive means receiving less light through said aperture means when the ball is resting on said supporting means, said photosensitive means changing its electrical characteristics in response to a change in intensity of light impinging thereon, timing circuit means responsive to a change in the electrical characteristic of said photo-sensitive means to i3 begin a time measuring operation, target means responsive to the arrival of the hall in the target region to produce an electric signal to terminate the time measuring operation, translatin means for translating the elapsed time measured by said timing circuit means into distance indications to indicate to the player a distance the hall should travel, a plurality of sensing means each located on a side of said means for supporting said ball, said sensing means sensing whether or not the player properly propelled the hall, a plurality of indicating means, each of aid indicating means responsive to one of said sensing means to indicate the manner in which the ball was not properly propelled, and two sets of scoring lamps each energizable by said translating means to indicate to the player the distance the ball should travel, one set of lamps indicating the distance of a straight flight of a ball and the other set of lamps indicating a curved flight of a ball.
l ieterences tCiterl in the file of this patent UNETED STATES PATENTS