US 3162199 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 22, 1964 SMOKING ARTICLES HAVING ENAPSULATED TOBACCO Filed April 21 1961 c. J. MOLL JR 3,162,199
ADDITIVES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. z/swMa'J/vau, JR
C. J. MOLL, JR SMOKING ARTICLES HAVING ENCAPSULATED TOBACCO ADDITIVES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 21, 1961 FIG. 3
INVENTOR. (24:15; J. #444,]:
United States Patent Ofiice 3,162,199 Patented Dec. 22., 1964 3 162 199 SMOKING ARrreLEs HAVING ENCAPSU- LATED TGBACCO ADDITIVES AND THEIR MANUFACTURE Charles J. Moll, Jr., Louisville, Ky., assignor to Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation, Louisville, Ky., a corporation of Delaware Filed Apr. 21, 1961, Ser. No. 104,693 Claims. (U. ISL-9) This invention relates generally to the incorporation of flavors and other desirable additives in cigarettes or other smoking articles. And more particularly, to the introduction of such additives in an encapsulated form to be released during pyrolysis of the tobacco.
In the past, it has been common practice to spray flavoring material on tobacco after it has been cut and dried. The tobacco was then allowed to bulk for approximately 24 hours, a a general rule, to facilitate the diffusion of these additives through the tobacco. This procedure, however, has inherently presented a number of difliculties and disadvantages. In this connection, it has been extremely diflicult to obtain a truly uniform application as well as distribution of the flavoring material throughout the tobacco. In addition, time and space requirements incident to the stated bulk period are factors contributing to the cost of manufacture and consequently, that of the ultimately finished smoking article. Cigarettes having flavoring material added in this fashion experience deterioration with age and necessarily limited shelf life, due to the evaporation and volatilization of the flavoring materials most commonly employed. Needless to say, a cigarette manufactured in this manner, will not necessarily have a uniform distribution of the flavoring material throughout and consequently, uniform release of these materials on pyrolysis of the tobacco cannot be expected, especially when variable concentrations will be present while different sections of the cigarette are smoked.
It is therefore an object of this invention to overcome these aforenoted difficulties and disadvantages by encapsulating these flavoring materials and additives, such that they are readily uniformly released during pyrolysis of the tobacco.
Another object is to provide for such uniformity of control in flavoring materials and additives in'addition to the elimination of the above bulking operations and limited shelf life of the exposed cigarette a a result of their evaporation and volatilization.
A further important object resides in the effective con trol of flavoring incorporated into each cigarette, as well as thatreceived by the smoker upon each inhalation, notwithstanding the period of time during which the cigarette package is opened and exposed to the ambient teperatures and humidity conditions.
' Briefly stated, this invention contemplates the provisions of an elongated ribbon-like capsule for receiving and retaining the selected flavoring materials and additives only to be released upon pyrolysis of the tobacco. This capsule is preferably initially extruded in tubular form with the flavoring subsequently introduced therein or fabricated from a flat ribbon eventually folded around the additive material. 7
' The encapsulated additive is conveniently incorporated into the cigarette during the cigarette manufacturing process, in web form, along with the paper, according to a specific embodiment of this invention. On the other hand, it is evident that the flavor-containing ribbon may be introduced at other locations, which out of necessity,
would be before the standard garniture station, as for example, by having it accompany'the cut tobacco as it isfed and deposited on theweb of cigarette paper.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following description, which is to be taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings illustrating specific embodiments of the invention, and in which:
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a continuous rod cigarette making machine having incorporated therein a roll of flavoring ribbon, the web of which is introduced into the continuous rod as it is formed, as contemplated by the proposed teachings of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic view, partial-1y in section, showing extrusion apparatus that may be employed in fabricating the continuous web of flavoring ribbon introduced during the cigarette making process;
FIG. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of a cigarette embodying one form of flavoring ribbon capable of manufacture by the use of this extrusion apparatus and disposed within the cigarette as shown, by practicing the invention in accordance with the teachings defined by FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the cigarette of FIG. 3 taken along the line 44;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary sectional View taken along the line 55 of FIG. 3 for purposes of illustrating the pinched sector of the flavor-containing ribbon;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a film having deposited thereon, metered amounts of flavoring material, in powdered form, to be ultimately encased by the fi-lm by sealing the films longitudinally extending marginal ide edges;
FIG. 7 is a longitudinal sectional view of a filter cigarette including a predetermined length of the flavor ribbon manufactured in accordance with the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 6; and
FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 8-8 of FIG. 7.
For purposes of illustrating the present invention, a conventional continuous rod cigarette making machine is partially shown in FIG. 1. This machine essentially includes the tobacco feed designated generally by the numeral it) and cigarette maker designated generally by the numeral 12. The principal components of the cigarette maker 12 are comprised of a rod folder tongue 14, rod former 16, a cigarette rod paster 18, a rod sealer 20, a cut-off device 22, and a cigarette catcher or collector 24 (illustrated schematically with phantom lines). In this connection, it should be understood any one of the standard continuous rod cigarette forming machines can be employed in practicing this invention, as for example, the Molins Mark VI or Mark VIII manufactured by Molins Machine Co. Limited of England, the Haunie GarantL manufactured in Hamburg, West Germany, and comparable machinery manufactured by the American Ma chine & Foundry Co. of New Jersey, any of which may have annexed thereto a filter tip attachment common to the industry as is the case with the American Machine & Foundry Filter Tip Attachment.
The tobacco feed 10 showers cut tobacco continuously onto a traveling tape 26, which delivers the showered tobacco to the traveling paper web 28. The paper web 28 is fed from a reel or roll 30 and is suitablyguided through the rod folder tongue 14, the rod paster 18 which applies a strip of paste to the lap edge of the cigarette rod paper, the rod former 16 and the rod sealer 20, by a continuously moving folding belt 32 driven by'the drum 34. In passing, it is this area of the cigarette maker 12 that is referred to in the industry as the garniture. Drum 34 is continuously driven and takes its drive off the motor (not shown) for the entire cigarette making machine.
When the cigareet rod 36 emerges from the rod former 16 it passes through the cigarette cut-off 22, wherein a knife 38 is driven in proper timed relation with the move ment of the cigarette rod. Thus, individual cigarettes 40 of predetemine'd length are severed from the cigarette rod 36, to be eventually picked up by catcher belts (not shown) and delivered to a suitable collecting receptacle included within the cigarette catcher or collector 24.
, 4 I ditions ,or requirements Thus, asuitable pinching apparatus 58 can periodically pinch the ribbon as it is 1 formed by the extruder 52 to eventually divide the ribbon As previously stated, this invention contemplates the provision of a cigarette or other smoking article havingan elongated ribbon-like capsule which encases a flavoring material incorporated therein. ribbon may be introduced into the cigarette during its manufacture preferably in continuous web form. 'Thus, a roll orlbobbin 42 containinga substantial length of capsule may be mounted on the cigarette machinel as illustrated This flavor containing :into compartmentsconstituting the roll 42 of encapsulated V flavoring material; With present day extrusion techniques, the flavor-containing'ribbon may be formed from polyethylene having an inside diameter of 0.010 and an outside diameter of 0.014.
Referring now to FIGS. 3, and it will be seen that the cigarette 40 consists of a length of vpaper 60 wrapped around the tobacco rod filler 62 and length of flavorin FIGLL The length of capsule per roll 42 is determinable and obviously selectable. length can correspond with that of the paper roll 30. I If conditions dictate, a series of rolls 42 can be utilized with the tail end of one connected to the leading end of the following roll of the' series. With this in mind, constant In this connection, its 1 containing ribbon 64. The length of ribbon 64 will be adjacent thevinner wall of the paper 60 and is pinched at the prescribed locations 66 along its. length Therefore, separate. chambers are provided, thereby insuring separate and progressive release of a controlled amount of replenishment of the flavoring ribbon rolls 42 need not be experienced. I V
The-web 44 of prefabricated ribbon containing. the
flavoringsubstance' or additive can be fed into practically all of the cigarette making machines used by theindus along with the Web 28 of cigarette paper or else introduced at a later stage after the tobacco has been deposited on the moving paper web, but prior to the formation of the cigarette seam. As illustrated, the web 44 is properly guided and drawn through the cigarette rod forming appa-i ratus along with the web 28 of cigarette paper, In this connection, it has been found that 'reinforcement is thus provided, thereby preventing untimely rupture of the ribbon by having it accompany the travel ofthe cigarette paper.
try. Accordingly, the web 44' can be suitably directed In an effort to initiate this relationship, it may be "necessary to affix the leading end of the ribbon Web 44 to-the paper web 28. To this end, "this invention contemplates employing a suitable adhesive or paste to facilitate simultaneous feeding of these websand support of theflavor containing ribboni Once thefeeding of the web 44 is commenced, the density and compactness of the surround-r 7 ing tobacco deposited on the paper web;28c will ordinarily,
be sufficient to pull the web '44 through the garniture.
Under such circumstances, the flavor-containing ribbon willbe located adjacent the interior face oflthe cigarette paper of the formed continuous cigarette rod}: It should be understood at this point, that the flavoring ribbon and] cigarette "paper need not be supplied on separate rolls, but
-may form component parts of a composite roll with the' inner wall of the paper, and
of thetobac co filler: 62'. terminated at its inner end at the juncture with the filter flavoring material duringthe smoking of the cigarette. The present invention provides for another form of encapsulating, generally preferred for powdered substances. AsFIG. 6 will indicate," the flavor-containing ribbon may also be'madefrorn a continuous length of flat sheet material or strip 68, folded around metered amounts I of such flavoring materials 7 0.-i The marginal side edging of thestrip 68 may be heat sealed or secured in any other mannerf as indicated. When the additive is encapsulated as a powdered material, the small internal diameterof the ribbon will usually prevent powder from escaping. In
actual practice, the blade 38 at the cut-off station 22 will have apin'ching effect, thereby prohibiting undesirable discharge of the containedpowder 70 in the ribbon. As was previously the case, this'forrn of ribbon is introduced into thecigarette rod making machine as a web leading from a roll. 1
InFIGSK/ and 8 the usual paper The, flavor-containing ribbon a filter tip cigarette 40 is shown having wrapped around a tobacco 'filler 62. 64 is disposed adjacent the extends for the entire length Howeverfit is conveniently plug-72 for 'obvious reasons. V
, Thecapsule, or ribbon 64, and 64 -are in elongated tubular 'torrn iand the casings thereof may be made of either inorganic or organic materialxwhich, upon pyrolysis' of the tobacco,will,release the contents thereof into the smoke stream; In addition; it sho uldbe harmless to human beings and suitable for human consumptio'n,;both
I 'inits'initial or, original forni and after pyrolysis, Suitable flavor-confining ribbon afiixed tothe cigarette. paper at intervals or throughout the length of their intimate engage-' ment.
trated and isrepresentative of- 'one ofseveral proposed materials for this purpose are guar gum,*lo cust bean gum,
' ethyl cellulose, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and other. similar 7 r V 1 1 '50 In FIG. 2, extrusion apparatus 46 is schematically illus-v means and methods for forming the ribbon containing 1 the selectedflavoringsubstancesl and additives In acf' cordance with the illustratederhbo'diment, a thermoplastic in granulated or pellet form is contained in a hopper; or I reservoir 48 having a suitable'controlled discharge orifice' 50 communicating with an extruder nozzle 52 This control may belin'the form of a valve means* 53.-'-: In addi- Z tion, the flavoring substance or additive, either in liquid or powder form, can be supplied from the reservoir 54 through a control outlet 56'for metering purposes, and 1 similarly be directed through the'extr uder nozzle 52,- as shown: This control may be in the form of a valve means 57-. Underthe circumstances, the extruder Will'form a; ribbonvor tube which will embody a thermoplatsicfilm encapsulating theselected flavoring substance or additive;
The ribbon is pinched-.oif 'at predetermined'intervals so thatthe flavoring substancewill not escape when :the
. ribbonis cutby the blade38 'of-thecutaoif device 22;.
This is generally preferable; especially in thegcase where" flavoring liquids are used; 7 materials from escaping jat one time, the' rib'bo'ncanes In an effort to prevent such mechanically pinched approximately every 10 millimeters,
or at other intervals,idep ending upon i the particular. con
materials; Materials. whose. products of combustion have poor compatibility with tobacco smoke should be avoided, such as methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl acetate, Polyethylene tubing has been foundtoiperform satisfactorily? Any desired flavoring or aromaproducing rnaterial .oradditive suitable ,for use; in cigarettesand other smoking articles may be, encased inside the capsules. 1 iExarnples of such flavoring materials, and additives arenatural and synthetic flavoring and aromatic oils such as oil of-peppermint, oil or eucalyptus, methol andderivatives, of menthol and also esters and other derivatives of organieflavoring acids; ,Powderedi cocoa as commonly .used in smoking articles can be introducedfefiectively in encapsulated form. jlnaddition', this inventionjmay be used for incorporatingavarious distinctive blending tobaccos such as Turkish ,tobacco-withthe remaining cigarette tobacco, particularly when itis de'sirable to control their distribution.-""Ihe quantity o fflavoring' lmaterials incorporated in joithe icapsule may obviouslybe varied in accdrdancewith the concentration of the additive and the flavoring results desired? a Thu s," the several aforenoted objects and advantages, among'othersj are 'fm 'o'st effectively attained. It .should 7 5 v be understoodhowe erythatthis invention is in no sense 53 limited by the embodiments thereof disclosed herein and its scope is to be defined by the appended claims.
1. As an article of manufacture, an improved smoking tobacco rod comprising a filler of tobacco, a wrapper embracing the longitudinally extending periphery of said filler, said rod being cut to predetermined length, a hollow tubular ribbon extending longitudinally within the filler for substantially its entire length, said ribbon being cut to predetermined length with its out ends being adjacent the cut ends of said rod, a tobacco additive contained within the hollow of said ribbon and adapted to be released upon pyrolysis of the tobacco and drawn through the rod by the smoker, said ribbon, when subjected to the heat of burning, permitting the release of said additive, and said ribbon being pinched at predetermined intervals to provide separate compartments of said additive to prevent escape of said additive and to permit its uniform release upon pyrolysis of the tobacco throughout the length of the burning rod.
2. The invention in accordance with claim 1 wherein a filter for the smoke is at one end of said filler.
3. In the manufacture of continuous length cigarette rod wherein a continuous paper tape is provided, tobacco is fed onto said tape as it is moved along a predetermined path of travel, and said paper tape and said tobacco are formed into a continuous cigarette rod and then cut into individual cigarette lengths, the improvement comprising: providing a roll of encapsulated additive in ribbon form wherein the ribbon includes an outer hollow tube with the additive disposed interiorly thereof, the ribbon tube is pinched at predetermined intervals to provide separate compartments of said additive to prevent escape of said additive and to permit its uniform release, the ribbon when subjected to the heat of burning permitting the release of said additive upon pyrolysis of the tobacco, guiding the web of the ribbon over a predetermined path of travel leading to the cigarette rod, leading the leading end of the web of the ribbon into the cigarette rod, and then cutting the continuous length cigarette rod with enclosed ribbon of encapsulated additive into individual cigarette lengths each of which includes a corresponding length of the ribbon.
4. The invention in accordance with claim 3 wherein the leading end of the ribbon is carried by the web of the paper tape to be introduced into said continuous cigarette rod at such time as the tobacco is fed onto said tape.
5. The invention in accordance with claim 1 wherein the ribbon is disposed proximate said wrapper.
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