|Publication number||US3160051 A|
|Publication date||Dec 8, 1964|
|Filing date||Apr 10, 1961|
|Priority date||Apr 10, 1961|
|Publication number||US 3160051 A, US 3160051A, US-A-3160051, US3160051 A, US3160051A|
|Original Assignee||Roman Guenther|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (2), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 8, 1964 R. GUENTHER PIPE ORGAN ACTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 10, 1961 Fig. 2
m M w m Roman G uenfher Buck/10m, Cheat/7am 8: Blore ATTORNEYS 1964 R. GUENTHER 3,160,051
PIPE ORGAN ACTION Filed April 10, 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. 77 77 -87 Roman G uemher Fig. 7
6 BY 80 Buckhorn, Cneaf'nam 8 Blore United States Patent arsenal FEE GRGAN ACTIQN Roman Guenther, 726% SW. iiridgeport, Tigard, Greg. Filed Apr. 10, 1% still. No. 191,991
7 Claims. or. s c-sar This invention relates to pipe organs and particularly to pipe organs having pallets operated by electro-pneumatic action.
Heretofore, in such an organ, it has not been possible to regulate the degree of opening of a pallet and this has deprived the player of the flexibility of control which is desirable.
It is a main object of the present invention to provide a pipe organ having paliets operated from the usual keys by electropneumatic mechanism so constructed that the degree of opening of the pallets can be regulated in accordance with the degree of depression of the keys.
Another disadvantage of organs of the type under discussion is that the resistance to depression of a key is (lit crent from that of an organ in which mechanical coupling between the keys and the pallets is utilized. Thus, an organist accustomed to the feel of the keys of the latter type of organ has diificulty playing an organ of the former type.
It is another object of the invention to provide an organ of the electro-pneumatic action type constructed so that the keys have a feel similar to that of mechanically coupled organs.
Various other objects of the invention will be apparent from the following description taken in connection with the drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a vertical section through part of the keyboard of an organ of the present invention taken along line ll1 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 2 is a bottom view of the structure in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a transverse section taken aiong line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic View showing the electrical circuitry associated with a key;
IG. 5 is a vertical section through the wind chest and pallet box of an organ of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a vertical section taken along line 6-6 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a PEG. 5; and
FIG. 8 is an enlarged elevational view of the solenoid valve actuating mechanism of FIG. 5.
vertical section taken along line 7-7 of General Description FIG. 4 shows one key 11 or an organ keyboard which when depressed wiil progressively complete electrical circuits through a plurality of flexible, staggered contacts 13a, 13b, 13c, 13d and 13a to progressively energize a plurality of solenoid coils 15a, 15b, 15c, 15c! and 115s forming part of a motor means to operate pallets to be described.
Referring to FIG. 5, the solenoid coils progressively cause the actuation of a plurality of valves 17a, 17b, 17c, 17d and 17a disposed in one chamber T8 of a wind chest 19, to cause the progressive actuation of a plurality of bellows or pneumatics Zita, lib, 21c, 21d and 21e. The bellows operate on an equalizing bar linkage 23 to pro gressively open a pallet assembly 25 to supply regulated quantities of air to a key channel of a pallet box 27. Air from the box is supplied to organ pipes 29. The usual stops may be provided for the pipes but are not shown. From the above, it is apparent that the amount of air supplied from the chamber 1% to the pipes 29 is proportional to the degree of depression of the associated key.
3,150,051 Patented Dec. 8, 1964 Specific Description Referring to FlGS. 1 and 2, three keys, 11, lix and lily of an organ keyboard are shown mounted in conventional fashion for individual pivotal movement on a support bar 31 by vertical pivot pins 33 loosely received by the keys. At the rear or right-hand end of each key as the parts are shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, there is a biasing device for creating a desired resistance to depressing movement of the key and for returning the key to its raised, inoperative position.
The device for key 11 includes a single armature 35 in the form of a strip or strips of magnetic material secured by fasteners 36 to the lower surface of the tail of the key so as to project rearwardly from the key in parallel relation thereto. A permanent magnet 37' is provided for armature 35 and is supported in contiguous relation to the armature by a support strip 39 which is secured by screw fasteners 41 in spaced relation with respect to a mounting bar 43. A simple leaf spring 45 is disposed between the strip 39 and the mounting bar. By threading the screw fasteners ill inwardly or outwardly, the spacim or degree of contact between the permanent magnet 37 and the armature 35 can be varied to vary the resistance to depression of the front end of the key.
From the above, it is apparent that when the performer applies pressure to the front end of a key, he meets the resistance of the force of attraction between the magnet 37 and the armature 35. Upon overcoming this, and separating the magnet and armature, the resistive force drops off substantially in accordance with well known principles. However upon release of the key by the performer, there is sufficient force of attraction, even though the key is in its fully depressed position, to pull the key hack to its inoperative position.
This type of resistance to key movement is very similar to that of mechanically coupled organs and thus enables a performer accustomed to the feel of the latter organ to readily play the organ of the present invention.
The biasing devices for the remaining keys are similar to that for key 11 except that the armatures and magnet assemblies of adjacent keys are disposed at different levels so as to separate adjacent magnets. Thus, the armatures 35x and 35y for keys 11x and My are secured to the upper surfaces of the tails of their keys, and the associated magnets 37x and 37y and mounting strips 3% and 39y are mounted on the upper face of the mounting bar 43.
Under the front ends or" the keys is a front mounting bar 51 having upwardly projecting guide pins 53 received by blind holes 55 provided in the under side of the keys.
Each key is provided with a movement limiting member in the form of a depending shaft 57 loosely received through a bracket 5% mounted on the front mounting bar 51. The shaft carries on its lower end a suitable bumper 61 to engage the under side of the bracket 59 and limit upward movement of the associated key. Downward movement is limited by engagement of the key with the bar 51, a felt bumper 62 being provided on the bar.
Each key also carries on its under side an electrical contactor 65 secured by fasteners or to the key and normally disposed in spaced relation above the associated electrical contacts 13a, 13b, 13c, 13d and 1132. Referring to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, the contacts 13a, 13b, 13c, 13d and 13s are disposed in echelon relation, that is, they are spaced from one another both vertically and horizontally. This echelon relation is best shown in FIG. 3. Thus downward flexing of the contacts will not cause engagement of the contacts with one another.
Referring to FIG. 4, a source of electrical energy 71 is connected by a conductor '72 to the contactor 65 and by a conductor 73 to the solenoid coils 15a, 15b, 15c,
d and He which are connected to the contacts 13a, 135:, 30, 13d and 13a, respectively, as shown.
When a key is depressed, its contactor as will progressively engage the contacts, each of which is connected as shown in PEG. 4 to an associated solenoid coil. To be specific, depression of the key 1?. in FIG. 4 will first create a circuit through solenoid coil 15a, and subsequently when it is depressed further will create a circuit through the solenoid coil 15!), and so on.
Referring to FIG. 5, the interior of one chamber 18 of the wind chest 19 is shown in association with one key channel 74 of the pallet box 27. There is a source of air under pressure not shown, connected in a conventional manner not shown, to each of the chambers to supply them with com ressed air.
In FR}. 5, the solenoids 15a through 15a are shown mounted on brackets 75 which have felt pads 7% on their upper faces and are secured to the lower surface of a manifold block 7'7 which in turn is secured to the walls of the wind chest 11 The manifold block has a series of vertical passages 78 communicatory at their upper ends with the interior of the bellows 21a through Zlle via matching holes in the lower heads '79 of the bellows 2341 through 21s. The lower ends of the passages communicate with cavities till formed in the lower face of the manifold block and covered by the brackets '75 and pads i5. However, the brackets and pads are formed with registering ports 81 to normally place the cavities in communication with the compressed air in the associated chamber 13.
Further explanation at this time is best confined to a single bellows and its associated mechanism. The communication between the cavity 823 for the bellows 21a and the chamber 13 may be cut off, and communication established between the cavity it} and an exhaust passage 85 in the manifold 77 by the operation of the associated valve 1%. The valve is a double acting poppet valve having a head located within the cavity and normally disposed in a raised position closing the lower end of a branch exhaust passage 87.
The head has :1 depending threaded stem 91 passing through the ports 8i and through the tail end of an armature extension 95, the other end of which is secured to an armature 9'7. Nuts 96 are provided on the stem 91 to enable adjustment of the armature relative to the coil 15a. Energization of the coil 15a will actuate the armature, raising it, to lower the head This places the passage 3 in communication with the exhaust branch passage 87 and cuts off communication of the passage '78 with the chamber 18.
FTGS. 6 and 7 show that the passage 85 is provided by forming a groove in the manifold block '77 and covering it with a plate 99.
The bellows 21a through 210 have upper heads 151 9 connected to the equalizing bar linkage 23. Since the linkage is suspended from the pallet assembly 22?, the pallet assembly 25 will be described prior to describing the details of the linkage.
it should be mentioned that the pallet assembly is of conventional form and so its description will be rather brief. The lower wall 115 of the pallet box 27 is provided with a relief opening it? and with a divided main opening 119. There is a depending rivet or bolt 12 1 which is secured at its upper end to the wall .115, and extends downwardly through a main pallet 123, a relief pallet T25 and a leaf spring 127, which engages the head of the bolt and urges the pallets to remain in their closed positions. The main pallet 123 fits in a recess formed in the upper surface of the relief pallet 125. The upper surface of the left-hand end of the relief pallet and the upper surface of the main pallet have suitable felt pieces 129 and 131 to form a seal against the marginal edges of the openings 3.17 and 119 respectively.
The main pallet has a depending headed stud or bolt 133 passing through a hole in the relief pallet 125, with the bolt head disposed in predetermined spaced relation below the relief pallet. A guide member 141 is secured to the lower wall of the pallet box and extends through an appropriate slot 143 in the relief pallet so that the guide member l i-ll and the bolt 12-1 together with the bolt 133 guide the relief pallet and main pallet for downward movement.
The left-hand end of the relief pallet has a finger 145 from which the linkage 23 is suspended, and specifically on which is hooked the upper end of a turnbuckle M7. The lower end of the turnbuckle is hooked around the center of a main equalizer bar M9, and suitable spring clips 1% on the finger 14S and bar 14% retain the ends of the turnbuckle in the position shown, while allowing pivotal movement of the turnbuckle relative to the finger M5 and main bar 149.
The main equalizer bar is provided at each end with a bai 353 and each bail supports the center of a secondary equalizer bar 155. Each of the secondary equalizer bars has at each end a bail 157 connected by a retainer 159 to the upper head of the associated bellows. Any suitable means such as spring clips 151 may be utilized to retain the bails in position. The spring clips 151 and the retainers 159 allow the bails to pivot relative to the members which they connect.
A rigid finger 165i is secured by fasteners 1:3 to the upper head 1W9 of the bellows Zlla in a position projecting laterally to the left and above and in engagement with a portion of the upper head it of the second bellows 21b. A pillow or pad to? is secured to the bight at the right-hand side of the bellows 21a to insure proper action of the bellows.
Operation When key ll is depressed sufiiciently to engage the uppermost contact 13a (FIG. 4), a circuit will be completed through the solenoid coil 15a to actuate the solenoid armature 97 moving the armature in a clockwise direction as the parts are shown in FIG. 8 to lower the stem of the valve 37a (FIG. 5) and open the passage 37 and close the ports 81. Thus th interior of the bellows Zia is placed in communication with the exhaust passage 85 to drop the pressure in the bellows to atmospheric. Since the pallet box will be under pressure this places the interior of the bellows at a. lower pressure than the exterior so that the bellows will be collapsed with the linger 161 pulling down on the head of the bellows 21b to partially collapse it. This movement is transmitted from the head of the bellows 21b to the right-hand equalizer bar 155 to pull the right-hand end of the bar downwardly with the bar acting as a second class lever pivoting about the bail on its opposite end. Bar 149 is similarly affected and its movement opens the pallet assembly 25 a desired extent so that a controlled quantity of air is now supplied to the pipes 29.
If the key 11 is depressed further to bring it into contact 13b, the coil 15b will be energized to operate the associated valve so that the bellows 21b completely collapses. This pulls the right-hand end of the associated bar 155 further downwardly to pull the right-hand end of the bar 149 further downwardly. The bar 149 continues to act as a second class lever to further open the pallet assembly 2 5 to supply an additional quantity of air to the pipes 29. Further depression of the key and energization of the coil will cause the collapse of the bellows 210 to completely lower the equalizer bar and tilt the equalizer bar 149 further in a clockwise direction to open the pallet assembly still further. Thus a still greater quantity of air is supplied to the pipes 29. A further depression of the keys will complete a circuit through the solenoid coil 15d collapsing the bellows 21d to swing the associated equalizer bar 155 in a clockwise direction to lower the left-hand end of the equalizer bar 1 9 to further open the pallet assembly. When the key ii is depressed its full extent, the last bellows 212 will be collapsed to pull down fully the lefthand end of the associated equalizer bar 155 which pull the bar 149 to its lowermost position to pull the pallet assembly to its final, fully open position.
The pad or pillow 1.67 acts as stop about which the top 1%9 of the bellows 21a and finger 161 will rotate upon col apse of the bellows to exaggerate the movement of the finger.
When the key 11 is released, it is returned to its upper or raised position by its magnetic assembly, and the contactor 65 disengages the contacts 13a through 138. The coils 15a through lls'e are disengaged allowing the valves 17a through 17c to rise opening ports $1 and closing passages 37. Compressed air now enters the bellows through passage 78 to permit them to return to their normal position and allow the pallet assembly 235 to close under the influence of the spring 127.
in certain installations, it is contemplated that th bellows 21a through 212 and the related pneumatic system may be eliminated and the solenoid armatures connected directly to the links 157.
While solenoids of a certain type are shown in the drawings, it is apparent that other solenoids could be used instead. The same applies to the pneumatic valves.
Having described the invention in what is considered to be the preferred embodiment thereof, it is desired that it be understood that the invention is not to be limited other than by the provisions of the following claims.
1. In a pipe organ, a wind chest, a key channel, means defining a port for conveying air from said wind chest to said key channel, a pallet mounted in said wind chest for closing said port, means biasing said pallet to closed position, a plurality of individually operable motor means connected to said pallet for ettecting movement of said pallet to various open positions, a depressible key, means responsive to the depression of said key for actuating a progressively larger number of said motor means as said key is progressively depressed whereby said pallet will be moved from closed toward fully open position by an amount proportional to the amount of depression of said key.
2. In a pipe organ, a key channel, a wind chest for supplying air to said key channel, a normally closed pallet for controlling the supply of air to said key channel, means biasing said pallet to closed position, said pallet having a full open position, a plurality of motor means operable independently of each other and each including a member having a first position in the inoperative condition of the motor means and a second position remote from said first position in the operative condition of said motor, a system of levers connecting said members to said pallet operative to impart movement of said pallet toward said full open position upon operation of said motor means proportional to the number of operated motor means, said levers being responsive to operation of all of said motor means to move said pallet to said full open position, and operator controlled means for edecting operation of said motor means.
3. In a pipe organ, a wind chest and a key channel defined in part by a common wall having an opening to provide communication therethrough, a pallet for closing said opening hingedly mounted in said wind chest for movement between a closed position and various open positions, means biasing said pallet to said closed position, and means for moving said pallet to open position comprising a plurality of pneumatics mounted in said wind chest, a plurality of lever means connecting said pneumatics to said pallet for progressively opening said pallet upon scriatim operation of said pneumatics, an operators key havin: a predetermined range of movement from a normal, inoperative position, and means responsive to progressive movement of said key from said inoperative position to operate said pneumatics serially.
4. in a pipe organ, a wind chest and a key channel defined in part by a common wall having an opening to provide for communication therebet veen, a normally closed pallet operatively mounted in said wind chest to close said opening, means for operating said pallet comprising a plurality of independently actuable motor means connected to said pallet, the degree of opening of said pallet being directly proportional to the number of actuated motor means, a key board including a depressible key for oper ting said pallet, and means responsive to the degree of de cssion or" said key for operating a proportionate number of said motor means whereby the degree of opening of said pallet will be proportional to the degree of depression of said key.
5. In a pipe organ, a wind chest, a key channel communicating with said wind chest, a normally closed pallet for controlling the admission of from said wind chest to said key channel, means biasing said pallet to closed position, a plurality of individually operable motor means, means operatively connecting said motor means to said pallet to move the same toward a fully open position, said connecting means being operable to transmit a force to urge said pallet to open position proportional to the number of said motor means operated, said motor means being capable collectively to urge said pallet to fully open position but incapable individually of moving said pallet to open position, an operators key, and means responsive to the degree of depression of said operators key for operating an increasing number of said motor means upon increasing depression of said key.
6. In a pipe organ having pallet means controlling the communication between a wind chest and a pallet box, a key movable through a range of movement, a plurality of indvidually operable motor means connected to said pallet means for moving the same, and sensing means responsive to increments of depressing movement of said key for energizing a progressively increasing number of said motor means as said key is depressed.
7. In a pipe organ having pallet means controlling the communication between a wind chest and a pallet box, a plurality of motor means connected to said pallet means for opening said pallet means to different predetermined positions in accordance with the number of motor means energized, and a depressible key connected to said motor means to cause energization of different numbers of said motor means in accordance with diilerent depressed positions of said key.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNlTED STATES PATENTS 1,076,069 Skinner Oct. 21, 1913 1,155,301 Darley Sept. 28, 1915 1,292,321 Hope-Jones Jan. 21, 1919 1,471,318 Compton Oct. 16, 1923 1,623,098 Deverall Apr. 5, 1927 1,680,039 Hammond Aug. 7, 1928 1,977,598 Severy Oct. 16, 1934 2,099,204 Hammond n Nov. 16, 1937 2,309,537 Rienstra Ian. 26, 1943 2,910,907 Bowman Nov. 3, 1959 2,996,941 Stiles Aug. 22, 1961
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4022097 *||Jul 15, 1974||May 10, 1977||Strangio Christopher E||Computer-aided musical apparatus and method|
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|U.S. Classification||84/337, 84/338, 235/61.00B, 984/12, 84/339|
|International Classification||G10B3/10, G10B3/00|