US 3160155 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 8, 1964 s. -M. BRAGG ETAL 3,160,155
MEDICAL comma DEVICE Filed April 1, 1963 INVENTORJ SHERMAN M. BRAGG IDA M. LEONARDINI JACK L. WARREN United States Patent Office I 3,l6d,l55 Patented Dec. 8, 1964 and lack L. Warren, Sacramento, Calih, assignors to Medi-Dode, inn, a corporation of (Jalifornia Filed Apr. 1, 1963, her. No. 269,331 2 Claims. (Cl. 128-1) The invention relates to' a device for systematically marking people with a permanent mark designating the medical characteristics specific to each of the persons so marked.
The daily newspapers and the medical journals are replete with examples of persons, such as diabetics, bleeders, and others having conditions requiring special treatment and precautions. In the event these people are injured in an accident, or are found unconscious, prompt action is necessary, preferably by aphysician. For entirely correct action, some form of .indici-a readily available on the affected person is almost mandatory.
Heretofore, these indicia have taken the form of devices worn about the wrist, ankle or neck, comparable to the dog-tags used at various times by members of the armed forces.
By and large, however, devices such as bracelets, anklets, medallions and emblems, while valuable in indicating blood type, hidden medical problems, or dangerous drug allergies, have been incapable of conveying a large number of medical characteristics and collective conditions such as allergies to horse serum, penicillin, diabetes, epilepsy, glaucoma, hemophilia, taking anticoagulants, myasthenia gravis, allergy to bee stings or wearing contact lenses.
Furthermore, while these mechanical devices are effective to alert the emergency attendant they are of use only so long as they are worn. Frequently, persons who are allergic to or are afiected by objects, particularly metal objects, in contact with their skin, prefer to remove the attached devices since the devices themselves produce an allergy.
It is therefore an object of the invention to provide a medical marker which is itself totally free from producing an allergic reaction.
It is another object of the invention to provide a medical system which obviates the need for physical attachments to the wearers ankle, neck or wrist.
It is still another object of the invention to provide a medical code which is uniform in placement so that the attending physician knows immediately Where to look for the information desired.
It is yet another object of the invention to provide a system which is universal in application in the sense that it is not dependent upon overcoming the barriers of language for its effectiveness.
It is a yet further object of the invention'to provide a medical identification device and method which can be expanded to cover substantially all characteristics ordinarily encountered in a human being.
It is still another object of the invention to provide a medical code system wherein new specific conditions and medical problems can readily be added, wherein changed or overcome conditions can be so designated.
It is yet another object of the invention to provide a generally improved medical code and survival system.
Other objects, together with the foregoing, are attained in the following description and shown in the accompanyto mark conditions which have changed, the open circles indicating the added openings.
While the device and method of the invention are susceptible of numerous physical embodiments and procedural steps depending upon the environment and the requirements of use, substantial numbers of the herein shown and described embodiment have been made, tested and used in the manner set forth, and all have performed in an eminently satisfactory fashion.
It is to be realized, of course, that maximum benefit is to be gained by use of the system on a world-wide or universal, scale. This means that language, per se, is replaced by symbols including color and geometry, or relative location of elements, and keyed to a universal code.
Fundamental is the Greek Delta, or A, or triangle, understood in all cultures.
This shape is represented in FIG. 1 as essentially a twodimensional device, or template 6 of any suitable material and in the form of an equilateral triangle. The template is pierced in a corresponding generally triangular arrangement by a plurality of openings.
Preferably, the apex 8 of the triangular template member 6 is pointed upwardly and, as appears most clearly in FIG. 1, the single opening 11, at the apex, plus the three openings 12, 13 and 14, in the row immediately below, are devoted to designation of the persons bloodtype, a characteristic which does not change throughout the persons life.
In usin the template, the template is placed on the persons skin adjacent the right armpit, either on the inner side of the arm or on the persons side adjacent the armpit, and with the apex of the template oriented upwardly, i.e. toward the armpit.
A suitable stylus or needle or other appropriate device for marking the skin with indelible red orgreen ink, or
dye, is thereupon utilized. The point of the stylus, having either the red or green ink thereon, as appropriate, is inserted through the appropriate one of the openings 11-1 in the template so as to mark or dot permanently the skin exposed through the openings, and in a predetermined pattern.
Blood type markings, as stated above, are effected through the openings lids and are designated in accordance with the following code:
As will be further noted by reference to FIG. 1, it can be seen that in the third row there are five openings, designated, from left to right, by reference numerals 20 through 24-. In a comparable manner, the openings in the bottom row are designated 30-35. These openings are of the same diameter (preferably one-sixteenth of an inch) as the blood-type openings iii-14, and thus also allow a marking stylus to be inserted therethrough so as to dot the skin behind the template with a predetermined pattern of red and green dots. While red and green are preferred, owing to the universal significance attached to red as a signal for danger, and green for safety, other contrasting colors could be used if essential to use other colors.
Following is the code designating the meaning of the dots marked on the skin through the corresponding openings -35.
Dot or opening: Code meaning 20 Penicillin. 21 Anti-biotics. 22 Caine Drugs. 23 Morphine, 24 Merthiolate. Diabetes.
31 Heart ailment. 32 Epilepsy.
34 Hay fever. 35 Dermatitis.
A red dot in any of the foregoing locations means that the person is either allergic to the drugs specified or is affiicted with one of the ailments set forth. A green dot in any of the locations, on the other hand, means that the person is not allergic to the drug or is not afiected with the ailment.
Contrary to the blood-type situation, which remains fixed throughout the persons life, allergies and ailments :an change.
We have, therefore, provided a scondary template 36 (see FIG. 2) which dillers from the basic, or primary, template 6, in that the secondary template 36 is provided with two additional rows of openings. The two templates are identical, however, in all other respects, both being in the shape of an equilateral triangle, each leg of which, preferably, is one inch in length.
For purposes of clarity, the openings in the secondary template 36 in registry with the openings in the primary template 6 are filled in, and the identical opening numbers are assigned, as in the case of the template 6. The iew, or additional, openings in the secondary template 36 appear as open circles and are designated, left to right (see FIG. 2) as 58-54 in the upper row, and as 6065 in he lower row. I
It will be noted that the additional openings are located directly above and are in close juxtaposition to the cor- 7esponding openings in the primary template. F or example, the opening 51 is directly above the opening 21 (anti-biotics). This enables a physician to alter the iniormation on the dot pattern to conform with changing :ircumstances. If, for example, the person originally :howed no allergic reaction to anti-biotics (and thus orignally had a green dot at location 21), but later developed such an allergy, the physician, by placing thesecondary :emplate in registry over the original triangular dot pat- :ern, could mark a red dot on the skin through the openng 51 corresponding to the anti-biotic opening 21. This, In effect, counterrnands or reverses the original unit of information and indicates that the bearer is allergic to anti-biotics.
It is to be noted at this juncture that the secondary :emplate would not be necessary were dyes available which, while being otherwise permanent, could, for example, be neutralized and then replaced by the opposite :olor. In other words, if the original dot 21 were green, and the person later developed an allergic reaction to anti- JlOtlCS, the green dot 21 could itself be changed to a red color.
As another alternative in meeting a change in the persons condition, a second or new triangular pattern of dots could be marked on the skin at a location immediately below the first pattern, the second pattern showing the latest or current status.
It is believed that marking the medical code pattern on the persons epidermis is by far the preferable way. However, it would be possible to mark a dog-tag which .could be worn by the person, or to mark a plate which could be carried by the person.
The codes set forth above were worked out after most careful study. It is to be recognized, however, that other arrangements and different designations are possible. In fact, additional dots could be provided to cover additional ailments and allergies. An excessive number of dots, however, might tend to confuse the attendant in an emergency situation, and for this reason an inordinate number of dots is to be avoided.
Basic to the full success of the entire system is the need for universal uniformity, which could eventually be achieved, for example, through the ofiices of a recognized, world-wide group, such as the World Health Organization.
What is claimed is:
1. A medical coding template comprising an equilateral triangular plate having a base and a pair of sides converging in an apex opposite said base, said plate having a plurality of openings adapted to receive a marking stylus, said openings including a single opening adjacent said apex, a'first row of three aligned equally spaced openings parallel to said base and removed from said single opening toward said base a predetermined distance such that said three openings form with said single opening an equilateral triangular outline similar to the shape of said equilateral triangular plate, said openings also including a second row of aligned, spaced openings parallel to said base and removed from said first row a distance equal to said predetermined distance, and a third row of aligned, spaced openings parallel to said base and removed from said second row a distance equal to said predetermined distance, said openings in said second and said third rows being located so that each of the end openings in said second row form with the respective adjacent end openings and next to end openings in said third row a substantially right triangular outline dissimilar in configuration to said equilateral triangular outline formed by said single opening and said three openings in said first row, each of said openings in said plate corresponding to a predetermined unit of medical information.
2. The device of claim 1 further characterized by a fourth row of openings spaced equi-distantly between said first row and said second row, said fourth row having a plurality of openings equal in number and spacing to the openings in said second row, and a fifth row of openings spaced equi-distantly between said second row and said third row, said fifth row having a plurality of openings equal innumber and spacing to the openings in said third row, said openings in said fourth and said fifth row corresponding to predetermined units of medical information identical with those assigned to the openings in said second and said third rows, respectively.
1,995,204 =F0rd Mar. 19, 1935 Nelson Apr. 27, 1954