US 3163038 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 29, 1964 Filed May 4, 1960 H. L. BRYANT BOREHOLE FLOWMETER 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 XRWAWW Harvey L. Bryant Inventor Attorney I 1 i I38 1 I i FIG. 2C
Harvey L. Bryant Inventor By/Ql, M Attorney United States Patent Ofiflce 3,163,635; Patented Dec. 2%, 1964 3,163,038 BOREHOLE FLOWMETER Harvey L. Bryant, Tulsa, 03:121., assignor to Jersey Production Research Company, a corporation of Delaware Filed May 4, 1968, Ser. No. 26,793 6 Claims. (Cl. 73-155) This invention relates to a system for determining flow of fluids from subsurface earth formations in wells such as oil, gas or water wells. More particularly, it relates to an appanatus for determining the rate of flow of fluid in such wells at various depths therein.
To recover oil and/or gas from a subterranean reservoir, it is customary in the art of petroleum production to drill a borehole from the surface of the earth down to and through the reservoir rock. The well is then lined with casing and the casing is cemented within the borehole. The casing may extend through the producing formation and if so it is perforated to permit flow of fluid to enter in from the formation. In some instances, although not the general practice, the casing is set only to the top of a producing formation in what is known as an open hole completion. After the casing has been set through a producing formation or formations, it is perforated at points opposite the zones containing the fluids desired to be produced. Such wells may traverse several fluid bearing strata at different depths. Sometimes it is desirable that a number of such strata simultaneously supply fluids to the well bore. Knowledge of where the fluid is entering the well bore permits the well to be operated more efiiciently.
The oil produced from a cased well is not ordinarily conducted to the earth surface through the string of casing itself. Instead, a second string of pipe which is normally called tubing or production string is positioned within the well with its lower end generally spaced somewhat above the producing zone or zones. If more than one reservoir zone is present, the oil from the zones may be produced through one or more production strings. In any event, the lower end of such production string is packed 013? within the string of casing generally somewhat above its producing zone. That is, the annular space between the production string and the casing is packed off or sealed.
Briefly, this invention includes a well logging tool for operation in the bore of a well, a hollow body member of a character to be moved along the well, a collapsible flow diverter attached to the lower end of the body member to divert fluid flow in the well through the body member, discharge ports within the body member and a measuring means in the body member responsive to the quantity of fluid flowing therethrough. A preferred embodiment includes an adjustable bypass port in the body member between the fluid flow diverter and the fluid flow measuring means. Spinner measuring means used in such fluid flow logging tools have maximum revolutions per minute which are considered accurate for measuring flow of fluid. In other words, the spinner measuring means cannot measure flow beyond a maximum capacity. Thus, by bypassing a known volume or ratio of fluid by the spinner means, the effective range of the spinner measuring means is greatly extended.
The nature and the objects of this invention will be more readily apparent and easier understood with the following description taken in conjunction with the drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is an elevation schematic view of the device of the present invention positioned in a well bore;
FIG. 2A, FIG. 2B, and FIG. 20 show a sectional view from top to bottom of an embodiment of the invention with FIG. 2A illustrating the upper section, FIG. 2B
illustrating an intermediate section and FIG. 2C illustrating the lower section;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along the line 33 of FIG. 2A;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken along the line 44 of FIG. 2B;
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along the line 5-5 of FIG. 2B; and,
FIG. 6 is a sectional view taken along the line 6-6 of FIG. 2C.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment showing the best mode contemplated for carrying out this invention. Tool 16 is suspended from the surface of the earth in a well bore 12 by multiple conductor supporting cable 14. Well bore 12 is shown as lined with casing 16 having perforations 18. A tubing string 20 is suspended in the casing and the annular space between tubing 26 and casing 16 is sealed by packer 22. Multiple conductor cable 14 is passed over a pulley means 24 and passed on to control and record means 26. Control and recording means 26 will not be discussed in detail herein but is of a character to raise and lower the tool in the well bore as desired and to continuously record the depth of the tool as well as electrical signals received from the tool.
Tool 10 includes a motor and ratchet section 28, centralizer means 32, bypass ports 34, bypass sleeve 36, fluid diverter means 38 and discharge ports 40. The spinner or measuring section of the device is shown as largely surrounded by bypass sleeve 36.
The details of construction and operation of the com ponents listed above in regard to FIG. 1 will be explained in detail in connection with FIG. 2A, 2B and 2C. In FIG. 2A, the upper section of the tool is shown. For convenience of construction housing 42 has upper housing section 43, upper intermediate housing section 83, lower intermediate housing section 34, and lower housing section 88. Upper housing section 43 is connected to upper intermediate housing section 83 by threaded joint means 44. The upper part of upper housing section 43 contains motor and ratchet section 28 having hollow housing section 42 connected by threads 44 to caps 34). The upper end of housing 42 is hollow so as to define a chamber 46 to house reversible motor 48.
Upper intermediate housing section 83 has a bore of a character to receive a ratchet section 52. This includes a driving member 54 which has at its lower end external threads matching those of threaded bore 56. The upper end of driving member 54 is more or less a hollow member having spline 58. Ratchet section member 60 is connected to shaft 62 of motor 48 through couplings 63. The lower end of ratchet section 52 may be termed a guide shaft 64 which extends into bore 66 of driving member 54. Ratchet section 52 has thereon a first ratchet 68 and a second ratchet 7t). Ratchet 68 is of a character to have a shoulder to engage spline 58 on clockwise rotation and ratchet 70 is of a character to engage spline 58 on counter-clockwise rotation. Spline 58 is of a vertical dimension to limit the vertical travel of driving member 54 as desired. When motor 43 is rotated in a clockwise direction, first ratchet 68 engages spline 58 to drive member 54 downwardly as it advances in threaded bore 66. When driving member 54 has advanced downwardly so that ratchet 68 no longer engages spline 53, the downward movement of driving member 54 is stopped and further clockwise rotation of motor 48 has no effect on driving member 54. When first ratchet 68 is beyond the upper end of spline 58, second ratchet '70 is in a position to engage spline 58 upon counter-clockwise rotation of shaft 62 of motor 48. Counter-clockwise rotation of shaft 62 causes the driving member 54 to rotate in a counter-clockwise direction thus raising driving member 54 until second ratchet '70 is no longer engaging Spline 58. At this point, further counter-clockwise rotation of shaft 62 has no efiect on driving member 54. As will be seen, this feature is used to raise or lower the bypass sleeve 36 to cover or uncover bypass ports 34.
The lower end of upper intermediate housing section 83 is of a smaller diameter than the upper end thereof. Surrounding this smaller diameter portion 72 is bypass sleeve 36. The lower end of driving member 54 has a reduced diameter section 74. Driving arms 76 are secured to section 74 by clamps 78. Driving arms 76 are connected to bypass sleeve 36 by any convenient means such as screws 89.
The reduced portion 72 of upper intermediate housing section 83 is divided into three vertical connecting members 82. These are spaced such as to permit driving arms 76 to have vertical movement therebetween as shown more clearly in FIG. 3.
Referring now especially to FIG. 2B, attached to the lower end of upper intermediate housing section 83 is lower intermediate housing section 84 at threads 86. Lower intermediate housing section 84 is connected to lower housing section 83 by threads 90. Lower housing section 88 has upper bypass ports 34a and lower bypass ports 34b.
In the lower part of lower intermediate housing section 84 is a flow guide means 92 having radially extending vanes 94 as shown more clearly in FIG. 5. The outer edges of vanes 94 are affixed to cylinder 93 and the inner edges are atlixed to cone element 95. Cylinder 93 extends above vanes 94 so as to receive spinner element section 96. Above spinner element section 96 is a second flow guide 98 having vanes 38a between outer cylinder 99 and inner cylinder 101. Shaft 101i rotatably fits within inner cylinder 101. Shaft 100 is connected to the spinner element section 96. Lower intermediate housing section 84 has its lower bore enlarged thus forming shoulder 102 to act as a stop for flow guide 98. Shoulder 104 is formed by the upper end of lower housing section 88. The lower end of shaft 101) is supported from flow guide 92 by hearing section 106. The upper end of shaft 100 is separated from the upper end of lower intermediate housing 84 by thrust bearing 108. A set screw 111i is provided to adjust the position of thrust bearing 1118.
The upper end of intermediate housing section 8-4 has a reduced bore 112 which results in an enlarged wall section.
Lower intermediate housing section 84 is provided with discharge ports 4!) which are directed upwardly. The thickened wall of lower intermediate housing section 84 is tapered downwardly and inwardly forming shoulders 124 which form a part of discharge ports 40. Sleeve 36 has slots 37 in its upper portion so as not to cover discharge ports 40. Positioned about shaft 100 is a coneshaped member 126. This member 126 is provided with recesses 128 of a design to receive sealing element 130. Cone member 126 is attached to the thickened walfof lower intermediate housing section 84 by pins 127. Shaft 181i is rotatably mounted through cone 126. The cone is designed such that when the spinner section is inserted between flow guides 98 and 92, the lower surface of cone 126 and the lower shoulder 124 of lower intermediate housing section 34 form a smooth upper surface for dis charge ports 40. Flow guide 38, spinner section 96 and flow guide means 92 are designed such as to fit snugly within lower intermediate housing section 84 between shoulder 102 and shoulder 104.
In the enlarged wall section of intermediate housing section 84 are three irregularly spaced-apart magnetic switches 114a, 1145, and 114a as shown more clearly in FIG. 4. Magnetic switch 114A has reed elements 116a and 113a and likewise magnetic switch 114!) has reed elements 11612 and 11815 and switch element 114a has reed elements 116a and 1180. Positioned in the upper end of shafit is magnet 120 and counter-balance 122.
As magnet 12% is placed within the shaft of spinner element 96, the blades of spinner element 96 which are rotated by fluid flowing therethrough likewise rotates magnet 120. Magnet 120 then is rotatable with respect to intermediate housing section 84 and the magnetic switches 114a, 1145 and 1140 that are contained therein. As magnet 120 rotates by switch 114a, for example, the contacts of reed elements 116a and 118a are closed. Switches 114a, 11% and 114s are connected through a lead in conduit supporting cable 14 to the surface of the earth to a recorder at which the opening and the closing of the switches are recorded. It will be noted that the switches 114a, 1141b and 114s are spaced such that one code is received for counter-clockwise rotation and another received for clockwise rotation. This permits it to be determined at the surface whether the fluid is flowing up or down by spinner element 96.
Attention will now be directed more specifically toward FIG. 2C and FIG. 6 which shows in detail flow diverter means 38. Attached to the lower end of lower housing section 88 is an elongated rod member 132 which may be attached thereto by web members 134. Afiixed to the lower end of housing 88 is a plurality of outwardly biased longitudial bands 136. The other ends of bands 136 are aflixed to a traveling ring 138. A substantially fluid impervious flexible material 141) is supported by bands 136. The upper end of material 140 is conveniently sealingly aflixed to the inner wall of the lower end of lower housing section 88. A groove is conveniently provided in the lower end of lower housing section 88 to receive the upper end of material and the upper end of bands 136 which are held in place by screws 137.
The lower end of flexible material 141 terminates preferably about midway bands 136 and are aflixed thereto as by rivets 142. Flexible member 140 may be placed on the outside of bands 136. However, it is desired that the flexible material be on the inside of the bands so that the bands will protect the flexible material from wear as the tool is being raised through a borehole. A guide member 144 having holes 148 is affixed to the bottom of shaft 132. A spring 146, mounted about a lower portion of rod member 132, urges traveling ring 138 upwardly from guide member 144.
A flow diverter such as this is useful for use in varying hole diameters as may be encountered in open hole completions. The design of the flow diverter permits it to be raised and lowered so that multiple runs may be made in the interval of interest without removal from the borehole. The smoothly curved surface of the flexible bands 136 permits the flow diverter to pass up or down over jagged edges and, for example, do not catch on collars in the tubing string.
Having described the structural components of the apparatus, attention will now be directed toward a preferred manner of operation. Prior to lowering the tool into the well bore through tubing 26, bypass sleeve 36 is driven upwardly by counter-clockwise rotation of motor 48 so that bypass ports 34 are open. This permits the tool to be lowered more rapidly. Bands 136 are compressed by hand or otherwise and inserted into tubing 29. Likewise, centralizers 32 are compressed sufiiciently to pass through tubing 21!. The tool is then lowered through tubing 20 by lowering conduit 14. As the tool passes out the lower end of tubing 26, flow diverter means 38 expand into position and eentralizers 32 expand to touch the casing to hold the tool in the center of the hole. After tool 10 passes through the lower end of tubing 20, it is preferably lowered into the lower part of the interval to be surveyed. The bypass ports are then closed by clockwise rotation of motor 48. When the tool is on the bottom of the borehole, the fluid diverter means 38 has expanded against the walls of the casing and substantially all fluid flowing upwardly from beneath the fluid diverter flows through the diverter through the spinner element section 96 and out discharge ports 40. The speed of rotation of the spinner element blades is directly proportional to the rate of flow therethrough. The tool is then raised slowly through the well bore and the revolutions of the spinner section which is "a measure of the fluid flow is recorded together with the depth at which the flow is occurring.
When the spinner section reaches the maximum flow rate measurable, the bypass ports are opened. This is accomplished conveniently by counter-clockwise rotating shaft 62 of motor 48. This causes ratchet member 68 to engage spline 58 thus raising ratchet segment 70 upwardly. Bypass ports 34 then are opened and a certain amount of fluid flowing through fluid diverter means 38 passes out through bypass ports 34 and a certain portion passes through the spinner element and is thus metered. By proper calibration of the tool, it is known how much fluid passes through bypass ports 34. As this amount of fluid passes through bypass ports 34 it is not passed through spinner element or measuring sections96; the effective range of the spinner element then is greatly increased. For example, if the maximum range of the spinner element is 1,000 gallons per minute, and the bypass ports 34 also have a capacity of 1,000 gallons per minute, the effective range of the tool is raised from 1,000 gallons per minute to 2,000 gallons per minute. In the operation just described, it was assumed that both ports 34a and 34b were desired to be opened in the first step of opening the bypass. However, it may be desired to open bypass ports 34b first and let it remain open alone until the spinner section elements have reached their maximum capacity and at that time open the upper bypass ports 34a to further increase the capacity of the tool. The tool is raised slowly through the well bore measuring the quantity of fluid flowing in the well at various intervals. When the tool reaches the lower end of tubing 20, centralizers 32 are first compressed and the tool is raised upwardly in tubing 20. When fluid diverter means 38 reaches the lower end of tubing 20, it is likewise contracted. The tool is then pulled to the surface through tubing 20.
It is, of course, understood that the tool will be run in a well during a period When the well is producing. The fluid which flows upwardly within the borehole causes the spinner blades of spinner section 96 to rotate. The rate of rotation is detected by magnetic switches 114a, 11411 and 1140 and recorded at the surface.
While there are above disclosed but a limited number of embodiments of this structure, process and product of invention herein presented, it is possible to produce still other embodiments without departing from the inventive concept herein disclosed. For example, the flowmeter tool disclosed herein may be modified to contain additional means for measuring the density of fluid in the well bore suchas described in the copending application Serial No. 16,039 of Harvey L. Bryant and Millage M. White. It is therefore desired that only such limitation be imposed on the appending claims as are stated therein.
What is claimed is:
1. A well logging tool for operation in the bore of a well which comprises in combination a hollow body memher; a flow diverter attached to the lower end of said body member and of a character to divert fluid flow in said well into said body member; discharge ports within said body member spaced from said flow diverter to enable fluids to pass through said body member; measuring means in said body member between said diverter and said dischar e ports and of a character responsive to the quantity of fluid flowing through said body member; bypass port means in said body member between said flow diverter and said flow responsive measuring means; a bypass sleeve mounted around said body member in a slidable relationship therewith and means to move said bypass sleeve such that when in one extreme position said bypass sleeve covers said bypass ports and in the opposite 6 extreme position said bypass sleeve clears said bypass ports.
2. A well logging tool for operation in a bore of a well which comprises in combination: a housing member; a passageway for the flow of fluid therethrough; an elongated shaft member connected to the lower end of said housing and axially aligned therewith; a traveling ring member positioned about said shaft member in a slidable relationship and spaced longitudinally thereon from the lower end of said housing; a plurality of outwardly biased longitudinal bands attached at one end to the lower end of said housing and at the other end to said traveling ring member; a substantially fluid impervious flexible material supported by said bands, one end of said material being sealingly afiixed to the lower end of said housing member about the periphery of the opening of said passageway and the other end terminating at about midway said bands; fluid flow responsive means in said passageway; a bypass port having a set constant area of opening in said housing establishing fluid communication between the exterior of said housing and said passageway below said fluid flow responsive means whereby a known portion of the flow of fluid is diverted by the fluid flow responsive means.
3. An apparatus as defined in claim 2 including means to close said bypass port whereby all fluid flow is directed through said fluid flow responsive means.
4. A well logging tool which comprises in combination: a hollow body member of a character to be moved along in the well; a plurality of outwardly biased longitudinal bands attached about the periphery of the lower end of said body member; a traveling ring to which is attached the other ends of said bands; a substantially fluid impervious flexible material supported by said bands, one end of said material being sealingly aflixed to the lower end periphery of said body member and the other end terminating at about midway said bands; at first fluid flow guide of a character to fit within said body member and including vertical flow vanes extending radially with respect to the axis of said body member; a spinnner section responsive to the flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to fit within said body member above said first fluid flow guide; a second fluid flow guide of a character to fit within said body member above said spinner section, said second fluid guide including vertical flow vanes extending radially with respect to the axis of said body member; discharge ports Within said body member above said second fluid flow guide in the wall of said body member; bypass port means in said body member between said spinner section and the lower end periphery of said body member; a bypass sleeve mounted around said body member in a slidable relationship therewith; and means to move said bypass sleeve such that in one extreme position, said bypass sleeve covers said bypass ports and in the opposite extreme position said bypass port is uncovered such that a part of the flow of fluid is diverted around said spinner section.
5. A well logging tool which comprises in combination: a hollow body member of a character to be moved along the well; a plurality of outwardly biased longitudinal bands attached about the periphery of the lower end of said body member; a traveling ring to which is attached the other ends of said bands; a substantially fluid impervious flexible material supported by said bands, one end of said material being sealingly affixed to the lower end periphery of said body member and the other end terminating at about midway of said bands; discharge port within said body member to enable fluids to pass therethrough; measuring means in said body member below said discharge port and of a character responsive to the quantity of fluid flowing through said body member; bypass pont means in said body member between said measuring means and the lower end of said body member; a bypass sleeve mounted around said body member in a anesps s slidable relationship therewith and means to move said bypass sleeve such that when in one extreme position said bypass sleeve covers said bypass port means and in the opposite extreme position, said bypass sleeve clears said bypass port means thus diverting a part of the fluid flowing through said body member around said measuring means.
6. A well logging tool for operation in the bore of a well which comprises in combination:
a housing member adapted for vertical movement within said bore and having a passageway for the flow of fluid therethrough;
a fluid diverter supported at the lower end of said housing for directing substantially all the flow of fluid in the well bore through said passageway;
a spinner section in the passageway of said housing, the rotation of said spinner section being responsive to the diverted fluid flowing through said passagey;
a bypass port means in said housing member establishing fluid communication between the exterior of said housing above said diverter and said passageway below said spinner section but above said diverter;
valve means carried by said housing member for opening and closing said bypass port means; and
means operable from the surface for actuating said valve means whereby a known proportion of the flow of fluid within said passageway is diverted through said port means and bypassed around said spinner section.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Dodge Aug. 25, 1914 Hodgson Aug. 9, 1932 Stevenson Aug. 18, 1942 Vincent et a1 Apr. 19, 1955 Wiley et a1. Mar. 26, 1957 Talbott Sept. 22, 1959 Buck May 3, 1960 Godbey May 17, 1960 Rumble Dec. 6, 1960