US 3160345 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 8, 1964 E. c. WALSH 3,160,345
MANUAL CALCULATOR HAVING MULTIPLE ROTARY INPUTS Original Filed Feb. 15, 1962 1 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
E. c. WALSH 3,160,345
MANUAL. CALCULATOR HAVING MULTIPLE ROTARY INPUTS Dec. 8, 1964 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Original Filed Feb. 15, 1962 INVENTOR.
E. c. WALSH 3,160,345
MANUAL. CALCULATOR HAVING MULTIPLE ROTARY INPUTS Dec. 8, 1964 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR.
Original Filed Feb. 15, 1962 United States Patent Ofiice 3,ll),345 Patented Dec. 8, 1964 3,160,345 MANUAL CALCULATOR HAVING MULTIPLE RUTARY INPUTS Edward C. Walsh, 431 W. 7th St, Los Angeles, Calif. Original application Feb. 15, 1962, Ser. No. 173,561. Divided and this application Nov. 8, 1953, her. No.
Qlairns. (Cl. hid-73) This invention relates to improvements in manual counting devices and calculating machines, especially adding machines.
In preferred forms of the invention it utilizes commercially available counters or modified forms of such counters. The structure of commercial counters is, of course, well known and conventional in the art.
A first object of the invention is to make it possible to manually count by means of a counter at a speed which is increased by a factor of ten or more. To accomplish this, preferred forms of the invention utilize manual input means in the form of a dial resembling a telephone dial. This dial has ten equally angularly spaced finger holes and always rotates in one direction, such as, for adding. A single one of such dials may be used to actuate the input shaft of a known type of counter. The technique of dialing is the same as that in operating a telephone dial and a second object of the invention is to adapt the skill of persons in operating a telephone dial to rapid counting and calculating.
With reference to known forms of commercial counters, they usually have a plurality of counter Wheels representing units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. with carryovers between counter wheels, that is devices, for moving a wheel through one step, that is one count, in response to a full revolution of an adjacent wheel.
Another object of the invention is to make it possible to greatly increase the counting rate and enhance the computing capabilities by providing for manual inputs, as described in the foregoing, to not only the first wheel but to a plurality of individual counter wheels. By this means any number of counts from one to ten may be individually fed into any selected counter wheel.
A further object of the invention is to provide improved means for realizing the previous object.
Another object is to provide means for realizing the previous object in an unusually simplified way wherein the counter Wheels and the manual input rotors are cmbined rather than being separate.
A characteristic of the herein invention that is embodied in devices wherein the indicator or counter Wheels rotate about a common axis; the invention is characterized in that type of device. A further object of the invention is to provide an improved means for feeding inputs to a plurality of the counter wheels rather than only a single counter wheel wherein the counter wheels are mounted on concentric telescoping input shafts.
Another object of the invention is to provide means for realizing the foregoing objects wherein electromagnetic means are provided for individually actuating selected counter wheels and for doing this in a simple way by means of a single manual input dial or rotor of the type described above.
Another object of invention is to provide improved means for realizing the foregoing objects wherein a plurality of manually operable input rotors are provided geared to input shafts of the rotors in a three to one ratio, the manual input rotors having thirty dialing holes.
Another object of the invention is to provide improved means for realizing the foregoing object utilizing manual input rotors as in the previous object having direct drive to the individual counter wheels.
Another object is to provide improved dialing means comprising a rotatable stylus bar carrying styluses positioned to engage with dialing holes in the manual input rotors.
Another object of the invention is to provide a device of the type referred to in the foregoing wherein calculations such as addition can be performed by dialing in a manner duplicating that in which a telephone number is dialed This object is realized by a type of device wherein individual counter wheels can be selectively actuated by a single electromagnet responsive to a single manually operated dial input rotor. This form of the invention embodies a semi-automatic sequencing mechanism so that successive operations of the input dial feed counts into successive counter wheels corresponding to digits in a number being added.
A further object is to provide a device as in the foregoing object wherein the input is in the form of audible speech spoken into a microphone.
From the foregoing, it will be observed that the invention has many adaptations and avenues of utilization such as calculating grocery bills in supermarkets, figuring Bridge scores, etc., etc.
This application is a division of earlier application Serial No. 173,561 filed February 15, 1962 for Calculator, now abandoned.
Further objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description and annexed drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic view of one form of the invention;
FXGURE 2 is a diagrammatic view of another form of the invention;
FIGURE 3 is a plan view of another form of the invention;
FIGURE 4 is a sectional View taken along the line 4-4 of FIGURE 3;
FIGURE 5 is a diagrammatic view of another form of the invention;
FIGURES 6, 7 and 8 are views of another form of the invention;
Referring now in particular to FIGURE 1, numeral lll designates by way of example a small mechanical counter which may be of a known commercial type. It has a rectangular casing with a window 11, as shown, through which may be seen five separate dials concentrically mounted. As known in the art, the dial farthest to the right reads units, next tens, and the next hundreds, etc. The counter has an input shaft as shown at 13 and if desired, the counter may be of a type having a reset lever by manipulation of which the counter is reset to zero.
Mounted on the shaft 13 are bevel gears 16 and 17. Numeral 2i) designates a flat dial of approximately the size shown. It has ten equally spaced operating holes as shown, for example, at 21 providing for operation of the dial in the manner of operating a telephone dial. Numeral 22 designates a finger stop associated with the dial. Preferably the dial is on a shaft and behind it is a fixed member carrying numeral designations or indications from 0 to 9 behind respective finger holes. The dial 2!) is on a shaft carrying a bevel gear 25 meshing with the gear 17. These gears are of the same size so that there is a direct drive between dial 20 and shaft 13. As may be seen, therefore, any number from 1 to 9 may be dialed by the dial it which will in turn register on the first dial of the counter 10.
In the counter it which as stated, is a commercially available device, the first dial to the right registers one count for every one-tenth revolution of the shaft 13'. Accordingly, for every one-tenth revolution of the dial the first dial to the right of counter 10 registers one count. That is, if 4- is dialed on the dial 2% starting from 0 on the counter 19, the first dial to the right will register 4. Now, if another number between 1 and 9 is dialed on the dial it will add cumulatively to what was registered on the counter 10. Whenever the first dial on the right of counter 10 goes through 0, the carry-over mechanism causes a count of one more to be registered on the next dial to the left.
Numeral 27 designates a similar dial having a finger stop 28 and mounted on a shaft carrying bevel gear 30. Bevel gear meshes with gear 16 and these gears are in a 10:1 ratio so that one revolution of dial 27 produces ten revolutions of shaft 13. In other words, one-tenth of a revolution of the dial 27 will produce a full revolution of the dial farthest to the right of counter ill and a carryover of one count to the next dial, that is the tens dial. Thus by way of example, if 3 is dialed on the dial 2'7 this will result in three full revolutions of the shaft 313 adding a count of 3 to the second dial, that is the tens dial, of the counter it}.
The operating speed of counters of the type shown at 10 is such that they will readily accommodate themselves to a counting speed corresponding to the speed of normal manual dialing of a dial, such as 27, with a ratio of 10:1 in the drive from this dial to the shaft 13.
Each of the dials 20 and 27 preferably has a ratchet mounting 31-32 on their shafts so that they drive in only one direction and one does not drive the other. Or the bevel gears may be ratchet mounted. The number of ratchet teeth is a multiple of ten to preserve synchronism.
The device as so far described might, of course, be one equipped with only one of the dials and simply used for rapid counting one-by-one or in multiples of from 1 to 9. The single dial might, of course, be directly mounted on the shaft 13 producing an extremely small, compact, rapid counting device since the counter 19 may itself be very small occupying a space of roughly a cube one and onehalf inch on each side.
The dials 20 and 27 may be made only large enough to conveniently accommodate ten holes large enough to conveniently dial with the finger. The dials 2i and 27 could, of course, be made very small with very small operating holes in them adapted for operation by a stylus or pick.
For adding up to higher amounts, more dials might be provided similarly geared to the shaft 13, this being limited by the counting speed which the counter 10 is capable of. However, in another form of the invention, the capability of the device may be increased by having another operating shaft extending from the left side of the counter, such shaft being connected to the central dial of the counter It]. Further finger dials for hundreds and thousands would be connected to this shaft in the same manner that dials 2t) and 27 are connected to the shaft 13, that is the hundreds finger dial would be directly connected to the shaft and the thousands finger dial would be connected to it in a 10:1 ratio.
FIGURE 2 shows another form of the invention wherein the counter it? is similar except that it is provided with three concentric input shafts as shown at 35, 36 and 37. Shaft connects to the units dial of the counter; shaft 36 connects to the tens dial and shaft 37 connects to the hundreds dial. Shafts 35, 36 and 37 have mounted on them respectively manually operated dials 4-0, 41 and 42. These dials are concentric and may be made of various sizes, for example, they may be made of sizes such that each one can accommodate ten equally spaced finger holes of a size convenient for manually dialing. Or these dials may be made considerably smaller with small operating holes adapting them for dialing by using a stylus or pick. Such arrangement is shown in FIGURE 6 which also shows the counter construction in detail.
In back of the dials is a fixed member 56 having indicia from 0 to 9 on it as shown opposite the equally spaced operating holes. Numeral 46 designates a finger or dialing stop associated with the dials.
In the operation of the device of FIGURE 2, dialing of the outer dial 40 operates shaft 35 which connects to the units dial of the counter 1d causing it to register as described in connection with FIGURE 1.
The second dial 41 rotates the next shaft 36 which is directly connected to the tens dial of the counter 19 causing this dial to register. The innermost dial 42 is connected to the central shaft 37 which connects to the hundreds dial of the counter ltl. When a dial of the counter 10 completes a revolution, it carries over one count to the next dial to the left as is known in the art in this type of mechanical counter.
The devices as so far described have numerous applications because of their mechanical simplicity, cheapness, small size and extreme simplicity of operation not requiring skill or instruction other than knowing how to dial a telephone. The devices are capable of numerous applications including ordinary hand counting at a more rapid rate such as trafiic counting, scoring, counting of the number of persons present at gatherings, etc. However, the devices have much broader applications in the field of adding and computing. The devices adapt themselves ideally to counting money, for example, in supermarkets where customers wish to total the amount of their purchases which they may readily do with a counter of the invention as they take their purchases off the shelves. The device might conveniently be mounted on the Wheeled market basket carriages utilized in supermarkets enabling the customers to have their purchases totalled at the time they go past the cashier for payment so that they can check their own total with that of the cashier. In counting money, the dials of a device such as shown in FIGURE 2, may be conveniently thought of as the outer dial being for pennies, the second dial for dimes and the third dial for dollars.
FIGURES 3 and 4 show another form of the invention wherein the mechanical counter ill of the previous embodiments is not used. In this form of the invention, there are three concentric dials 59, 51 and 52. Dials 5t) and 51 have ten equally angularly spaced dialing holes as in the previous embodiments. The dials are mounted on a central stem 55 suitably attached to a base 56. The base carries indicia from 0 to 9 around the periphery of the outer dial Sit. On the end of the stem 55 is a knob 59 connected by a sleeve as shown to the central dial 52. The central dial in this embodiment does not have operating holes but is made relatively small and is adapted to be turned for counting dollars, for example, by manually rotating the knob 59 which is held onto the stem 55 by screw 69.
Extending between the central stern and the periphery of the base 56 is a member 62 shaped to form a finger stop for the dials 5d and 51.
Each of the dials carries indicia in the way of numbers from O to 9 adjacent its periphery and opposite the holes, with reference to the two dials 5t) and 51. These numbers serve to indicate the totals of the amounts added or counted by the device.
Pick-ups or carry-overs are provided between adjacent dials so that a full rotation of one transmits or transfers one-tenth of a revolution to the next dial. As may be seen in the figures, the dials 5t! and 51 are slightly cupshaped having central circular offsets or depressions as shown rsepectively at 63 and 6 5. Near the edge of the offset 63 there is provided a stem 64 carrying a small rotatable gear 65 positioned between the dial 51 and the edge of the dial 5t as shown. The dial 51 has peripheral gear teeth as shown at 67 meshing with the gear 65. Numeral 69 designates an arcuate member attached to the member 62 having gear teeth as shown at 74% forming an arcuate rack. When the dial 5t? is about to complete a revolution, the gear 65 engages the rack teeth 7 ti causing the gear 65 to rotate in a counterclockwise direction and since it is in mesh with the gear teeth 7@ it rotates the dial 51 through a tenth of a revolution while the dial 50 completes its revolution. That is, for each revolution of the dial 50, the dial 51 is rotated through a tenth of a revolution, that is in an amount to add one count on this dial.
A similar carry-over or pick-up mechanism is provided as between the dials 51 and 52 and since this carryover mechanism is the same in construction, it will not be described in detail. It is to be understood that other forms of pick-up or carry-over mechanisms might be provided between adjacent dials. Also, the dials might be made large enough so that the dial 52 could accommodate ten finger holes like the other dials. Or, on the other hand, all of the dials might be made relatively small with the operating holes of a size to facilitate dialing by means of a stylus or pick.
The operation is similar to that of the previous embodiments. Numbers from 1 to 9 are dialed in on the dial 50, complete revolutions being carried over to add one count to the next dial. Tens are dialed in on the dial 51 and when counting money, if amounts of from 1 to 9 dollars are to be fed in, this is done by rotating the knob 59 the appropriate amount. In the embodiment disclosed, the device is made of a size to accommodate finger holes in the dials 50 and 51 without making the over-all size of the device unusually large.
As may be observed, the device may be very economically manufactured from very light sheet metal or plastic or other comparable materials or might even be made of cardboard utilizing appropriate types of carryover or picloup mechanisms adapted to use with cardboard dials. Preferably spacers are provided between the dials as shown in FIGURE 4 and between the bottom dial and the base member to separate the dials so that one dial does not rotate another through friction. Also the dials 5'0 and 51 in a more simplified form, may be simply fiat discs rather than having the offsets therein, the oifsets preferably being provided so that the indicating surfaces of the dials all lie in the same plane.
FTGURE 5 is a modified form of the invention which is electrical. A single dial S0 is provided having finger holes "I? and projections 81 on the inside, one for each hole, which actuate switch 82. This switch controls electromagnetic actuators 84-87, one for actuating each of four wheels of counter 90, one step for each actuation. The counter 90 has the usual carry-over mechanism between Wheels. The electromagnets are also controlled by manual toggle or button switches 92-95 so that the dial operates only one counter wheel at a time, either units tens, hundreds or thousands. Numeral g6 designates a power source. An extremely simple but fast and economical counter or computer is thus provided. The actuators for each wheel may be in the form of a pawl and ratchet mechanism.
FIGURES 6, 7 and 8 show a form of the invention similar to that of FIGURE 2, but instead of using telephone type dials, a type of dialing wheel is used that is dialed using a stylus. The counter 100 shown in this modification is like the counter of FIGURE 2. It has a case 101 having a window 102 and counter wheels 104, 105, 106 and 107. The telescoping shafts are like those of FIGURE 2 extending through a hub 110 on the casing. Wheel 107 has a hub mounted on shaft 35. Wheel 1% has a hub mounted on shaft 36. Wheel 3105 has a hub mounted on shaft 37. Wheel 104 has a hub 116 mounted on a boss or journal 1118 extending inwardly from the end of the casing 101. The counter wheels can be the same as conventional counter wheels adapted for carry-over from one wheel to the next. The carry-overs may be conventional. The wheels having extending flanges, as shown, Within the flanges on the right hand side are formed continuous internal gears, as may be seen at 120 for the wheel 104, as shown in FIGURE 7. The flanges extending to the left have partial internal gears as shown at 122 for wheel 105 in FIGURE 8. The carry-over is by way of carry-over wheels or gears, as shown at 125, in FIGURE 8, which are journalled on shafts as shown at 127. The length of the interrupted internal gear part 122 is one-tenth of the circumference so that when it passes the gear 125 one-tenth of a revolution, or one step will be transferred or carried over to the next wheel to apply the next count to that wheel.
The carry-over wheels or gears are supported on webs Within the casing 101 which also have an additional function of providing journal bearings for certain of the indicator Wheels. FIGURES 7 and 8 show one of such webs at between wheels 104 and 105. The ends of the web are shown twisted through 90 degrees, as indicated at 132, so they can slide endwise into slots, as shown at 134 and 136 inside of the casing 101. The web 139 is different in that on the right it has a hollow hub 140 in which is received the hub 141 on wheel 106. On the left it has a hub 143 in which is received a hollow hub 14-4 on the Wheel 105. The Web 147 is like the one just described except that its hub on the right hand side, as indicated at 150, is slightly larger to accommodate the larger hub 151 on wheel 107 which is on the larger shaft 35. From the foregoing it will be seen that no part of any wheel has sliding frictional engagement with a part of another wheel or with a part of a shaft with which another wheel has sliding frictional engagement. The same applies to the shafts. No wheel can be undesirably turned as a result of frictional engagement with another rotating part. With reference to the gear or Wheel 127 it is in ellect in two parts with a center shaft part journalled in the web, as is apparent from FIGURES 6 to 8.
All of the elements as shown in FIGURE 6 can be assembled endwise in the casing 100. The webs, are of course, mounted so that they do not rotate. The elements are assembled in order, the wheels being spaced by the webs and the end plate 101 of the casing can then be attached.
FIGURE 6 shows a form of manual means for counting with the device or computing rapidly. The manual means comprises three similar wheels 155, 156 and 157 on a common shaft 164) journalled in a frame or housing 161. These wheels have internal gears or gear teeth and they mesh respectively with gears 162, 163 and 164 which respectively are on shafts 35, 36 and,37. The gear ratio between the wheels and the gears are respectively three to one. Each of the Wheels 155, 156 and 157 has thirty dial stylus holes 167. These holes are equally spaced. Numeral 168 indicates an arcuate panel with numerical indicia on it from zero to nine spaced the same as the holes 167 and the wheels. The wheels are dialed by inserting the stylus into any hole opposite the number on the panel 168 and pulling downward to rotate the wheel, the stylus being stopped by a stop bar 170. As may be seen, if any of the wheels such as is rotated through a third of a revolution, a full revolution is imparted to its respective counter wheel. Thus, if any number is dialed corresponding to the panel 168, that number of counts will be imparted to the respective counter wheel. A counter wheel moves through three times as many degrees as its respective dialing wheel. In this way the numbers from zero to nine occupy only one-third of a circumference corresponding to the circumference of the dialing wheels and all of the numbers are visible from one position. The panel 168 is, of course, circular corresponding to the wheels. The Wheels 155, 156 and 157 are arranged in reverse order, as respects the counter wheels, but this presents no particular difficulty since the operator need only dial wheel 155 to place unit counts on wheel 107 and indicia may be provided to indicate units, tens, and hundreds dialing wheels.
1. A calculating device having a set of circular elements, central shaft means having an axis, said elements having adjacent axially spaced parallel portions carried on the said shaft means, the elements being supported entirely by the shaft means, carry-over means operable in response to movement of the elements about said axis whereby a predetermined angular movement of one element imparts a step movement to an adjacent element, means for individually rotating each of a plurality of the elements comprising equally angularly spaced configurations on the said elements shaped to be individually, manually engaged for rotary movement through selected fractions of a complete revolution whereby to impart rotation to a circular element whereby numerical inputs may be directly fed into any one of a plurality of the elements with predetermined movements of elements carrying over to the next successive element, and numerical indicia positioned to facilitate readout of a calculated result, said; circular elements being in the form of discs resembling telephone dials, each disc having 10 equally angularly spaced holes therein of a size to accommodate a persons finger, finger stop means adjacent said discs, the said discs being mounted to be freely continuously rotatable in either direction, said carry-over means between adjacent elements comprising pinion gears, and means providing external gear teeth and internal gear teeth cooperating with the pinion gears for performing the carry-over function between adjacent elements.
2. A calculating device having a set of circular elements, central shaft means having an axis, said elements having adjacent axially spaced parallel portions carried on the said shaft means, the elements being supported entirely by the shaft means, carry-over means operable in response to movement of the elements about said axis whereby a predetermined angular movement of one element imparts a step movement to an adjacent element, means for individually rotating each of a plurality of the elements, comprising equally angularly spaced configurations on the said elements shaped to be individually manually engaged for rotary movement through selected fractions of a complete revolution whereby to impart rotation to a circular element whereby numerical inputs may be directly fed into any one of a plurality of the elements with predetermined movements of elements carrying over to the next successive element, and numerical indicia positioned to facilitate readout of a calculated result, said circular elements each having equally angularly spaced holes therein, stop means adjacent the said circular elements, the said elements being mounted to be freely continuously rotatable in either direction, said carry-over means between adjacent elements comprising pinion gears, and means providing external gear teeth and internal gear teeth cooperating with the pinion gears for performing the carry-over function between adjacent elements.
3. A calculating device having a single set of rotatable circular elements having angularly spaced numerical indicia thereon, a central shaft, said elements having disclike portions having hubs with openings of uniform size separately journaled directly on a central shaft in axially :spaced relationship, said disc-like portions lying in axially :spaced parallel planes and defining therebetween a plurality of spaces bounded by the circular elements and the central shaft, carryover means between adjacent elements whereby a predetermined angular movement of one element imparts a step movement to an adjacent element, each of said carryover means comprising mutually cooperating parts one of which is rotatable with a circular element and one of which is mounted at a fixed location and thereby not rotatable with a circular element, support means for said parts which do not rotate with a circular element positioned outside of the confines of said spaces, one of said parts of other carryover means extending in a direction generally normal to said supporting means into a position between moving portions of adjacent circular elements so that said portions are on opposite sides of one part, and means for individually rotating each of said elements comprising equally angularly spaced configurations on the elements shaped to be individually engaged for rotary movement through selected fractions of a complete revolution whereby to impart rotation to a circuiar element whereby numerical inputs may be fed into any one of a plurality of the elements with predetermined movements of elements carrying over to the next successive element, means to facilitate readout of numerals on a group of elements, said carryover support means including a straight elongated member carrying all of the said parts which do not rotate with the circular elements and said carryover parts which are not rotatable with a circular element occupying space adjacent to the said fixed location at which they are mounted.
4. A calculating device as in claim 3 wherein said ohcular elements have portions including offset parts extending normal to the plane of the elements, said portions having said numerals thereon, and said portions defining a uniform surface normal to said central shaft.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,135,552 4/15 Sulfer 235-2 2,645,426 7/53 Sansone 2358O 3,024,984 3/62 Skurner 2358O FOREIGN PATENTS 508,518 7/39 Great Britain. 750,400 6/56 Great Britain.
LEYLAND M. MARTIN, Primary Examiner. LEO SMTLOW, Examiner.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,160,345 December 8, 1964 Edward C. Walsh that error appears in the above numbered pat- It is hereby certified that the said Letters Patent should read as ent requiring correction and corrected below.
Column 8, line 16, for "other" read each Signed and sealed this 27th day of July 1965.
EDWARD J BRENNER ERNEST W. SWIDER Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No 3 ,160 ,345 December 8 1964 Edward C. Walsh or appears in the above numbered pat- It is hereby certified that err id Letters Patent should read as ent requiring correction and that the sa corrected below.
Column 8, line 16, for "other" read each Signed and sealed this 27th day of July 1965 (SEAL) Attest:
EDWARD J. BRENNER ERNEST W. SWIDER Avttesting Officer Commissioner of Patents