US 3160512 A
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1386- 1964 c. G. CASH ETAL MATERIAL FOR LINING CANALS AND amass Filed Dec. 19. 1960 INVENTOR5 Wlieril.
ATTORNEY United States Patent Ofiice Patented Dec. 8, 1964 MATERIAL FGR LliNlNG CANAL AND DITCl-ES Carl G. Cash, Whippany, Arnold J. Hoiberg, Montville,
and Walter L. Butterfield, Whippany, N-IL, assignors,
by mesne assignments, to The Flintlrote Company, a
corporation of Massachusetts Filed Dec. 19, 1960, Ser. No. 76,911 Claims. (Cl. 117-25) This invention relates to material for use in lining canals and ditches, particularly such as employed in water conservation systems.
In such systems, wherein irrigation canals and ditches are utilized for conveying water, it is essential that the surface of the canal or ditch be treated so as to prevent loss of water by drainage or seepage which would other- 7 vide a canal or ditch liner material in the form of a flexible sheet material which can be supplied in the form form of convoluted rolls thereof to the job site and from which the material may there be readily unrolled and applied as an exposed membrane to serve as a heavy duty lining for ponds, canals, reservoirs and irrigation ditches.
Another object of the invention is to provide for such purposes, a sheet material of the character described, and
' exhibiting a high degree of flexibility both on aging and over a considerable temperature range, high bursting strength properties sufficient to resist mechanical injury in service, adequateweathering ability, and the ability to be manufactured and handled without cracking.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a material of the character and for the purposes set forth, which can be fabricated at relatively low cost and which can readily be installed asa canal or ditch liner without requiring the use of special equipment such as required for installing cement concrete lining, and without requiring the use of skilled labor.
Briefly stated, the canal or ditch liner material of the present invention is composed of a base of woven jute fiber treated so as to render it rot-proof and substantially free from attack by microorganisms when in contact with soil and water. The woven jute base is saturated with asphalt of a softening point (R. & B.) 135 to 16071 and other physical characteristics as hereinafter set forth. In accordance with the invention, the saturated sheet of woven jute fiber is coated on each of its surfaces with a layer of asphalt having a softening point, penetration and ductility characteristics hereinafter more particularly set forth and stabilized by incorporating therein, in an amount I of from about 25 to 4 5% by weight, finely divided minferal particles, such as traprock, of a mesh size such that at least by weight thereof passes a 200 mesh screen. Moreover, in respect of the asphalt component of the coating layers, it is essential that this be air-blown in the presence of a catalytic agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorus pentoxide, red phosphorus, phosphoric acid, and stable sulfides of phosphorus, such as phosphorus sesquisulfide, phosphorus sulfide'and phosphorus pentasulfide.
So-called catalytic asphalts produced by air-blowing high molecular weight-petroleum hydrocarbons in the presence of various in organic salts are well known. We have found, however, that in order to provide a membrane capable of serving as a liner for canals or ditches as herein set forth, and which will have the required'fiexibility at low temperatures, the required high temperature resistance to flow of the coating layers, as Well as the,
ability to be manufactured and handled without cracking of the coating, it is essential that the asphalt component of the coating layers be an air-blown asphalt produced by air-blowing in the presence of a stable phosphorus catalyst, such as the phosphorus compounds above mentioned. Ordinary straight blown asphalts, even though possessing the softening point and penetration characteristics herein referred to do not possess the ductility characteristic which is an essential property of the asphalt component of the coating for the jute fiber base in order to render it capable of serving as a canal or ditch liner. For that purpose, the asphalt of the coating layers should have a minimum ductility of 3.5 centimeters at 77 F. Thisrelatively high ductility is essential in accordance with the'invention in order that the asphalt be capable of accommodating itself to the stretch of the jute fiber base in manufacture; arid service. if
Likewise, we have found that asphalts which are produced by air blowing in the presence of other catalysts, such as iron chlorides or other compounds or iron, zinc chloride, and aluminum chloride, are not effective or capable of serving'for thecoating of the jiite fiber base to be used as canal or ditch liner material, owing to the fact that such asphalts lack the, required heat stability and are also inferior in their weathering properties.
Accordingly, the asphalt component ofthefcoating layers for the base may be produced as described in Patent No. 2,450,756, granted October 5, 1948 to one of the present applicants. As stated briefly above, the coating asphalt is" filled,
i.e. uniformly combined with a mineral stabilizer, such as finely divided traprock having a screen grading showing sive convolutionswhen the sheet is rolled up, and pre I vents age-hardening in storage, such as 'would cause cracking of the coating during handling, especially at low atmospheric temperatures. j The thus coated base may be dusted on both surfaces with a layer of mica or talc in those instances where it v is desired that the camel liner be relatively smooth, the
mica or talc serving also to provide additional protection against stricking of the convolutions when the product is in the form of rolls. In those instances where the canal or ditch liner is to be used under conditions requiring increased Weather-resistant properties, the coating layer on one side of the membrane may be provided with a layer of mineral granules, such as oiled traprock granules of a grading known as No. 11 roofing granules, this grading being such that essentially all are of a size to pass an 8 mesh and to be retained on a 35 mesh sieve. Desirably, when one surface of the membrane isthus provided with a layer of mineral granules of thecharacter described, this surfaceis also provided with a selvage edge, of saytwo inches width, over which relatively fine sand is applied as a surfacing, in order to enable overlapping margins of the membrane, when applied on the job, to be sealed as by application of heat or suitable mastic adhesive.
Referring more in detail to the liner material of the invention in its actual embodimentsthe jutefabric utilized asthe base may be burlap, which is a plain woven fabric weighing 7 to 12' ounces per lineal .yard, or sacking, which is'made from lower grades of fibers and which'is a rela= tively heavy, loosely woven cloth, weighing from 12 to 15' ounces per lineal yard (based, in each instance, on a 40 inch width). 7 More specifically, for example, there may be employed a jute fiber sacking of x 8 weave, weighing ounces per lineal yard of 40 inchwidth and known in 4 (R. & B.) of from 135 to 160 F. and further characterized by the following physical properties:
Penetration at: i
. 77 F., 100 g./5,s'ec., min/10 -100. 32 F., 200 g./ sec., mm./l0' 15 min. .F., 50 g./5 sec., man/l0 150 max. Flash point, Cleveland O.C. 475 F., min. Ductility at 77 F.,' 5 cm. per minute 3 /2 cm. Viscosity, Brookfield, No. 20 Spindle,20
1'.p.m cps., max.
at 400 F.
' Moreover, the'saturant rnust'be one that is compatible with the asphalt used in'the coating layers, the compatibility being determined bythe Oliensis compatibility test run at room temperature. 7
The base may be saturated in a molten bath of asphalt of, the above-mentioned properties maintained at a temperature in the range of 400 to 475 F., the saturating step being conducted so as to saturate the base with the asphalt in an amount of from 85%, preferably 110%,
' j to by weight.
the trade as-heavy goods. This material is a very strong fabric, which when saturated and provided with the layers of filled asphalt coating as, hereiridescribed, possesses a Mullen bursting strength greater than 250 pounds per square inch, and a tensile strength in excess of 100 pounds ('l"-l2/min.). Likewise, there may be employed a jute fabric of 11 X 12 weave, weighing 12 ounces per lineal yard of 36 inch width. Although this latter fabric is slightly more costly than the heavier weight fabric of lower thread count first mentioned, and the finishedproducts made from each of them are of substantially the same strength, the lighter weight jute with the higher thread count is of advantage'in manufacture of the' liner material, in that it provides a smoother fabric base for saturation with asphalt andpermits'moreuniform layers of'the stabilized asphalt coating to be applied. Also, it exhibits ditch liner when saturated and coated with the catalytic asphalt he'reindescribed, whereas these fabrics when coated with straight b lown'asphaltshow numerous cracks which permit water permeation when a standing head of water is placed overfthe finished membrane sheet.
The. woven jute base may be 'rot-proofed by any conventionalmeans, utilizing mercury salts or copper salts as the active rot-proofing agent. Thus, for example, the base may be treated with a solution of copper naphth'enate -in mineralspirits, by immersing the fabric in the solution. 7
Desirably, the solution is of such concentration and the duration ofimmersionshould be suerrthat'after evaporation of the mineral spirits, an amount of the copper-cornpound in the range from 0.5 to l.0 expressed as copper,
will be provided in-order to impart adequate protection against decay organisms. Alternatively, theba'se maybe treated with cuprammoni um solutions to provide a similar quantity of copper. In lieu of copper salts, there may be i The asphalt for the coating layer is, as aboveset forth, as asphalt. air-blownrin the presence of one of the phosphorus'compounds above-mentioned as. catalyst, and ex hibiting the following physical properties:
Softening point, Ring and Ball -210 F. Penetration at:
77 F., 100 g./5 sec., mml/lO 43-53.
32 F., 200 g./60 see, mm./l0 30 min.
115 F., 50 g./5 sec., mm./l0 100 maX. Flash point, Cleveland 00 .4 475 F. min Ductility at 77? F., 5 cm. per minute,
min. 3 /2 cm.
As above indicated, this coating asphalt is stabilized with finely divided mineral, such as traprock, of a grading such that 90% passes a 100 mesh sieve, the quantity therei of admixed with the asphalt being in the range of from 25 to 45% by weight of the asphalt.
The stabilized asphalt coating may be applied to the oppositefaces of the saturated base in any convenient fashiomwhile at a temperature in the range of from 275 to 350 F. The amount of coating material applied, pref- 'erably in layers of substantially equal thickness on both faces, should be such as to provide, together with the mineral surfacing subsequently applied thereover, a comin those instances where the material is'to be furnished for use: as" an exposed membrane underconditions requiring increased weather resistance.
As will be understooifthe steps of rot-proofing, saturating, coating and surfacing the base ofwoven jute fiber will be most economically conducted on continuously running sheets of the base. The finished sheet may be employed mercurysalts of limited water solubility'and which can be selectively absorbed on the fibers. 7
After treatment with the rot-proofing solution, the
' woven jute base is saturated with' iasphalt by running it through a bath of the asphalt saturantl The asphalt 'satur'ant is preferably an air-blown, steam and vacuum reduced asphalt having a softening point;
wound up in convoluted rolls of convenient size, using a suitably dimensioned core on a mandrel Winder. Preferably' informing each'wound up roll, the leading edge of the sheet is stapled to the core and reverse wound, i.e with the' mineral surfaced side facing outwardly. 7 In the-following tabulation are'f set forth data with re,- spectto thephysical properties'and amounts of the com-- 5 ponents making up three forms of liner material em bodying the invention.
viscosity, and ductility as above set forth.
Catalytic air-blown, softening point 194 (R. & 13,), penetration, flash point, and ductility as above set forth.
Coating: Asphalt Stabilizer Traprock, 90% passing 200 mesh.
Surfacing N o. 11 roof- Talc No. 11 roofing granules ing granules Wfiight, pounds per 100 sq. 'J'ute base (including rot-proofing agent) 8. 3 8.3 10. 4 t t 12. 5 12. 5 15.6 41. 3 75. 2 32. 4 30. 5 4. 28. Sand (selvedge edge)"- 0.3 (2) 0. 6 (4") Total 92. 9 100. 0 87. 5
In the accompanying drawing:
FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 are views depicting the sheets of liner material made according to the data in columns A, B and C, respectively, of the above tabulation, these views being taken transversely of the sheets;
FIG. 4 is a view, in perspective, illustrating a canal or the like, lined with sheet material made according to the invention; and
FIG. 5 is an enlarged detail view.
In FIGS. 1 and 2, the woven jute base referred to in columns A and B of the tabulation is indicated by numeral 10. In FIG. 3, the relatively heavier base of lower thread count referred to in column C of the tabulation is indicated by numeral 20. In each instance, the jute base is one that has been treated to render it rot-proof and to saturate it with asphalt as above described.
The layers of mineral stabilized catalytic asphalt coating above described are at 12. In FIGS. 1 and 3, the layer of mineral granules as surfacing for the top face or" the sheet is indicated at 13, the selvedge edge of relatively fine sand is indicated at 14, and the surfacing of mica or talc on the bottom face is indicated at 15. In FIG. 2, depicting the relatively smooth surface liner material, the surfacing layer of mica or talc is indicated by reference numeral 16.
In applying the material for lining the canals or ditches of irrigation or water conservation systems, the material in sheets of convenient width, preferably thirty-six inches, is supplied in the form of convoluted rolls to the job site. There it may readily be unrolled and cut into sheets of desired or required length.
Referring to FIG. 4, the sheets 25 are placed cross-wise in the canal or ditch 30, and with an excess at the ends 31 thereof extending along opposite sides of the canal or ditch so as to project out over the berms 32 and later to be covered with earth.
As will be understood, the surface of the ditch will have previously been compacted as by a vibratory com-.
pactor, and the berm will have been compacted as by the tread of a cat tractor such as used in pulling the ditchdigging apparatus.
As indicated in FIG. 4, the pre-cut sheets are placed so as to overlap one another a distance of about two inches, the overlap, as shown in FIG. 5, extending in the direction of the flow of water. At the overlaps, the sheets are joined and sealed to one another, preferably by heat, such as may be obtained from a propane torch applied to the margin of a sheet previously placed and the margin of the next overlapping sheet (rolled back sufficiently for the purpose) until the asphalt on both becomes molten. Thereupon these marginal portions are placed in contact with one another.
If desired, instead of joining the sheets as they are being placed in the canal or ditch, a convenient number of them, say six, may be joined in the overlapping relation on the ditch shoulder, and the thus joined assembly moved as a unit over and into place in the canal or ditch.
Where the sheets are of the smooth surface variety, a weather-resistant surface coating, preferably comprising a clay-type aqueous emulsion of asphalt of to F. melting point, and with or without an admixture of sand or the like, may desirably be sprayed or otherwise applied thereover.
The end portions of the sheets, extending over the berms 32 may be held down temporarily in any convenient fashion, until a desired length of the canal or ditch has been lined in the manner described, and until they are covered by the soil applied over the berms.
What is claimed is:
1. Flexible sheet material forlining canals and ditches, comprising a woven jute fiber base of from 5 x 8 to 11 x 12 thread count and weighing from 7 to 15 ounces per lineal yard of forty inches width, said base containing an effective amount of a rot-proofing compound and being saturated, in an amount of from 85% to by weight thereof, with asphalt having a softening point (R. & B.) of 135 to F., and a layer of asphaltic coating on each face of the thus saturated base, said coating consisting essentially of (1) an asphalt air-blown in the presence of a catalyst selected from the group consisting of phosphorous pentoxide, red phosphorous, stable phosphorous sulfides and phosphoric acid, and (2) from about 25 to 45% by weight of finely divided mineral particles at least 90% of which pass a 200 mesh sieve, said catalytically air-blown asphalt being characterized by a ductility of not less than 3.5 centimeters at 77 F. (5 centimeters per minute), a softening point (R. & B.) of to 210 F., and a pene t'ration of about 43 to 53 at 77 F. (100 g./5 sec.,
mm./l0), said coating layers each having a layer of mineral surfacing material applied thereover.
2. Sheet material as defined in claim 1, wherein th layer of mineral surfacing material applied over each of said coating layers is talc. J
3. Sheet material as defined in claim 1, wherein the layer of mineral surfacing material applied over the coating layer on one face is talc, and the surfacing material applied over the coating layer on the other face comprises mineral granules graded in size to pass an 8 mesh sieve and be retained on a 35 mesh sieve.
4. Sheet material as defined in claim 3, wherein said surfacing of mineral granules extends over the full width of the sheet except for a relatively narrow selvedge along one edge of the sheet, and wherein said selvedge is surfaced with a layer of finely divided sand.
5. Sheet material as defined in claim 1, wherein the combined weight of said coating'and mineral surfacing layers constitutes from about 70% to about 80% of the total weight of the sheet material per unit area.
6. Sheet material as defined in claim 1, wherein said 7. Sheet material as defined in claim 1, further characterized by a Mullen bursting strength of at least about 250 pounds per square inch.
- width, andwherein the layer of mineral surfacing material applied over each of said coating layers is talc.
9. Sheet material as defined in claim 7, wherein said woven base has a thread count of 11 X 12 and weighs approximately 12 ounces per lineal yard of 40 inches width, and wherein the layer of mineral surfacing material applied over the coating layer on one face is talc, and the surfacing material applied over the coating layer on the other face comprises mineral granules graded in size to pass an 81mesh sieve and be retained on a 35 mesh sieve.
10. Sheet material as defined in'claim 7, wherein said,
woven base has a thread count of 5 x 8 and weighs approximately 15 ounces per lineal yard of, 40 inches width, and wherein the layer of mineral surfacing material applied over the coating layer on one face is talc, and the surfacing material applied over the coating layer ,on the other face comprises mineral granules graded in size to pass an 8 meshsieve and be retained on mesh sieve.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES'VPATENTS Finley Apr. 24, Overbury Mar. 25, Rahr May 27, Kirschbraun June 24, Kirschbraun Sept. 23, Fordyce July 14, Kirschbraun I an. 4, Baker May 9, Greider et al. n. May 23, Swope Aug. 6, Burnet Apr. 25, 'Hoiberg Oct. 5, Baskin Feb. 13, Bramble Nov. 27, Oldfield July 2,