US 3162863 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 29, 1964 A. L. woKAs 3,162,863
PREFABRICATEID BATHROOMS AND PREFABRICATED RESTROOMS Filed Sept. 26, 1962 4 Sheets-Sheet l Dec. 29, 1964 A. L. WOKAS 3,162,363
PREFABRICATED BATHROOMS AND PREFABRICATED RESTROOMS Filed Sept. 26, 1962 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR A. WOKAS 3,162,863
PREFABRICATED BATHROOMS AND PREFABRICATED RESTROOMS Dec. 29, 1964 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Sept. 26, 1962 INVENTOR &
Dec. 29, 1964 A. L. WOKAS 3,162,863
PREFABRICATED BATHROOMS AND PREFABRICATED RESTRQOMS Filed Sept. 26, 1962 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 United States Patent 3,162,863 PREFABRTJATED BATHROM ANT PRE- FAERICATED anemone/rs Albert L. Wokas, 22245 Thorofare Road, Grosse lie, Mich.
Filed Sept. 26, 1962, Ser. No. 226,214 6 Claims. (Cl. 4Z)
This invention relates to the prefabrication of rooms, especially restrooms which may or may not contain baths. It is especially concerned with the prefabrication of two restrooms which are built together as a single unit package ready for installation in a building. These package units are made up of walls, floors, ceilings, doors, and completely equipped interiors, including all the plumbing fixtures, water lines, and waste lines in place, tested and ready for use when the package units are delivered to the sites.
The invention is shown in the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a top elevation in perspective of a simple twin restroom unit embodying the invention;
16. 2 is a perspective view of the unit of FIG. 1, showing how it may be lifted into place;
FIG. 3 is a view similar to FIG. 1 of a restroom unit in which the restrooms have bathtubs;
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 2 of the unit of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a vertical cross section through the unit of FIG. 1;
FIG. 6 is a horizontal cross section through the unit of FIG. 1;
FIG. 7 is an enlarged, perspective view of the floor and center wall;
FIG. 8 is a vertical cross section of the floor and center wall with toilets mounted;
FIG. 8A is a reduced view, similar to FIG. 8 but with a different floor and toilets not mounted; and
FIG. 9 is a perspective view showing the plumbing in the center wall.
A restroom according to the invention is, from outward appearances, a single cubical unit with four walls, a floor and a ceiling. Two doors 4 (one designated for Men and the other for Ladies), are located such that they each permit entrance into one-half of the cubical unit. The unit is divided into two separate areas by the center partition 3 (see FIGS. 1 to 9). In each room of the two restrooms will be found completely instmled and ready for use: finished walls, ceiling, floor, a wall-hung water closet 6, lavatory 7, mirror, light fixture, exhaust fan 9, heat ducts it and toilet accessories. The units may contain one of each plumbing fixture or a combination of two or more of each fixture, depending on the need. The size of the package restrooms is variable and is dependent on the building requirements. The units may also be modified in design so that the entire unit may be used for a Mens restroom or a Womens restroom, thus doubling the capacity for each unit. The same principles of the center system (see FlGS. 1 to 9) will be used on these modified units. The restrooms of this invention are intended for use in new construction but can also be installed in remodel work where space permits. They can be installed in all types of buildings, such as gasoline service stations, restaurants, factories, shops, retail stores, etc., and in every building that is erected where toilet facilities are needed. The exterior covering 11 of the restrooms will be such that it is weather-resistant and weathertight since it normally must be exposed until the building into which it is placed is itself completed.
The restrooms of this invention can have a permanent exterior 11 installed including a permanent roof, if the package is to be used as an appendage onto a building or if it were to be used as a self-standing structure being used for restroom facilities only.
FIGS. 3 and 4 show that restrooms according to the invention which contain bathtubs are, from outward appearances, a single cubical unit which has four walls, a floor and a ceiling. Two doors 4 (which are an integral part of the package) are located such that they each permit entrance into one-half of the cubical unit. The cubical unit is divided into two separate rooms by the center partition 3. The pair of bathrooms, therefore, is, from outward appearances, a single cubical unit. However, it is divided by partition 3 into two separate bathrooms.
Each room of the pair will be completely finished from iloor to ceiling and will contain: a wall hung water closet 6, lavatory 7, bath tub 8, vanity counter 5, mirror, lighting fixtures, exhaust fan 9, heat duct iii, and all bathroom accessories. The size of the units is variable but usually rectangular in shape. The plumbing fixtures are installed on the center partition 3 in a back to back pattern and shower stalls can be substituted for bath tubs where desired.
The units are intended to be used in new construction but can also be installed in remodel work where space permits. They can be installed in all types of buildings, such as motels, hotels, apartments, and all types of housing that are designed for two or more bathrooms.
The center wall system (see FIGS. 5 to 9) is the heart of the dual restroom or bathroom unit. The center wall system is created by uniting the monolithic floor 2 with the common dividing wall partition 3 into a structure that resembles an inverted T in cross section. The floor Z is designed structurally to fit the type of building into which the finished package is placed. If the unit is to be installed in a house that is built of wood framing, the fioor 2a for the package will use wood framing for its structural strength (see FIG. 8A). If the unit package is installed in a building or house that has a concrete floor 2, the package unit will have a concrete or steel type floor (see FIGS. 5, 7, and 8). The package units are designed such that they lend themselves to a slab construction type of installation. This permits the completed units to be installed in those buildings where there is no basement or crawl space available. It fits in multistory buildings without the need of exposing piping and plumbing on the ceiling below the unit.
The floor is, therefore, normally designed without any openings, thus eliminating the need to make any plumbing connections under the floor once the complete package unit is set into place. This unique feature of the center wall system has many advantages and the most outstanding advantage is that it permits the completed unit to be set in place prior to installing the field rough plumbing which is later connected to the finished unit at one end of the divider wall just above the finished floor line (see FIGS. 2, 4, 6, 7, and 9). Therefore, all final connections between the field rough plumbing and the finished package plumbing 12 are made at grade level. In those cases where clearances and wall space are at a premium, a half-moon cut out 13 (see FIG. '7) in the edge of the floor just below the end of the divider wall can be included. This permits making the rough plumbing connections at grade level and eliminates exposure of any piping.
In buildings such as motels, hotels, apartments, commercial buildings, service stations, etc., where concrete slab construction is normally used for floors, package units using some combination of steel decking, concrete and wood are recommended (see FIGS. 7 and 8). When this type of floor 2 is made part of the center wall system, it
'3 provides stability and permanency equal to or exceeding the remaining part of the building. This floor 2, along with the divider wall partition 3, becomes the back bone of the package unit since all the exterior walls depend on the floor and divider wallpartition for their support and stability. The floor of the system also is an integral part of the structure that permits the restrooms of the invention to be picked up, moved and set in place without damaging the unit (see FIGS. 2 and 4). Depending on the need, lifting rods 14 may be built into the framework of the rest rooms (see FKlS. 2, 4, 5, and 6). These rods are securely.
anchored to the floor and a minimum of strain is put on the plumbing, fixtures and walls when the unit is picked up and set into place with a crane. The units may also be moved by using a crane and slings, fork lift trucks or positioned by the use of rollers or casters.
The second component and the key part of the center wall system is the divider wall partition 3 that makes up the vertical leg of the inverted T. This divider wall extends trom one side of the door to the other and divides the one piece floor into two areas, thus permitting the development of dual room unit. The divider wall 3 is made up of two rows of re-enforced vertical wood or steel studs. The two rows of studs are spaced properly apart so as to permit the installation of all mechanical equipment in this space. (The requirement is to make a boxlike structure of known materials with adequate space and strength to serve the intent of the unit.) During shop fabrication the divider wall is secured to the floor with anchor bolts or tack welds (see FIGS. 7, 8, and 8A) forming a rigid unit. The divider wall system permits the servicing of two rooms from a common wall unit that contains all the mechanical, electrical, and heating equipment necessary for the functioning of the two rooms.
The carriers 15 to which the back to back wall hung water closets are secured are an integral part of the divider wall structure and are built in as a part of the wall (see FIGS. 5, 6,7, 8, and 9). A carrier must be used with a wall hung closet and carriers are usually manufactured units that are separately installed in the walls during construction of a building. The carriers 16 are part of and built into the stud wall divider partition 3. The carrier 16 partition 3 is then secured to the floor. The purpose for using this unique built-in carrier 16 is to permit the use of wall hungwater closets which then eliminates the need of having the waste pipes go through the floor.
The carrier 16 and the divider wall 3 structure are so designed that when'the two wall hung water closets 6 are set in place back to back and secured with nut 17 and through bolt 18, the squeezing action of the nut 17 and through bolt 18 prohibits any movement between the water closets 6 and connecting plumbing waste pipes 19, thus eliminating any possible water leakage at this critical point. I
The plumbing waste lines 12 that connect to the wall hung water closets are placed in a horizontal position with a slight downward slope toward the edge or end of the divider wall and the floor. This unique method of installing wall hung water closets and horizontal waste pipes located above the floor line permits the discharge end of the waste pipes 12 to emerge out of the side of the package units, thus eliminating any need for under floor connections. If it is not desirable to have the waste pipe emerge out of the side of the unit, a 90 turn in the waste pipe just inside the edge of the fioorthrough a pre-cut halfmoon shaped hole 13 will provide the same end result. A vertical plumbing vent stack 20 is connected to the horizontal waste pipe 12 and extends throughthe top of the package units. (See FIGS. 2, 4, and 5.) The waste pipe 21 (FIG. 9) from the lavatories is connected to this vent stack 20 and this waste pipe 21 is also re-vented by line 22 to the stack 20. In the bath tub unit the waste line 23 from the bath tubs or shower stalls are connected to the horizontal waste pipe 12 and these waste lines are also re-vented by line 24 into the main vent stack.
I end of the divider wall and circuits are extended to various points in the rooms. (See PEGS. Zand 4.) A hot air heat duct it and registers are installed in the space in the center of the divider wall and are ready for use when connected to the main supply. Electric heat or hot water heat may be provided it desirable.
The rigid center wall and floor combination (inverted T) is the nucleus around which the dual rooms arebuilt. To complete the building of the packages, standard con: struction practices and material are followed although they will all be tailored to fit into a procese for mass production of the units. The walls of the package units can be built using standard wood or steel studding. The exterior' of the packages will be covered with material such as cement board or hard board depending on its final V to the site, set in place and be ready for final hook-up.
The final attachment would consist of one waste line connection, one hot and cold water connection, one electricalconnection, one vent line connection and one heat duct connection. All connections are made on the exterior or the unit and the package restrooms or package bathrooms are ready for use. r
The intent of this invention is to provide a completely 7 integrated dual restroom unit that can be built in a shop or factory under mass production conditions, delivered to the site, and installed in a building that is under con- This invention does not limit itself to any special kind or type of building but is so designed to fit into any and all conceivable types, sizes, orshapes'of buildings that require restroom or bathroom facilities. In essence, the dual room unit will be set in place and the building structure will be built around it. The center wallfloor system permits the flexibility to meet the requirements of code, transportation, durability, and appeal. it permits a simple method of hook-up into the building services thus permitting its use in all types of building designs and shapes. Theywillbe completely built in the shop, delivered to the site by truck or rail, and set in place with the use of cranes or skids, Once the services are connected to the openings or outlets on the exterior of the units, the completely equipped restrooms are ready for instant use.
What is claimed is:
1 A portable prefabricated restroom structure to'provide two restrooms and adapted for insertion in a build'-. ing to form a part thereof comprising a unitary, self-sustaining, rigid fioor having sufiicient strength to support the structure as a unit situated apart from a building into which it will be installed, a central wall rigidly secured to and across the floor to divide the fioor into two areas for 1-- ing two floors for said two restrooms, said central wall being hollow, restroom fixtures mounted on said wall, plumbing elements for the restroom fixtures including a waste pipe located inside said hollow central wall, all or said plumbing elements being mounted on and supported by said central wall, said floor being separate from and unconnected to said plumbing elements except through said central wall and said waste pipe in its entirety'being located above said floor, said floor and central wall providing an inverted T-shaped portable load carrying framework for said two restrooms.
2. The structure of claim 1 including identical restroom fixtures on opposite sides of said central Wall and installed back to back thereon and supported directly by the central wall.
3. The structure of claim 1 including plumbing connections on said plumbing elements for connection to the plumbing system of a building in which the restrooms are to be installed, all of said plumbing connections being located on a level above the floor.
4. The structure of claim 1 including ceiling and Wall means for the two restrooms, an electrical system and a ventilating system for said restrooms, said systems and said plumbing elements having all their connections for attachment to the electrical, ventilating, and plumbing systems of a building located adjacent said ceiling and wall means and separated from said floor structure.
5. The structure of claim 1 including a pair of carrier brackets anchored in said floor and projecting above the top of the central wall and providing means for lifting the structure.
6. The structure of claim 1 including back to back toilet carriers mounted on said central Wall.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,089,776 Mann Mar. 10, 1914- 2,037,895 Gugler Apr. 21, 1936 2,419,319 Lankton Apr. 22, 1947 2,665,454 Krenov Ian. 12, 1954 3,047,106 Callahan July 31, 1962 I FOREIGN PATENTS 569,053 Great Britain May 2, 1945 1,158,924 France Feb. 3, 1958 OTHER REFERENCES American Builder, February 1946, pages 98, 99, 100,
101, 168, and 172.