US 3161990 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 22, 1964 E. J'. MORRIS, JR 3,151,990
FALLOUT SHELTER Filed June 5. 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 N l\ m t M Q 3 s R.
INVENTOR. Ewe/ J. Morrls Tr:
HH'or-neys Dec. 22, 1964 J MORRIS, JR 3,161,990
FALL-OUT SHELTER Filed June 5. 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 D O O G O O O O I I f O I I 0 I9 I g /7--0 I o I o lo I I 0/7 IN V EN TOR.
Ewe! I Morris J: BY M M HH-orneys Dec. 22, 1964 MORRlS, JR 3,161,990
FALLOUT SHELTER Filed June 5. 1961 3,Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. Ewe/ I Morris J:
BY I 6 W,MYL%7% F'fowzeys United States Patent Ofilice 3,ll,% Patented Dec. 22, 1964 3,161,990 FALLOUT SHELTER Ewel J. Morris, Jr., 901 W. Walnut St., Sylacauga, Ala. Filed June 5, 1961, Ser. No. 114,890 1 Claim. (Ci. 50-100) This invention relates to fallout shelters and more particularly to a fallout shelter in which air may be exhausted and replenished by employing a bellows type action.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a fallout shelter having a cover over an open pit with a support for the apex of the cover and means to collapse partially the upper portion of the cover and then to allow the upper portion of the cover to expand thereby creating a bellows effect allowing air to be exhausted from the pit and then brought in.
A further object of my invention is to provide a fallout shelter comprising a berm around the upper edge of an open pit with the berm being of a sufiicient thickness to provide a shield against radioactive fallout particles closely adjacent thereto, and a cover extending over the berm and being of a plastic material sloping downwardly to permit fallout particles to slide easily therealong.
An additional object is to provide a fallout shelter having a cover over a pit with means to collapse partially the upper portion of the cover and then allow the cover to expand, and an air vent in the apex of the cover with a filter therein to filter the air brought into the shelter.
Apparatus embodying features of my invention is shown in the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this application, in which:
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of my fallout shelter having an open pit with a cover thereover and means to collapse partially the upper portion of the cover to create a bellows type action within the shelter;
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the shelter shown in FIG. 1 and showing the square shape of the shelter and the triangular sections forming the cover;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view of the apex of the cover of FIGS. 1 and 2 and showing means to collapse the upper portion of the cover with the cover in fully expanded position;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary view of the cover of FIGS. 1-3 with the upper portion of the cover shown in partially collapsed condition;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view of a modification of my invention in which the apex of the cover does not move downwardly but the upper portion of the cover is partially collapsed by rigid members connected to a movable sleeve and to the under surface of the cover; and,
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view of a further modification of my invention in which a vent pipe extends from the open pit beneath the berm and outwardly of the cover to bring fresh air in the pit and to exhaust air from the pit.
Referring now to FIGS. 1-4 in which one embodiment of my invention is shown, I show a fallout shelter having an open pit 10 which is preferably square or rectangular in shape. A size that I have found suitable for up to five persons has been an 8 foot by 8 foot pit of a height of 6 feet. In order to protect persons within the shelter from radioactive particles lying on the ground adjacent the shelter, a berm 11 is placed about the upper edge of pit 10. The berm should be from 3 to 4 feet thick at the base thereof to provide sufficient protection from gamma radiation and should be around 1 /2 feet in height. The berm may be formed of material taken from the pit or other suitable material.
A center support 12 is embedded in concrete 13 or the like in the center of pit 10 and extends upwardly therefrom. A cover indicated generally by the numeral 16 is formed over pit 10. Cover 16 is formed of a thin plastic sheet having a smooth, slick or glazed outer surface so that dust particles and the like will not adhere thereto. Dust particles may be radioactive and therefore should not be positioned on cover 16. Cover 16 extends over berm 11 and its outer edge is secured with spikes 17. Cover 16 may be formed of four triangular portions 18 terminating in a four-sided apex 19. Falling dust particles or the like strike the upper surface of cover 16 and slide downwardly thereon to come to rest behind berm 11 which is of sufiicient thickness to absorb gamma radiation. Cover 16 should be of a sufficient slope so that the particles will easily slide therealong and an angle 35 to 45 to the horizontal has been found to work elfectively.
To gain entrance into pit 10, a zipper 21 (see FIG. 2) is formed at the intersection of two of the triangular portions 18 of cover 1%. By merely unzipping zipper 21, persons may enter pit 10. Apex 19 comprises a vent cap 22 secured to plastic cover 16 and having vent openings 23 extending therethrough. A filter 24 formed of a material which will remove dust particles and the like is positioned adjacent vent cap 22 and air coming in through openings 23 must first pass through filter 24. The upper portion of cover 16 is continuously urged upwardly by spring 26 with one end positioned on a retaining plate 27 secured to support 12 and the other end thereof mounted about a plunger 28 having a head 29. Plunger 28 extends through an opening in the center of plate 32 secured to vent cap 22. Plate 32 has spokes extending from the opening to the outer circumference thereof. A flexible shroud line 34 is secured to the center of each of triangular portions 18 and a center shroud line 36 is secured to plate 32. Center shroud line 36 has a pull handle 38 thereon and a pull handle 39 at the lower end thereof. A foot may be employed to actuate pull handle 39 and a hand may be used to actuate handle 38.
FIG. 3 shows cover 16 in expanded position and FIG. 4 shows cover 16 in partially collapsed condition with plunger 23 depressed by pulling of shroud line 36.
In operation, upon pulling of shroud line 36 from the position shown in FIG. 3, spring 26 is compressed and plunger 28 moves downwardly carrying along with it the upper portion of cover 16 and vent cap 22. As the upper portion of cover 16 and vent cap 22 move downwardly, air rushes out through openings 23 due to the compression of the air within pit 10. When plunger 28 bottoms on plate 27, the movement is stopped. Upon release of shroud line 36, spring 26 urges the upper portion of cover 16 upwardly to create a suction within pit 10 and air is received Within pit 19 through the openings in vent cap 22. Thus, a bellows type action is obtained and approximately 20 cubic feet of air is removed upon a single movement of cover 16) downwardly and upwardly a dis tance of approximately one foot.
Referring now to FIG. 5 in which an embodiment of my invention is shown having a vent cap 41 that is secured to the upper end of support 42 and does not move relative to support 42. A filter 43 is positioned within vent cap 41 and filters air coming through openings in vent cap 41. A cover 44 is secured to vent cap 41 and rigid rods 46 are secured at one end to the undersurface of cover 44 at 47. The other ends of rods 46 are pivotally connected to a slidable sleeve 48 mounted on support 42 for sliding movement. Spring 49 is secured to slidable sleeve 48 and to pin 51 connected to support 42. Pull handle 53 is secured by a flexible line 50 to slidable sleeve 4-8 and upon a downward movement of handle 53 sleeve 48 moves downwardly and pulls the upper portion of cover 44 inwardly about points 47. Vent cap 41 does not move but the upper portion of cover 44 is collapsed partially as a result of points 47 moving inwardly and air is forced outwardly through vent cap 41 upon the downward movement of sleeve 48. The dotted line position of cover 44 shows cover 44 as it would be after the downward movement of sleeve 48. Upon release of handle 53, spring 49 urges sleeve 48 upwardly and sheet 44 is returned to its original position. A suction is created within the enclosure of the fallout shelter upon the outward movement of sheet 44 and air rushes in through the openings of vent cap 41.
FIG. 6 discloses a further embodiment of my invention in which the vent cap at the apex or center of the fallout shelter is eliminated and a vent pipe 56 is provided extending from the pit under berm 11 and outwardly of cover 16. A vent cap 57 may be positioned on the end of vent pipe 56 and preferably contains a filter material therein to filter the air coming in through pipe 56. Vent pipe 56 may be used either with the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGS. 1-4 or with the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 5. Upon the partial collapsing of the upper portion of cover 16 air moves out vent pipe 56 from the pit and upon the expansion of cover l6 from the partially collapsed position thereof, air is taken in through pipe 56.
From the foregoing, it will be understood that I have provided a fallout shelter having a cover thereon formed of a hard finished material and of a slope sufficient to allow fallout particles to slide downwardly behind a layer of earth or the like whereby protection against gamma radiation will be provided. In order to obtain fresh air within the enclosed area of the fall out shelter, a bellows type principle is employed which comprises moving the upper portion of the cover downwardly or inwardly of the shelter to create compressive forces thereby forcing air out of the vent; then releasing the cover so that it returns to its original expanded position whereby a partial suction within the fallout shelter is created and air is brought in the shelter through a filter.
While I have shown my invention in more than one form, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that it is not so limited, but is susceptible of various other changes and modifications without departing from the spirit thereof, and I desire, therefore, that only such limitations shall be placed thereupon as are specifically set forth in the appended claim.
What I claim is:
A fallout shelter comprising (a) a pit,
(b) a berm extending around and above the upper edge of the pit and being of a sufiicient height and thickness to provide a shield against radioactive particles,
(c) an outwardly and downwardly flaring flexible cover over the pit extending over and outwardly of the berm and having a smooth slick outer surface to impart sliding action to radioactive dust particles whereby they are removed from the cover to a position outwardly of said berm,
(d) means anchoring the outer edges of the cover outwardly of the berm,
(e) an intermediate support in 'said pit supporting the apex of the cover at a height to provide a suificient outer slope of the cover from the apex for radio active dust particles to slide oil the slick cover to a position outwardly of the berm,
(7') movable means adjacent the upper end of the support operatively connected to the cover and urging continuously the cover outwardly of the pit to fully expanded position,
(g) manual means to move successively said movable means so that it moves to a position to collapse partially the upper portion of the cover and then perrnits expansion of the cover through the return of the movable means to its original position to produce concomitantly vibration and a bellows effect,
(h) and there being an exhaust vent communicating with the pit inwardly of the'cover to permit air under the cover to be removedifrom the pit upon collapsing of the upper portion of the cover and to permit fresh air to be brought in upon expansion of the cover.
References (Jited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 256,774 4/ 82 Watson -23 284,846 9/83 Herron 50-187 1,409,316 3/22 Smith 135--1 1,451,208 4/23 Dunn 13515 2,35 5,248 8/44 Stevens 50-5 2 2,475,515 7/49 Potter 135-1 2,792,794 5/57 Miller 50-48 2,873,750 2/59 McCarthy 1351 2,97 4,747 3/61 Coolidge et al. 183-7 2,978,75 8 4/61 Dunn 50268 FOREIGN PATENTS 680,846 9/39 Germany.
JACOB L. NACKENOFF, Primary Examiner.
WILLIAM I. MUSHAKE, HENRY C. SUTHERLAND,