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Publication numberUS3161908 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 22, 1964
Filing dateJan 25, 1962
Priority dateJan 25, 1962
Publication numberUS 3161908 A, US 3161908A, US-A-3161908, US3161908 A, US3161908A
InventorsPaul Walach
Original AssigneeMonteray Mfg Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hydraulic door closer
US 3161908 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 22, 1964 P. WALACH 3,161,908

HYDRAULIC DOOR CLOSER Filed Jan. 25, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR:

Paul walacfi/ 75 y M I W kvml lg (Zia {ya Dec. 22, 1964 P. WALACH HYDRAULIC DOOR CLOSER 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 25, 1962 INVENTOR:

Paul 'ZWaZaafi/ :7 M W W & \fakikiw fls United States Patent 3,151,953 HYBRAULiQ D8023 KZLGSEEZ Paul Walach, (lineage, lib, assignor to Monteray ltianw featuring Company, (lineage, Ill, a corporation of Illinois Filed Ian. 25, 1962, Ser. No. 168,761. @laims. {'81. 1652) The present invention relates to a door check and is particularly directed to those hydraulic door checks of the type incorporating a spring for closing the door.

Door checks as such have been in use for many years. Many of the piror art devices incorporate an adjustment means to control the fiow of fluid, compressed in one end of the cylinder as the door is being closed, so that the speed at which the door closes may be varied. In door closers of the hydraulic type as distinguished from those of the air type, the adjustment means heretofore provided on the devices commercially available generally require the dismantaling of at least a portion of the apparatus, or, in any event, the use of a tool in making the adjustment. An important feature and object of my invention is that the adjustment of the speed at which the door will close can be made without tools and without any dismantling of the apparatus, removal of parts, etc., but simply by grasping the door check cylinder and turning it. Once the adjustment is set it will be maintained until it is again intentionally reset.

Suggestions have heretofore been made to utilize in a hydraulic check an adjustment means which does not require disassembly or removal of any parts to achieve adjustment. Such suggestions invariably required a part that extended into the piston rod and/or the piston and which normally remained fixed while the latter moved. Obviously, this introduced additional packing glands with their attendant disadvantages. Probably this was the reason why their use has not been generally adopted in com.

mercial devicm, which, to the best of my knowledge, is the case.

Another important object and advantage of my invention is the provision of a combination door closing mechanism and door check which is simple and inexpensive to manufacture. At the same time, it is reliable and trouble free over an extraordinary long period, taking into consideration the fact that the precision fitting of parts with its attendant expense is not required.

Further objects and advantages will become apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the drawings in which:

FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of the top of a door illustrating an embodiment of my invention in operating position, and being adjusted by an individual;

FIGURE 2 is a plan view of the top of the door of FIGURE 1 in closed position and the embodiment :secured thereto;

FEGURE 3 is a section through the length of the embodiment illustrating the internal structure thereof;

FIGURE 4 is a partial section corresponding to FIG- URE 3, but with the piston rotated 90 and showing the parts as they are positioned as the door is being opened;

FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary section as viewed in EEG- URE 3, but illustrating the structure as the door is being closed;

FIGURE 6 is a transverse section as viewed at line s s of FIGURE 5; and

FIGURE 7 is a section of an alternate structure for mounting the closed end of the cylinder.

FEGURE 1 illustrates a portion of a door 19 mounted on a door frame 11 by hinges 12. The door check apparatus of my invention includes a pair of mounting brackets l3 and 14. A stud at the forward end of the check apparatus is pivotally connected to bracket 13 by arias Patented Dec. 22, 1964 "Ice means of pin 16. Similarly, the outstanding end of piston rod 17 at the backward end of the check apparatus is pivotally connected to bracket 14 by means of pin 13.

The operating structure of the check apparatus is best illustrated in FIGURES 3-6. It will be seen that the apparatus comprises a tubular shell 20, the inner cylindrical wall of which defines a fluid cylinder 21. Stud 15 is rotatably mounted at the forward end of shell 20. To achieve this a washer 22 is seated against an abutment 23 on the interior of the shell. Stud 15 has an annular boss 24 forming a plug within shell 23 and abutting washer 2 2. The end 25 of shell 23 is spun or crimped about boss 24 so that the boss is fixed in place between washer 22 and the inward flanges formed by end 25. An 0 seal ring 26 is seated in an annular groove 27 in boss 24, and contacts the boss as well as the inner wall of shell 20'. Seal ring 26 and boss 24 provide a fluid-tight closure in that end of the fluid cylinder.

With the structure described, While boss 24 is restrained against movement along a line parallel to the axis of cylinder 21 it is, at the same time, permitted to rotate about said axis with respect to the cylinder. This is an important feature of my invention as will hereinafter be apparent. It will be seen that the structure I have devised is sufficiently sturdy that it will withstand the compressive forces present when the door is released as well as any tendency to cock" or misposition one of the rotatable parts of the joint with respect to the other. A rotatable joint which would not withstand such abuse could not be used in my invention.

At the backward end of shell 26 there is a plug 39 through which piston rod 17 extends. The outer end of plug 3% has a circular recess 31 within which is seated an 0 seal ring 32. End 33 of shell 26 is spun over seal ring 32 to provide a fluid-tight seal between the shell and the plug.

Inner face 35 of plug 3% has the configuration of a frustum of a cone. A resilient annular seal 36 is re ceived about piston rod 17 and abuts face 35' of plug 30. At the opposite side of seal 36 is the frusto-conical face 37 of a washer 38. The pressure of compression spring 39, as hereinafter described, in conjunction with frustoconical faces 35 and 37 urges seal 36 into contact with the periphery of piston rod 17 to maintain an oil-tight seal between plug 30 and piston rod 17.

Piston 41 has a threaded axial opening 42 extending therethrough. End 43 of piston rod 17 is correspondingly threaded to engage the threads of the piston. Piston 41 includes an annular boss 44 extending from one side face 45 of the piston. Along a portion of one side of opening 42, parallel to the axis of opening 42, extends a groove 46. Groove 46 extends the full length of boss 34, but terminates at 47 before reaching the end of opening 42 at the opposite side 48 of the piston. Piston 4 has a pair of slots or openings 43 on its periphery and extending from side 45 to side 43 thereof.

An annular resilient piston ring 55$ abuts outer face 43 of piston 41. Piston ring 50 is held in place by a Washer 51. In turn, Washer fill is fixed between abutment 52 and the flanged end 53 of piston 41. it will be noted that piston ring 50 has a configuration similar to that of a flat washer. it not only serves the function of a normal piston ring on the door closing stroke, but it unblocks openings 49 as a check valve on the door openings stroke.

The shell of the closer contains a suitable oil with sutlicient air space to allow for changes in volume as the piston rod is extended and retracted. The composition of the various sealing members 26, 32, 36 and td will be of a type which can be selected from various available materials well known to those skilled in the art, such as Buna N rubber or the chloroprene rubber sold under the trademarks Neoprene or Duprene.

With the check apparatus mounted as illustrated in FEGURES l and 2, the opening of door ill withdraws piston rod 17 from the cylinder 27.. This movement compresses spring between face 45 of piston ll and washer 38. The direction of movement of piston rod 17 is illustrated by arrow in FIGURE 4. Movement of piston 41 in that direction compresses the oil in the left sideof piston 41 (as is viewed in FEGURE 4) and forces the oil through openings 43 as well as through the passageway comprising groove 46 and the connecting portions of opening 42; the oil being forced through openings 49 bends sealing ring 5% away from face 48 of the piston as illustrated in FlGURE 4. This permits the oil to move freely from the left side of pi ton 41 to the right side thereof. In the structure illustrated, sealing ring 55?, in conjunction with slots 45', functions as a check valve to let the oil move freely from one side of the piston tothe other but to prevent the oil from moving from said other side of the piston to said one side.

it should be noted that the position of the apparatus illustrated in 4 is rotated 90 about the axis of the cylinder from the position illustrated in 3, 5 and 6. was done to better illustrate the structure. it also should be noted that the'two ends of the apparatus have been turned end for end in illustrating the apparatus in FEGURES 1 and 2. as compared to th manner in which it is illustrated in FlGURES 3, 4 and 5. For example, in FIGURES l and 2 piston rod 17 extends from the right end of the apparatus as illustrated, while in FIG RES 3, 4 and 5 the piston rod extends from the left end of the apparatus.

When door away from end 33 of the shell. This of course, creates a force which operates to close the door lit. The speed at which the door closes will depend upon the rate of flow of the oil from the right or forward end of the cylinder (as illustrated in FTGURES 3, 4, and 5) to the left or backward end of the cylinder through the orifice defined by the end of'piston rod 17 and the terminus 47 of passageway 46. Sealing ring Ell is pressed against face 43 of piston 41 and ellecti'vely prevents any flow of oil about tie periphery of the piston from the right side to the left, including preventing any flow through grooves 49. if the orifice defined by the end of piston rod 17 and the ter us 47 of groove 45 is relatively small, the flow of oil through the passageway will be slow and door ill will close slowly. Conversely, if the orifice is relatively large, the fiow of oil from the right side to the left, as piston rod 17 moves in the direction indicated by arrow or in FIGURE 5, will be rapid and door lid will close rapidly.

By reason of shell 2% being rotatably mounted with respect to the brackets 13 and 14 at opposite ends thereof, and the ability of cylinder 2a to frictionally engage piston 4-1 through the medium of seal ring 59 and the force of the spring bearing against the piston, one is able to adjust the speed at which the door will colse without any dismantling of the apparatus whatsoever. As illustrated r is released spring 39 urges piston 41 'the piston rod (not shown) extends check apparatus is mounted closes is adjusted by adjusting the permissible rate of fio w of fluid t .rough the passageway comp-rising groove and the forward end of opening 42 in the piston. More specifically, this control is achieved by adjusting the size of the orifice defined by the end of the piston rod and the terminus 4'7 and adjoining sides of the groove T he maximum possible flow through the passageway is permitted when the area of this orifice, being the cross-sectional area of the passageway at one particular point, is equal to or greater than the cross-sectional area of groove 46. Minimum permissible flow occurs when the piston rod completely closes the passageway as a consequence of proiection of the piston rod to or beyond the terminus 47 of groove 46 to close the passageway substantially completely. Ad ustrnent of the piston rod with respect to the piston beween these extreme positions makes it possible to adjust the permissible rate of flow of fiuid'through the passageway and thus the speed at which a door is permitted to close.

' In the alternative embodiment of FEGURE 7lt'nere is a shell 7% defining a hydraulic cylinder 71 corresponding to cylinder 21 of FEGURES 1-6. In this instance the forward end of cylinder 71, opposite the end at which into the cylinder, is closed. by a cross-wall 72. A stud 73 correspoding to stud l5 is'seculred to bracket 13 by pin 15. Stud '73 has a circular boss 74 hed in place by the crimping of end '7 5 of the shell about the boss. 7

The embodiment of FIGURE 7 permits shell '74 to be rotated with respect to bracket 13 to adjust the check, as previously described with respect to the first embodi: men. At t e same time, it eliminates the necessity for oil seal.

The foregoing description of a specific embodiment is for the purpose of complying with 35 USC 112 and should not be construed as imposing unnecessary limitations upon the appended claims, inasmuch as modifications and variations thereof will. be apparent to those skilled in the art of subsequently devised by them.

Invention is claimed as follows:

1. A door check apparatus or the like including a hydraulic cylinder; a piston member in said cylinder and frictionally contacting the cylinder; a piston rod member rotatably engaging the piston member and extending out through one end of'the cylinder; a mounting means connected to the outwardly extending end of the rod memher to hold the rod member against rotation when the apparatus is in use; seal means between the cylinder and the rod member at said endof the cylinder; means providing a fiuid-tight closure at the other end of the cyl- V inder; a mounting bracket adapted to be fixedly mounted;

in FIGURE 1, an individual can grasp shell 2i? and by rotating the shell one or the other, can increase or decrease the size of the orifice defined by the end of piston rod 17 and the end 47 of groove 46. For example, referring to FIGURE 3, if shell 2% and thus piston 41 is rotated in a direction such that the threads of piston 41 and piston rod 17 cause piston 41 to move to the left as respects piston rod 17, the size of the orifice will be reduced. Thus, when door 10 is released the oil will flow more slowly through the orifice and the door will close more slowly. Conversely, if the shell 26 is rotated in the opposite direction and piston 4-1 moves to the right with respect to piston rod 17, the size of the orifice will be increased and the door lll will close more rapidly who it is released.

it will be clear from the foregoing that the means for controlling the speed at which a door on which the door means rotatably connecting the bracket and the cylinder whereby the cylinder may be rotated with respect to the bracket about me axis of the cylinder; and a fluid passag way extending between opposite sides of the piston memher and including a groove; in one of the members, said fluid passageway being adjustable in size by the rotation of one member with respect to the other to vary the degree of restriction to the flow of fluid there through, whereby with said apparatus mounted in a fixed position by said mounting means and said mounting bracket the speed at which the fluid flows through said passageway may be adjusted by rotating the cylinder.

2. An apparatus as set forth in claim l,'wherein the piston member includes a check valve to permit fluid to flow freely by the piston member only in the direction from said one end of the cylinder to said other end; and a spring about said piston rod member in compression between the piston member and said one end of the cylinder.

3. An apparatus as set forth in claim 2, wherein the means at the other end of the cylinder for providing a fluid-tight closure and the mounting means comprises: a plug received in the other end of the cylinder and re- 5 strained therein against movement axially or the cylinder; a seal between the cylinder and the plug; and a mounting stud extending from the plug.

4.111 a door check apparatus having means to control the rate of flow of fluid from one end of the cylinder to the other which means is adjustable by a relative rotation of the piston with respect to the piston rod, and a xed mounting bracket for the piston rod and a fixed mounting bracket for the closed end of the cylinder, the improvement comprising: a rotatable connection between the last mentioned bracket and the respective end of the cylinder to permit the cylinder to be rotated about its axis with respect to the bracket whereby with the apparatus so mounted said means may be adjusted by a rotation of the cylinder about its axis.

5. In a door check apparatus including a cylinder, a piston having a threaded opening extending axially therethrou h, a piston rod threaded into the piston and extending through the backward end of the cylinder, and having means to control the speed at which a door closes by adjusting the rate of flow of fluid through a passageway in the piston and wherein said means is adjustable by rotation of the piston relative to the piston rod, the improvement comprising a mounting stud extending from the forward end of the cylinder and rotatably mounted therein whereby said cylinder may be rotated with respect to said stud, a groove extending along the side of the opening in the piston from the backw rd side thereof and terminating short of the forward side thereof, and

resilient piston ring means mounted upon said piston for preventing the flow of fluid between said piston and said cylinder during the forward stroke of said piston while permitting such flow during the backward stroke, said piston ring means frietionally engaging said cylinder whereby rotation of said cylinder results in rotation of said piston, the arrangement being such that rotation of the cylinder while the piston rod is fixed against rotation changes the extent to which the piston rod extends into the opening in the piston to thereby change the cross-sectional area of the passageway for the flow of fluid through the piston and thus the permitted rate of flow of fluid through said passageway.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 991,889 5/11 Proven 16-57 1,675,930 7/28 Lebherz 1666 2,996,754 8/61 Ziegler et a1. 1652 3,057,004 10/62 Sogoian 16-52 3,064,303 11/62 Gray et a1. 16-52 3,088,555 5/63 Karlgaard 18810O X FOREEGN PATENTS 824,964 12/59 Gret Britain.

M. HENSON WOOD, $12., Primary Examiner.


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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3335451 *Apr 23, 1965Aug 15, 1967Independent Lock CoLinear acting door closer
US3335452 *Apr 23, 1965Aug 15, 1967Independent Lock CoAdjustable door closer
US3372427 *May 14, 1965Mar 12, 1968Kalevi Koivusalo MaunoDoor closer mechanism
US3408683 *May 25, 1965Nov 5, 1968Zahn PaulDoor closer
US3413679 *Jul 10, 1967Dec 3, 1968Russell W. WaldoDoor closer and mounting means therefor
US3686708 *Oct 5, 1970Aug 29, 1972Universal Oil Prod CoHydraulic cushioning device
US3781943 *Jun 23, 1972Jan 1, 1974Marlboro Mfg IncHydraulic door closer
US3796288 *Oct 10, 1972Mar 12, 1974Hollnagel HOne or two way energy (shock) absorber
US4183509 *Feb 14, 1978Jan 15, 1980Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaShock absorber for vehicle use
US4372005 *Aug 4, 1980Feb 8, 1983Inesso Richard XOperator for sliding doors
US4669147 *May 4, 1984Jun 2, 1987Oldrich SuchanekDoor closer
US4877114 *Jul 19, 1988Oct 31, 1989Tayco Developments, Inc.Adjustable fluid amplified shock absorber
US6615450 *Jun 7, 2001Sep 9, 2003Arturo Salice S.P.A.Apparatus for the damping of impacts, preferably the impacts of furniture doors or drawers
US7464437 *Nov 9, 2004Dec 16, 2008Jang-Woo SongDoor closer
US7971316Apr 24, 2008Jul 5, 2011Yale Security Inc.Door closer assembly
US8109038Feb 3, 2009Feb 7, 2012Yale Security Inc.Door operator
US8415902Apr 16, 2010Apr 9, 2013Yale Security Inc.Door closer with calibration mode
US8499495Dec 30, 2011Aug 6, 2013Yale Security Inc.Door operator
US8527101Apr 16, 2010Sep 3, 2013Yale Security Inc.Door closer assembly
US8547046Apr 16, 2010Oct 1, 2013Yale Security Inc.Door closer with self-powered control unit
US8564235Apr 16, 2010Oct 22, 2013Yale Security Inc.Self-adjusting door closer
US8600567Mar 25, 2011Dec 3, 2013Yale Security Inc.Door closer assembly
US8773237Apr 16, 2010Jul 8, 2014Yale Security Inc.Door closer with teach mode
US8779713Apr 16, 2010Jul 15, 2014Yale Security Inc.Door closer with dynamically adjustable latch region parameters
US20060021189 *Jul 30, 2004Feb 2, 2006Johnson Loring MDoor closer
US20070039130 *Nov 9, 2004Feb 22, 2007Jang-Woo SongDoor closer
WO2011131955A1 *Mar 4, 2011Oct 27, 2011Chung ChowDamped self-closing hinge
U.S. Classification16/52, 188/285
International ClassificationE05F3/00, E05F3/10
Cooperative ClassificationE05F3/108
European ClassificationE05F3/10E