Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3163745 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 29, 1964
Filing dateFeb 29, 1960
Priority dateFeb 29, 1960
Publication numberUS 3163745 A, US 3163745A, US-A-3163745, US3163745 A, US3163745A
InventorsBoston William G
Original AssigneeSocony Mobil Oil Co Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Heating of an earth formation penetrated by a well borehole
US 3163745 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 29, 1964 w. G. BosToN HEATING oE AN EARTH FORMATION PENETRATED BY A WELL EoRENoLE Filed Feb. 29, 1960 llllllllilllllll'tl FIG. I.

WILLIAM G. BOSTON INVENTOR. I l BYL-/:rAwff/V1 ATTORNEY I* 5 r r r n r l d I d r 414 A M. I! ww T United States Patent C) 3,163,745' ins/trave or su traurig Federation nous Filed lieb. 29, lfilill, No. llllfd' 2 Claims. (Cl. 2l9m277) This invention relates to the heating of an earth forniation and relates more particularly to a rneans for heating uniformly the face of an earth formation along a well borehole penetrating the formation.

Earth formations are heated for various purposes. Thus, in the production of petroleum from an earth formation, the formation may be heated to decrease the viscosity of the petroleum oil within the formation. The heating may also be employed to remove paraffin from the formation. Hydration and swelling of clay minerals within the formation may be eliminated or minimized by heating. The formation may also be heated in carrying out the in-Situ combustion process to initiate combustion within the formation.

Heating of an earth formation is commonly etfected by operation of a suitable heater positioned alongside the formation within a well borehole penerating the formation. A iluio', which may be a gas such as air, is Ordinar y passed downwardly through the weil borehole over the heater and into the formation. The fluid passing over the heater becomes heated and upon entering the formation transfers the heat to the formation. ihe heater, because of the small diameter of the well borehole relative to the length of the formation, is ordinarily elongated.

lt has been found that an elongated heater fails to heat uniformly an earth formation adjacent to the heater. he fluid passing over the top portion of the heater and entering the formation adjacent thereto is heated to some extent. How'ever, the fluid 'passing over the entire length of the heater and entering the formation adjacent to the bottom portion of the heater is heated to a greater extent. Thus, the lower portion of the formation is heated to a greater extent than the upper portion of the formation. Where the heating is for the purpose of initiating combustion within the formation, for example, combustion, as a result of the non-uniform heating, may be initiated at the lower portion of the formation but not at the upper portion. Attempts to correct this condition by positioning the heater above the formation to be heated are effective from the standpoint of supplying heat to the formation. However, they also result in a heating, by radiation primarily, of the well borehole adjacent 'to the heater with tiie'result that cement behind casing becomes heated sufficiently to undergo high temperature degradation.

it is an object of this invention to effect introduction of uniformly heated oxidizing duid to an earth formation to initiate iii-situ combustion in the formation. lt is other object oi' Ahis invention to heat uniformly a cornbuStion-supporting gas with a well borehole heater preparatory to introduction of the gas into an earth formation adjacent to the heater. it is a more specific object of this invention to initiate combustion within an earth formation penetrated by a well borehole uniformly over substantially its entire face at approximately the same time. v

The single figure is a vertical-sectional view, partly schematic, of one embodiment of my invention.

l have discovered that the objects of the invention may be achieved by passing the lluid downwardly through the well borehole over a source of heat, isolating the heated fluid physically and thermally from the walls of the well borehole during passage over the source of heat, and thereafter passing the fluid upwardly through the well borehole and into the formation. A heater provided with 3,163,745 Patented Dec. 29, 1964 ice a reflecting jacket may be employed. The fluid is passed between the heater and the reflecting jacket to the bottom portion of the heater. The reflecting jacket isolates the fluid physically and thermally from the walls of the well borehole lying adjacent to the heater. The fluid is then introduced into the formation.

Referring to the figure, well borehole l@ penetrates earth formation il. As illustrated, the bottom of the well borehole is just below the bottom of the formation Ill and the well borehole is provided with liner l2 which extends from the bottom of the well. The liner may extend to the surface of the earth. However, the liner may not extend to the surface of the earth in which case it may be supported within the well borehole by a hanger. Perforations t3 are provided in the liner along its length adjacent to the formation Casing 14 lines the wall f the well borehole to the top of the formation il and is cemented in place by means of cement l5.

Heater comprises heater housing 2l, heating element 22, and rf cting jacket 2li. Reflecting jacket 23 extends along substantially the entire length of the housing 21. A plurality of collars are welded or otherwise immovably joined to both the housing and the reflecting jacket and serve to support the reflecting jacket about the housing. rihe collars also serve to maintain the reliecting jacket in spaced relation with the housing and provide annulus 25 between the reflecting jacket and the housing. A plurality of channels 3d for the passage of fluid are provided in each of the collars. The heater is attached to cable Heating element 22 is positioned within the housing 2l. he heating element forms no part of this invention. An electric heating element or a gasor liquid-fuel fired heater may be used. Any conventional heating element of these types, or of any other type, may be employed and suitable provision may be made to supply electrical current or fuel to the heating element. Preferably, an electrical heating element is employed and the electrical current may be supplied througn suitable conductors (not shown) made part of, or otherwise associated with, the cable 3i.

The reflecting jacket E3 is, as the adjective indicates, capable of reflecting radiation. To effect this purpose, the jacket is made of a material which can be polished on the inner surface which would face heater housing 21 and the annulus Z5. The polished surface will reiiect thermal radiation. if desired, a polished, reflecting surface may be joined to the inner surface of the jacket in lieu. of polishing the surface per se of the jacket. The jaclret, also, is made of a material which, at least on its inner surface, is capable of resisting oxidation. A suitn able material for the reflecting jacket is stainless steel. To assist in resisting oxidation, the inner surface of the reii'ecting jacket may be provided with a surface coating or lajer of a transparent, vitreous material such as heat resistant glass, for example, Pyrex glass. The sur face coating 32 is bonded or otherwise firmly joined to the surface of the reflecting jacket. f

The outer surface of the jacket, ie., the surface which would face the walls of the well borehole lil, is preferably, although not necessarily, also reflecting to thermal radiation. The outer surface of the reflecting jacket may be rendered. reflective by polishing. if desired, a polished eliecting surface .may be joined to the outer surface of the jacket in lieu of polishing the surface per se of the jacket. To assist in resisting oxidation, the outer surface of the jacket may be provided with a surface coating or layer of a transparent vitreous material similar to the surface coating or layer This surface is bonded or otherwise firmly joined to the outer surface of the jacket.

The reflecting jacket 23 may be provided with a collar extending entirely around the housing. There may edoardo also be positioned within the well borehole an anchor 35 extending entirely around the wall of the well borehole. The collar 34 is adapted to contact the anchor 35 in fluid tight relationship when the heater 2G is positioned within the well borehole. There is thus effected a. fluid-tight barrier to prevent llow of fluid downwardly from the well borehole along the outer surface of the reflecting jacket into the formation 1l.

The reflecting jacket Z3 serves several functions. Gne of its functions is to conduct lluidpassed downwardly through the well for introduction into an earth formation along the heater case 2l through the annulus 25. As a result, all of the duid which ows past the heater housing passes from the annulus at the lsame temperature. Another function is to provide heat by radiation to the fluid flowing through the annulus. A third function is to minimize heat transfer to the walls of the well borehole other than along the formation to be heated.

ln operation, the heater is lowered by means of cable 31 through the well borehole l@ to a position opposite an earth formation to be heated. in the ligure, formation 11 is the formation to be heated and this formation, as previously mentioned, is at the bottom of the well borehole. Should the well borehole extend downwardly below the formation to any great extent, or at least to penetrate a permeable formation below the formation to be heated, it is preferred to employ a packer or other sealing device within the well borehole. The packer or other sealing device would be positioned within the well borchole just below the formation to be heated to prevent damage to cement, if any, located below the formation` to be heated. In any case, it will be positioned within the well borehole above the next lower permeable formation to prevent downward flow of fluid into the lower permeable formation. In the event the heater housing is not provided with collar 34 and anchor 35 is not provided on the liner l2, a packer or other sealing device will be employed between the top of the reflecting jacket and the walls of the well borehole to prevent fluid by-passing the heater and entering formation 1.1.

With the heater positioned within the well borehole, fluid is passed downwardly through the well borehole the heater element 22 is energized, as by flow of electrical current thereto where an electrical heater is employed. The fluid passed downwardly through the well borehole passes through the channels 3i! in the collars 24 and thus passes through the annulus 25 over the outer surface of the housing 21. The fluid, in passing over the outer surface of the housing, becomes heated and the heated fluid passes out of the annulus 25 to the bottom portion of the heater. The fluid then enters through the perforations 13 in the liner i?. into the formation il. dicate the direction of fluid iiow.

The reflecting jacket is exposed to radiant heat from the heater housing. However, since the inner surface of the jacket is reliective, this radiant heat from the heater housing will be reflected back to the fluid within the annulus 25'. Thus, the temperature of the jacket along its length is more or less uniform. As a result, the liuid in its passage from the armulus 25 into the formation does not pick up any substantial amount of heat from the jacket. Further, where the outer surface of the jacket is also reflec 'Ve, radiant heat from the formation il will also be reflected from the jacket.

The jacket will, as mentioned, reflect the radiant heat from the heater housing. Thus, the cement within the well borehole in the portion thereof adjacent the jacket will not be subjected to high temperatures causing degrad ation.

rEhe arrows intemperature.

The fluid entering the formation through each of the perforations will, as indicated, be substantially at the same Thus, the entire face of the formation through which the heated fluid enters will be heated to substantially the same temperature. Where heating of the formation is employed to initiate combustion within the formation, the entire face of the formation will attain ignition temperature at substantially the same time and ignition will thus be effected simultaneously at all portions of the face of the formation.

Heating in accordance with the invention may be effected for various purposes. Thus, as described previously, heating may be for the purpose of initiating cornbustion within the earth for1 ration. Heating may also be employed to dehydrate a clay formation. In water drive for the purpose of secondary recovery of hydrocarbon from a formation, the fluid employed will be water and thc formation will be heated substantially along its face with the heated water. Heating can be employed in conjunction with acidizing, and with gas drive for the secondary recovery of hydrocarbon. Heating can also be employed for removal of parafiin.

Variations in the procedure and apparatus described may be made by those skilled in the art. For example, while the formation to be heated has been described as being covered by a liner at the well borehole, it will be understood that the formation need not be covered with a liner. rfhus, the well borehole may be left open at the formation to be heated and the heated luid passed from the heater into the open formation.

Having thus described my invention, it will be understood that such description has been by way of illustration and example and not by way of limitation, reference for the latter purpose being had to the appended claims.

l claim:

l. A heater for an earth formation penetrated by a well borehole comprising a heater housing, a heating element within said housing, collars mounted upon said housing and provided with perforations for the passage of a fluid, and a jacket surrounding said housing and mounted upon said collars whereby said collars separate said housing from said jacket to provide a lluid conducting annulus between said housing and said jacket, said jacket having an inner surface facing said housing reliective of thermal radiation and a transparent coating of vitreous material fixed to the inner surface of said jacket.

2. A heater for an earth formation penetrated by a well borehole comprising a heater housing, a heating element within said housing, collars mounted upon said housing and provided with perforations for the passage of a fluid, and a jacket surrounding said housing and mounted upon said collars whereby said collars separate said housing from said jacket to provide a fluid conducting annulus between said housing and said jacket, said jacket having an inner surface facing said housing reflective of thermal radiation and provided with a transparent coating of vitreous material fixed to said inner surface and an outer surface reflective of thermal radiation and provided with a transparent coating of vitreous material fixed to said outer surface,

References Cited in the file of this patent UNlTED STATES PATENTS 573,l42 Flanegin Dec. 15, 1896 l,l52,392 Breitling et al Sept. 7, 1915 2,547,585 Roberts Aug. 4, 1953 2,722,278 Kassa Nov. 1, 1955 2,754,912 Curson July 17, 1956 2,771,111() Barclay et al Nov. 20, 1956 2,906,340 Herzog Sept. 29, 1959 2,954,826 Sievers Oct. 4, 1960

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US573142 *Apr 7, 1896Dec 15, 1896 Francis a
US1152392 *Feb 10, 1914Sep 7, 1915Subterranean Heater CorpMethod of treating subterranean wells.
US2647585 *Feb 12, 1949Aug 4, 1953Viola Violet RobertsHeater for oil and other wells
US2722278 *May 11, 1954Nov 1, 1955Sinclair Oil & Gas CoApparatus
US2754912 *Apr 18, 1955Jul 17, 1956Curson Nicholas WHeater for oil wells
US2771140 *Aug 28, 1953Nov 20, 1956Socony Mobil Oil Co IncSubsurface igniter
US2906340 *Apr 5, 1956Sep 29, 1959Texaco IncMethod of treating a petroleum producing formation
US2954826 *Dec 2, 1957Oct 4, 1960Sievers William EHeated well production string
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4282929 *Jul 30, 1979Aug 11, 1981Carmel Energy, Inc.Method of controlling scale in oil recovery operations
US4378846 *Dec 15, 1980Apr 5, 1983Brock Kurtis BEnhanced oil recovery apparatus and method
US4482016 *Nov 17, 1983Nov 13, 1984Shell Oil CompanyAcidizing with chemically heated weak acid
US4886118 *Feb 17, 1988Dec 12, 1989Shell Oil CompanyConductively heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil
US5120935 *Oct 1, 1990Jun 9, 1992Nenniger John EMethod and apparatus for oil well stimulation utilizing electrically heated solvents
US5247994 *Nov 6, 1992Sep 28, 1993Nenniger John EMethod of stimulating oil wells
US5255742 *Jun 12, 1992Oct 26, 1993Shell Oil CompanyHeat injection process
US5297626 *Jun 12, 1992Mar 29, 1994Shell Oil CompanyOil recovery process
US5400430 *Jan 21, 1994Mar 21, 1995Nenniger; John E.Method for injection well stimulation
US5539853 *Jun 19, 1995Jul 23, 1996Noranda, Inc.Downhole heating system with separate wiring cooling and heating chambers and gas flow therethrough
US6581684Apr 24, 2001Jun 24, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US6588504Apr 24, 2001Jul 8, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6591906Apr 24, 2001Jul 15, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected oxygen content
US6591907Apr 24, 2001Jul 15, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6607033Apr 24, 2001Aug 19, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a condensate
US6609570Apr 24, 2001Aug 26, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation and ammonia production
US6688387Apr 24, 2001Feb 10, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a hydrocarbon condensate
US6698515Apr 24, 2001Mar 2, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6702016Apr 24, 2001Mar 9, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources located at an edge of a formation layer
US6708758Apr 24, 2001Mar 23, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6712135Apr 24, 2001Mar 30, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation in reducing environment
US6712136Apr 24, 2001Mar 30, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a selected production well spacing
US6712137Apr 24, 2001Mar 30, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6715546Apr 24, 2001Apr 6, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715547Apr 24, 2001Apr 6, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to form a substantially uniform, high permeability formation
US6715548Apr 24, 2001Apr 6, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6715549Apr 24, 2001Apr 6, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected atomic oxygen to carbon ratio
US6719047Apr 24, 2001Apr 13, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a hydrogen-rich environment
US6722429Apr 24, 2001Apr 20, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6722430Apr 24, 2001Apr 20, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected oxygen content and/or selected O/C ratio
US6722431Apr 24, 2001Apr 20, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively permeable formation
US6725920Apr 24, 2001Apr 27, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to convert a selected amount of total organic carbon into hydrocarbon products
US6725921Apr 24, 2001Apr 27, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6725928Apr 24, 2001Apr 27, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a distributed combustor
US6729395Apr 24, 2001May 4, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6729396Apr 24, 2001May 4, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6729397Apr 24, 2001May 4, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6729401Apr 24, 2001May 4, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and ammonia production
US6732794Apr 24, 2001May 11, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6732795Apr 24, 2001May 11, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6732796Apr 24, 2001May 11, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6736215Apr 24, 2001May 18, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration
US6739393Apr 24, 2001May 25, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation and tuning production
US6739394Apr 24, 2001May 25, 2004Shell Oil CompanyProduction of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6742587Apr 24, 2001Jun 1, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to form a substantially uniform, relatively high permeable formation
US6742588Apr 24, 2001Jun 1, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce formation fluids having a relatively low olefin content
US6742589Apr 24, 2001Jun 1, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6742593Apr 24, 2001Jun 1, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat transfer from a heat transfer fluid to heat the formation
US6745831Apr 24, 2001Jun 8, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6745832Apr 24, 2001Jun 8, 2004Shell Oil CompanySitu thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to control product composition
US6745837Apr 24, 2001Jun 8, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a controlled heating rate
US6749021Apr 24, 2001Jun 15, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a controlled heating rate
US6752210Apr 24, 2001Jun 22, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US6758268Apr 24, 2001Jul 6, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6761216Apr 24, 2001Jul 13, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6763886Apr 24, 2001Jul 20, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6769483Apr 24, 2001Aug 3, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor in conduit heat sources
US6769485Apr 24, 2001Aug 3, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation through a heat source wellbore
US6789625Apr 24, 2001Sep 14, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using exposed metal heat sources
US6805195Apr 24, 2001Oct 19, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6820688Apr 24, 2001Nov 23, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio
US6866097Apr 24, 2001Mar 15, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to increase a permeability/porosity of the formation
US6871707Apr 24, 2001Mar 29, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6877554Apr 24, 2001Apr 12, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6880635Apr 24, 2001Apr 19, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6889769Apr 24, 2001May 10, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected moisture content
US6896053Apr 24, 2001May 24, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6902003Apr 24, 2001Jun 7, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation having a selected total organic carbon content
US6902004Apr 24, 2001Jun 7, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a movable heating element
US6910536Apr 24, 2001Jun 28, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a natural distributed combustor
US6913078Apr 24, 2001Jul 5, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn Situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively impermeable formation
US6923258Jun 12, 2003Aug 2, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processsing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6948563Apr 24, 2001Sep 27, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US6953087Apr 24, 2001Oct 11, 2005Shell Oil CompanyThermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a permeability of the formation
US6959761Apr 24, 2001Nov 1, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6966372Apr 24, 2001Nov 22, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce oxygen containing formation fluids
US6969123Oct 24, 2002Nov 29, 2005Shell Oil CompanyUpgrading and mining of coal
US6973967Apr 24, 2001Dec 13, 2005Shell Oil CompanySitu thermal processing of a coal formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6991031Apr 24, 2001Jan 31, 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to convert a selected total organic carbon content into hydrocarbon products
US6994160Apr 24, 2001Feb 7, 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6994161Apr 24, 2001Feb 7, 2006Kevin Albert MaherIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected moisture content
US6994168 *Apr 24, 2001Feb 7, 2006Scott Lee WellingtonIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio
US6994169Apr 24, 2002Feb 7, 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property
US6997255Apr 24, 2001Feb 14, 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a reducing environment
US7004247Apr 24, 2002Feb 28, 2006Shell Oil CompanyConductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US7017661Apr 24, 2001Mar 28, 2006Shell Oil CompanyProduction of synthesis gas from a coal formation
US7032660Apr 24, 2002Apr 25, 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US7036583Sep 24, 2001May 2, 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to increase a porosity of the formation
US7077198Oct 24, 2002Jul 18, 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US7086468Apr 24, 2001Aug 8, 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US7096941Apr 24, 2001Aug 29, 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with heat sources located at an edge of a coal layer
US7096953Apr 24, 2001Aug 29, 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a movable heating element
US7644765Oct 19, 2007Jan 12, 2010Shell Oil CompanyHeating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US7673681Oct 19, 2007Mar 9, 2010Shell Oil CompanyTreating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US7673786Apr 20, 2007Mar 9, 2010Shell Oil CompanyWelding shield for coupling heaters
US7677310Oct 19, 2007Mar 16, 2010Shell Oil CompanyCreating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US7677314Oct 19, 2007Mar 16, 2010Shell Oil CompanyMethod of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations
US7681647Oct 19, 2007Mar 23, 2010Shell Oil CompanyMethod of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US7683296Apr 20, 2007Mar 23, 2010Shell Oil CompanyAdjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US7703513Oct 19, 2007Apr 27, 2010Shell Oil CompanyWax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US7717171Oct 19, 2007May 18, 2010Shell Oil CompanyMoving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US7730945Oct 19, 2007Jun 8, 2010Shell Oil CompanyUsing geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US7730946Oct 19, 2007Jun 8, 2010Shell Oil CompanyTreating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7730947Oct 19, 2007Jun 8, 2010Shell Oil CompanyCreating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7735935Jun 1, 2007Jun 15, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US7785427Apr 20, 2007Aug 31, 2010Shell Oil CompanyHigh strength alloys
US7793722Apr 20, 2007Sep 14, 2010Shell Oil CompanyNon-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US7798220Apr 18, 2008Sep 21, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US7798221May 31, 2007Sep 21, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7831134Apr 21, 2006Nov 9, 2010Shell Oil CompanyGrouped exposed metal heaters
US7832484Apr 18, 2008Nov 16, 2010Shell Oil CompanyMolten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US7841401Oct 19, 2007Nov 30, 2010Shell Oil CompanyGas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US7841408Apr 18, 2008Nov 30, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US7841425Apr 18, 2008Nov 30, 2010Shell Oil CompanyDrilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US7845411Oct 19, 2007Dec 7, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7849922Apr 18, 2008Dec 14, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7860377Apr 21, 2006Dec 28, 2010Shell Oil CompanySubsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US7866385Apr 20, 2007Jan 11, 2011Shell Oil CompanyPower systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US7866386Oct 13, 2008Jan 11, 2011Shell Oil CompanyIn situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US7866388Oct 13, 2008Jan 11, 2011Shell Oil CompanyHigh temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US7912358Apr 20, 2007Mar 22, 2011Shell Oil CompanyAlternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US7931086Apr 18, 2008Apr 26, 2011Shell Oil CompanyHeating systems for heating subsurface formations
US7942197Apr 21, 2006May 17, 2011Shell Oil CompanyMethods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US7942203Jan 4, 2010May 17, 2011Shell Oil CompanyThermal processes for subsurface formations
US7950453Apr 18, 2008May 31, 2011Shell Oil CompanyDownhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US8220539Oct 9, 2009Jul 17, 2012Shell Oil CompanyControlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US8256512Oct 9, 2009Sep 4, 2012Shell Oil CompanyMovable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8261832Oct 9, 2009Sep 11, 2012Shell Oil CompanyHeating subsurface formations with fluids
US8267170Oct 9, 2009Sep 18, 2012Shell Oil CompanyOffset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US8267185Oct 9, 2009Sep 18, 2012Shell Oil CompanyCirculated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US8281861Oct 9, 2009Oct 9, 2012Shell Oil CompanyCirculated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8327932Apr 9, 2010Dec 11, 2012Shell Oil CompanyRecovering energy from a subsurface formation
US8353347Oct 9, 2009Jan 15, 2013Shell Oil CompanyDeployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US8434555Apr 9, 2010May 7, 2013Shell Oil CompanyIrregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US8448707May 28, 2013Shell Oil CompanyNon-conducting heater casings
US8608249Apr 26, 2010Dec 17, 2013Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US8851170Apr 9, 2010Oct 7, 2014Shell Oil CompanyHeater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US8881806Oct 9, 2009Nov 11, 2014Shell Oil CompanySystems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US9022118Oct 9, 2009May 5, 2015Shell Oil CompanyDouble insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US9051829Oct 9, 2009Jun 9, 2015Shell Oil CompanyPerforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
USRE35696 *Sep 28, 1995Dec 23, 1997Shell Oil CompanyHeat injection process
Classifications
U.S. Classification392/305, 166/57, 392/489, 166/60
International ClassificationE21B36/04, E21B36/00, H05B3/00
Cooperative ClassificationH05B3/00, E21B36/04
European ClassificationH05B3/00, E21B36/04