|Publication number||US3164201 A|
|Publication date||Jan 5, 1965|
|Filing date||Nov 29, 1963|
|Priority date||Nov 29, 1963|
|Publication number||US 3164201 A, US 3164201A, US-A-3164201, US3164201 A, US3164201A|
|Inventors||William R Irwin|
|Original Assignee||William R Irwin|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (5), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 5, 1965 w. R. IRWIN HIGH FLAME-Low FLAME BURNERS 2 Sheets-Sheet l Original Filed May 2l. 1962 D umm I mm m Q m NN W mT.. x25 o ON-l I' mm o) El w NN N .w m
Jan. 5, 1965 w. R. IRWIN 3,164,201
HIGH FLAME-LOW FLAME BURNERS WILLIAM R. IRWIN United States Patent lod-,Edil HGH FLAME-lh? FEAR/iid BURNER?, Wiiiiain RQ. iiox d, iiouievard Station, Bronx, Nh.
Continuation of abandoned appiication Ser. No. Edf-H4, May 21, i962. This appiication Nov. 29, 1963, ei'. No. 31,7,45
2o Ciainss. (Qi. 15S-23) This invention relates to air and fuel supply systems and in particular it relates to a system for burning fuel whe-rein air to support the combustion of said fuel is supplied at either of a plurality of defined rates synchronized with the defined rates at which the fuel is delivered to the space provided for combustion of same.
The resent application is a continuation in part of my prior applications, Ser. No. 794,344, filed Feb. 19, 1959 and since abandoned, and a continuation of'application Ser. No. 196,414, tiled May 21, 1962 and now abandoned.
An object of the invention is yto provide an inexpensive, easily regulated and safe means for operating fuel burners under high and low, heating dame conditions.
Another object is to provide means whereby each startup of a fuel burner may be accomplished under the low flat .e condition.
Heretofore numerous burners have been provided which were designed to opeime with a multitude of flame sizes or to operate with a pilot frame of fixed size in conjunction with a modulatingiiarne or flames, the pilot having no useful heating effect but the varying sizes of modulating darne being directed tothis purpose. Gt. er
burners have been provided in which .the louvers supply-y ing air for theicombustion of modulating volumes of fuei, modulated th rewith. Some of the latter, of'intricate and expensive design, ha e been satisfactory, but others using modulating air intake louvers, or louvers of the solenoid operated type, have been found to be generally inadequate, prone to get out of order, and sometimes dangerous. v
It is a particular object of the invention to provide a burner of the mostsimple type, inexpensive, trouble free `and devoid of gadgets, through which fuel and-air may be supplied for the correct combustion of said fuel and 'whereby all the advantages of modulating operation may be obtained without the usual attendant disadvantages thereof.
Of special interest is the matter of supplying air atan exact rate ofi' the tip of a calibrated nozzle or a device emitting oil or another fuel into a combustion space at a fixed rate in order that the provided air may support the emitted fuel in the combustionprocess so that the maximum amount of heat is extracted from same.
In simple terms, the last statement would mean that sizes and shapes of heating flames must conform to the dimensions of combustion spaces or lireboxes to the greatest possible degree and that an absolute minimum of excess be allowed in the air provided for the consumption of defined rates of fuel. p
AS it is impossibie, at the` present time, to burn two different rates of fuei in any particular combustion area of a given size and to obtain the same percent of efficiency at each rate, it is apparent that the optimum can be realized only when the heating apparatus is operated under the high flame condition and with said name suited to which, supported by air for combustion at the most exact rate possible, will when ignited conform in resultant iiame shape to the area of the combustion space to the greatest extent. Y
However, under the low darne condition, where'fuel is burned in a space sized for a larger flame, the percent of combustion efficiency obtainable will be less than when said burner is operated under the high flame condition, all other things being equal.
Nevertheless, the disadvantages involved in underiiring a combustion space of a given size may be compensated for in various ways if adequate heating effect to the surfaces of said space, to boiler and furnace areas and other parts requiring heat from the combustion process, is provided.
This is in sharp contrast to applications in which a pilot iiame is maintained that has no useful heating effect or in which the burner apparatus must 'be underre'd at all times due to its nature. The idea is also contrary to the use of a burner apparatus which modulates either during its starting period, its shut-down or on its running cycle and which entails a large number of flames of different suse.V
All of the last mentioned factors have certain detrimen-- combustion.'
' For a better understanding of the invention reference should be made to the accompanying drawings 'wherein like characters denote like or corresponding parts throughout the several views, and in which:
HG. l is a diagrammatic representation of an oil burner with fuel and air supply systems in association' with a simple electrical control system;
FEiG. 2 is a diagrammatic representation of a solenoid operated dow control or dow directing valve; y
FlG. 3 is a View taken after part of the embodiment shown in FIG. l with variations therefrom insofar as oil conduit and nozzle arrangements are concerned;
FlG. 4 shows an arrangement of oil bypass conduit means which ditfersfrom the bypass means shown in FIG. l; v i l i FIG. 5 is a more comprehensive view of anpair check-` valve means indicated in the embodiment of FIG. l;
FIG. 6 is a diagrammatic representation of Aay fuel unit, said unit type being an element in common use with means for the intake, filtering, pumping, pressure The illustrationof a plurality of pressure regulatingI Y complexes may be regarded as unnecessary and redundant but same was undertaken with a"view towards the possible use of newly developed fuels considered uncontrollable by ordinary methods. These fuels are no longer vseriously contemplated but the parts shown require some explanationand in order to simplify same alphabetical indicia have been used for the manually operable valves of the embodiments, whereby the sequential operationl of the different bypass means employed in conjunction With-thel control of oil pressures may be stated with brevity. Sa-dexplanation will be given at a later point. I
Referring now to FIG. l, an oil burner 1@ schematically4 representative of the high pressure or gurl WPC is l opened and valve D is closed,
shown and arblower unit 11, fuel unit 12 and an electric motor 13 are components associated therewith. Said motor 13 is of the type that reaches full operational speed almost instantaneously upon energization and it provides rotation through shaft means for the wheel of the blower unit 11 and the stages of'pumping gears positioned within said fuel unit 12.
Oil is supplied to an oil suction port of said fuel unit from an oil storage tank 14 by means of an oil suction conduit 15 extending therebetween. An oil conduit section 16 extends between the discharge outlet of the fuel unit to an inlet port of the solenoid operated flow regulatingl valve 17, and it is pointed out that said valve 17 could have two inlet ports rather than one as shown, for equivalent effect. Another oil conduit section 1de extends between conduit section 16 and the oil storage tank 14, another conduit section Z4 is connected between a bypass outlet of said fuel unit and conduit section 24a, and said sectionZi-a is connected between the suction conduit 15 and the oil return conduit 16a.
Two oil discharge conduit sections 18 and 19 are portrayed as extending from the discharge outlets of the ow regulating valve 17 and calibratednozzles 21 and 20 are axed respectively at the termini thereof.
.A combination oil metering and pressure regulating valve ,22 is interposed in conduit section 18 and a similar 4 metering and pressure regulating valve 23 is interposed manually opened to the fullest extent so that they thereby become ineffective insofar as the regulation of pressure -or the control of fuel ow is concerned.
l A manually'operable valve A is emplaced in conduit section 24 and a similar valve B is positioned in section 24a. Other, corresponding valves C and D are interposed in 'conduit section 16a.
From the bypass outlet of the valve 22 a conduit section 22a is indicated as extending to the storage tank 14 for returning excess oil thereto at such times as said valve 22 might be employed for the regulation of oil pressure. A manually operable shut-off valve G is interposed in section 22a and when the fuel unit 12 is used to regulate oil pressure, valve 22 is fully opened and valve G is closed, it being obvious that said conduit section 22a would not be required for bypass purposes at such time.
From the bypass outlet of valve 23 a conduit section 23a extends to conduit section lea. A manually operable valve H is positioned in section 23a, and like valve G, said valve H is maintained in the closed position at all times except when valve 23 is used asa pressure regulating means and the fuel unit 12 is not employed for this purpose;
Because two calibrated nozzles 20 and 21 are provided in the embodiment being discussed, it is unlikely that the valves 22 and 23 would be needed at any time when a light fuel oil is the combustible. Likewise, valves Band 1:" would not ordinarily be employed, except perhaps, to be closed at a time when said nozzles might be removed for cleaning or replacement.
When the fuel unit is relied upon for pressure regulation and excess oil is returned to the storage tank, the
valves 22, 23, A, D, E and F are opened fully and the valves B, C, G and .H are closed, said excess oil flowing to the tank through conduit sections 24, 24a and 16a.
: With a similar arrangement except that valve B is excess oil may be returned to the suction conduit 15. 1 l
If the valves 22 and 23 should be used for regulating Y the pressure of the fuel delivered to the nozzles 20 and be closed andV valves D, E, F, G and H opened, with sired rates of oil pressure in the conduits 13 and 19.
As oil leaves the solenoid valve 17 and passes through the conduit section 18 to be emitted from the nozzle 21, oil in excess of the desired rate will oe returned from the bypass outlet of the valve 22 through the conduit section 22e and the opened valve G to the oil storage tank 14.
Under like conditions, when the valve 23 is regulating the pressure of the oil delivered to nozzle Ztl through conduit section 19, excess oil will be returned to said tank from the bypass outlet of valve 23 through the valves H and D and the conduit sections 23a and 16a.
Other pressure regulating-bypass arrangements exist in the embodiment apart from the internal bypass means intrinic to the fuel unit but inasmuch as the description of same would be superiiuous it will be omitted.
In the embodiment of FiG. 3, wherein only one calibrated nozzle 68 is provided, a metering means additional to said nozzle is a necessity. ln the figure the conduit sections 1S and 19 are joined at a conduit junction 66 and another conduit section 67 is connected thereto, the nozzle ed being aiiixed at its terminus.
Regulating valve F in conduit to be fully opened during operation and to be closed only when repairs are effected on the apparatus, valve E in conduit section 1% would be retained for the purpose of a secondary metering and pressure regulating device in said section 1S unless the fuel used required a valve of more cornplex type.
However, finding that said valve E was satisfactory -for reducing the pressure of ordinary fuel oil and for maintaining a precise rate of flow in conduit section 16 against nozzle 6d for the low llame condition, said noz zle, if calibrated for a given pressure, could have applied thereagainst a higher rate of pressure, imposed on the fuel oil through said conduit section 19.
This would require that the fuel unit or other primary pumping-pressure regulating means be adjusted to deliver a higher pressure and rate of flow than is called for by the calibration specifications of said nozzle.
Figuratively speaking, if nozzle 68 is cai'brated to deliver l0 gallons of #2 fuel oil per hour at a pressure of p.s.i., and if the combustion space requires a high lire rate of 15 gallons per hour for maximum combustion efficiency, let it be said that a pressure of p.s.i. applied to nozzle 68 would result in fuel oil being delivered therefrom at the required l5 gallon per hour discharge rate.
Hence if the adjusted fuel unit maintained a pressure of l5() psi, in conduit section 19 against nozzle 68 said pressure lwould be reduced in conduit section 1S by adjusting the flow of oil therethrough by means of valve E. If said pressure were reduced to 100 psi., oil would issue from said nozzle 68 via conduit section 13 at the nozzles calibrated rate of 10 gallons per hour for the low iiame condition.
It should not be considered that oil discharged from said nozzle at a pressure 50 p.s.i. in excess of its calibration would affect its firing capabilities adversely. Rather, when a nozzle is fired at a higher pressure than specified by the manufacturer the result is usually superior performance, although the life of the nozzle might be shortened to a minor extent.
It has been suggested that two dierent rates of oil cannot be properly fired from a nozzle designed for one specific rate. This would be true if the design rate were adhered to for the high flame condition and a much lower rate of pressure were used for the low ame condition. For example: A nozzle designed for a pressure of 100 p.s.i. would fire poorly if under a pressure of only 50 p.s.i.
ln FIG. 4 the disposition of the various conduit sections ditfers from the arrangement used in FIG. l in that louter ends. Y
rmeans lnot illustrated in the drawings.
fuel may be bypassed from the unit l2 only to the suction conduit 2.5, rather than to the storage tank lli;
When valve C is closed and valve A is maintained in the opened position, excess oil is bypassed from the fuel unit l2 through conduit sections 2d and Zeb and is again indrawn to said fuel unit through the suction conduit section l5.
Upon bypass means internal to the fuel unit being used in association with other pressure regulating means therein, both of the valves A and C would be closed.
Valve C was intended as a secondary pressure regulating means to be employed with the volatile fuel mentioned previously, but as the use of said fuel is not pres- A ently feasible, said Valve C should be considered asbeing always in the closed position. It is however, evident, that-if a fuel exhibited instability after being discharged'from a primary pumping-pressure regulating means that a secondary regulator such as valve C would be advantageous. n
VReturning to FIG. l in conjunction with the general description: I r
Other components include the ignition transformer the highvoltage terminals 2o at the output side thereof,-
the high tension insulated cables 2,7 connected at said terr nals and extending therefrom, the metal igniters ZS aixed to the ends of said cables and porcelain sleeves 29 which cover andinsulate said iguiters except at thei Upon application of electricalenergy at ordinary voltage tothe primary winding of the transformer, said energy is rectiled to` an ultra high voltage in the secondary winding thereof, the circuit of the secondary being Y completed only across the gap existing between the tips of said igniters, said high Vvoltage bridging the gapby an intense-spark which serves to light oilE the fuel in the air-fuel mixture supplied-to the combustion space.-
e placedin the air tube 36 to prevent the escape of air discharged by the wheel 37 of the vprimary blower unit lil through said tube and through the air ports 33 of thel auxiliary blower uni-t .during the low flame operating periods in which the motor and the wheel of ysaid auxiliary blower unit would not be actuated. vUpon cessation of rotation of the wheel of the auxiliary blower unit 32 following the high flame periods, the blade'73 of' said check-Valve 7l, it used, closes bygravity forces.
When employed, the blade 73 of said check-valve 7l will swing lto the opened position only when the motor,
65 rotates the wheel of the auxiliaryblower unit 32, the air discharged from said wheel forcing the blade 73 to its opened position.
The electricalV control system for theapparatus has,V
been simplified in order to illustrate the basic ideas clearly.
Said system vconsists of mercury'switches 39 and lil which maybe actuated to their onfor circuit making 'positionsby the lessening of steam pressures within ,the boiler, a
manually operable switch il which connects the operating system to a line voltage source at L, an electrical conduit d3 which is indicated as extending 'to the motor i3 and the transformer 25,1 another electrical conduit connectedbetween conduit i and :the #l terminalofa relay switchboard d2, a bimetallic blade 44 pivotally conlelectricalresistanceand which is connected between ter- A -minalsitl` and #El of said switchboard,`said terminalI #3 `The primary blower ll has an air door or shutter 3d with a knob 3l fas-tened theretoby which the position of said shutter may be easilyV adjusted'fto provide forV the correct rate of ambient air to the suction fr.
indrawing side of the blower wheelA 3'? through the air intake ports Once the shutter'is positioned to admit the rate of airrequired for combustion it is fastened in place by any of the various `types of fastening means Lcommonly v employed but which is was thought unnecessary to detail inthe drawings. v
The wheel-37 of said blower unit il, upon being rotated byshaft means connected to the motor t3 when said motor is ele rically energized, supplies'the rate of air necessary to support combustion ofthe oil emitted bythe calibrated nozzle 2l during the low llame oper-l ating periods or a portion of the air rate required during thehigh periods, air dischargedfoi the tins ofthe wheel 37 passing through the airblast tube 7l? to the space providedfor combustion. f. y
The auxiliary blower unit 32, has airl intake ports 33 with a shutter pivotally positioned thereat whereby said ports may be opened to the desired extent to allow the n correct rate ol air to be indrawn when the motor o5 rotatably actuates the wheel of said unit through shaft Securing the shutter of the auxiliary blower would be made in the same manner applicable to the shutter cf the primary blower. i l
When .the wheel of the blower unit 3?; is actuated, the
air discharged therefrom goes through the air discharge vpassageway 35 of said unit to the airjtube 3f andthencev into the blast tube 7d `wherein it augmentsthe air discharged rorn thewheel of the primary: blower unit ll and wherefrom the combined air discharge of the blower plurality enters the combustionV space to beuintermixed. with the high rate of oil discharged thereto from the' nozzle Ztl to supportthe combustion of said high rate having a connection directly tol ground. Y
An electrical conduit section extends from said terminal #E to one side of the mercuryswitch tti and when said switch is in the closed position and the circuitsof.
the system are otherwise closed power may be immediately transmitted through said section to energize the motor dand the solenoid windingfot the llow regulating valve The upper passageway; of said valve l? isv normally opened allowing for'the dow of oil through :same to the nozzle 2l for the low flame-condition but upon said solenoid winding beingenervized in response to a call 4for the high flame said normally opened upper pasageway is closed and the normally closedl lower passageway is opened to allow the high rate of oilv flow therethrough to the nozzle Zd. e I
' The solenoid operated ow regulating or ow directing valve ll -is particularized more clearly in'FlG. Z, said ligure showingl glands 45 placed in two-of the flat horizontal surfaces 'of the valves inner structure` to allow for the free vertical movement or the stemd@ butrpreventing leakage of oil lfrom one valve` compartment to another. rlhe stem has affixed thereon closure discs 5d and Si and when the valves solenoid winding le is energizedA said stern @i issnapped-upwards against the pressure ex-i` erted by. an `expansion spring 47, said spring being positionedbetween a retaining plate 52 attached to said stem` 'andthe underside of a cover ed used .to protect the solenoid winding.
With the upward movement of thev stern the closure disc 5@ 'covers the Valve seat orifice 66 and simultaneously kthe closure disc Slt is withdrawn from the lower seat orilice`59, thereby opening the normally closed Vlower passageway and closing the normally opened upper passageway of y'said Valve. v
rl`he external surfaces of the valve body 53 isformed yin part to encompass the valve intake port 5d and the dis-l charge ports 6l' and o2, Said intake port 54 communicat'es with theyalve entrancechamber S5, Vthe'walls of which are-formed in part .by elements SSV and kof?, ofthe internal weblof said valve; Y f f :Said web also forms in part thejvalve ldischarge, chambers and`57 and holes'drilled through'the horizontal` suesser surfacesv of the web complex are polished to form the said orices i? and dil or are used for the insertion of the glands 48.
l sumed to detail the actual construction of same.
The fuel unit embodied diagrammatically in FIG. 6 is of the double gear stage type, although a single stage unit might sutlice for'rnost oil burning installations. Modern day fuel units are extremely'compact, efficient, almost trouble free and maintainvpressures of oil ydelivered to nozzles or other emitting orices at very precise rates. i While fuel units lare one of the best known elements commonly incorporated into oil burning systems, Vexplanation is made here `for the benet of Vthose notrfamiliar with samethat the .gear stages and other components lll thereof,' depictedV widespread in the. drawing, actually would be fitted into a small housing and have but one shaft means, Likewise, numerous of the components depicted could have substitutions made therefor. A
In thclembodiment the oil suction conduit extends from thestorage tank 14 to an oil lilter device lili! and when the unit is Aactuated oil is drawn through same toconduit 141which extends between saidiilter device. and a iirst gear or suction gear stage 142; from the first stage 142 the indrawn Voil .passes through conduit section 143 intov a bypass component 15M which has two entrance ports and two ,discharge ports; from the discharge port 145 the oil is passed into and through conduit section 146 to the low pressure sidefof a second gear or discharge gear stage 143.' The oil is discharged rom'said second gear stage. through apassageway149 and into an' element 1513, said element having incorporated therein "various constituent parts for the regulation of oil pressure. the lowerpart of element 15d, designated for convenience as chamber 151, the said oil is subjected to regulation of pressure by a'needle valve 152'invassociation with a piston which has an orice 15d communicating with a channel 155 drilled in and through said piston.
The piston 153 is positioned within the element 151B and is freely movable therein despite very close tolerance between said piston and the confining means of said element. A spring 15o is positionedto oppose'movement of thepistonwith the ends thereofbeing in continuous engagement 'with the upper surface of the piston and with alize/.l plate 157. respectively. An adjustment screw 158 is placed in'contact with said plate with said screw extending through the casing at point 159 of the element. The screw 158 upon being turned inwardly against plate 157 causes Ygreater compression of the spring 156 with resultant greater pressure on the oil delivered to the discharge conduit 15 connected to and extending from i element 159.
The tip 16d of `said needle lvalve 152 is in vibrating contactywiththe orifice 15d of the channel 155 drilled through said piston and upon a fluctuationo oil pressure inV chamber 151 the vibrating contact between the oriceV 154 and the needle yalve tip 166 is varied accordingly so 'as to maintaina precise rate of pressure on the oil discharged into conduit 16.
' Excess oil,-'determ1ned in extent by the-pressure mainl tained in the chamber 11.51 bythe setting of the pressure regulating adjustment screw 153, travels through the channel 155 of said piston to the upper part of the interior" of. the element 15lvand is dischargcdthererom into a passageway 161 and thence into the bypass component ldd -V y wherefrom it isjeither returned tothe storage tank 1d via conduit 24 or it is again drawn into the second gear stage Inv 148 to be recirculated into said chamber 151 oi element 15d.
lf the discharge conduit section lo were to be closed olf while the gear stages of the fuel unit were in rotation, oil would pass from the 'first gear stage to the bypass cornponent and part of the oil body would be returned to said tank 1d through conduit 24. @ther parts of said oil body would recirculate through the second gear stage to element 15u, through the latter into conduit ldl, either to be recirculated or to pass into conduit section 2d and thence to said tank.
Oil returned to the tank from the fuel unit through conduit 24 would of course be replaced by oil drawn from said tank through the suction conduit 15.
Numerous diversilications exist in the design of fuel units with approximately the same end result being obtained and it is not an object of the invention to disclose anything novel regarding same, but rather, to explain how such a unit would be employed with burner apparatus as embodied herein.
Oil flowcut-off means are particularized to some extent in FlG. 7 and although such means are very well known it is believed that a brief explanation of the function of y same will not be amiss.
Said cut-oli means are commonly employed to prevent oil from dripping from a nozzle or other emitting orifice aiterthe pressure imposing means applied to the fluid have ceased actuation. Some form of liow cut-oil means are necessary for almost all iiuid fuel burners and particularly fior oil burners of the automatic type, and such means would be a requirement for the burner elements as embodied in FlGS. l, 3 and 4.
The body llitl of the oil liow cut-oil component could be connected into the discharge conduit sections 13 or 1) as embodied in the last said figures but preferably it is interconnected immediately adjacent to the nozzle as shown in PIG. 3 whercat it is interposed in the discharge conduit section 67 adjacent to the calibrated nozzle 68 and as it -is shown in the speciiic figure relating to cut-off means wherein thenozzle is designated by the number Ztl.
ln the ligure an oil passageway li extends within the component 17@ as a continuation oi an oil discharge conduit designated as 18, to an interior wall surface 172 therewithin. A plate 173 is easily slidable within a chamber 174 formed in said component 17d, subject to a predetermined pressure being imposed thereon, with a very close tolerance existing etween said plate 173 and the contines of said chamber. Said plate 173 is part of a unitary piece incorporating also a valve closure element 175 and a stem 176.
A pressure regulating plate 177 is permanently posi` tioned by thread means within said chamber 174 and a cavity 17S is fashioned in but not through said plate 177 wherein said stem 17d is intromittent. A spring 179, compressible at about 50 psi. of pressure encircles said 'stem with one end of said spring in engagement with the iiXed plate 177 and the other in engagement with the Slidable plate i173.
An oil channel 1S@ is drilled Vtlrrough a wall 181 of the component body 17) and said channel communicates with the said calibrated nozzle screwed to an anterior part of said body.
lil/hen oil under pressure enters the passageway 1.71 and said pressure is transmitted to the wall surface 172 and the face of the plate l's,v the said unitary piece is forced backwards with the stern l'ti passing into the cavity 17S, providing that the pressure imposed on the oil is greater than the pressure exerted by the spring 179.
When actuationY of the oil pumping means or other pressure imposing means ceases, the said unitary piece is forced forward by the pressure exercised by spring 1713 and the closure element 175 covers the inner orilice of the oil channel 1li@ to prevent the flow ot oil through the nozzle 2li during burner oil periods.
Oil iiow from the nozzle during periods when the pressure imposing means is not actuated is known in the trade as after drip and for many years a wide variety of oil flow cut-off means have been available, the cut-olf means illustrated being only indicative of the general purpose and application of same.
Using arbitrarily chosen figures for the settings of the switches or actuators through which the equipment is controlled, the operation of the system depicted in FlG. 1 would occur as follows:
With mercury switch 39 set to cut out at 15 p.s.i. of steam pressure and to cut in at 14 psi. and all points below, and with mercury switch 46 set to cut out at 10 p.s.i. and to cut in at 9 p.s.i. and all points below, with the indicated boiler at room temperature said switches 39 and 40 would be in the on or circuit making position.
When the manually operable switch dl is closed to connect the burner circuits through switch 39 to the line voltage source, power is immediately transmitted to the motor 13 and transformer 25.
The energized motor ll3 almost instantaneously rotates at constant speed the gear stages of the fuel unit 12 and the wheel 37 of the primary blower l1 and oil is drawn from the storage tank 14 via the suction conduit 15 to said fuel unit and is discharged therefrom through conduit section 16 to the inlet port S4 of the flow regulator 17, into chamber 55 thereof, through the normally opened orifice oli, valve chamber 7, the discharge port el of said regulator 17 and thence into conduit section 18.
The oil ilows in conduit 18 through the fully opened valves E and 22, through the cut-off component 176 and into the calibrated nozzle 21 from which it is emitted at a precise rate in the form of a Very line cone shaped spray into a combustion space, not shown.
Air metered at a precise rate through the air intake ports 38 of blower unit 1l and discharged off the wheel 37 thereof into and through the blast tube itl into said combustion space, is there intermixed with the oil discharged from nozzle 2l whereat it supports the combustion of said oil for the low llame condition.
Oil in excess of the rate maintained by the pressure regulating means incorporated in the fuel unit l2 is discharged from said unit via the bypass conduit 24, through valve E, the bypass conduit sections 24a and lo and valve D to the oil storage tank M. At this time valves B, C, G and E are fully closed.
The oil in the air-oil mixture is instantly ignited by the spark caused to exist across the air gap at the tips of the igniter pair 28 through energization of the transformer 25.
At the same moment that the motor i3 and the transformer are electrically energized, power is transmitted from conduit 43 to terminal #l of switchboard 42 and thehigh resistance coil 45 connected between terminals #l and #3 of said switchboard begins to generate heat and said heat causes the warp switch blade i4 to begin moving towards its closed position across terminals #il and After a predetermined interval said blade @i4 completes its movement and establishes connection across said terminals #l and #2 and electrical energy is immediately transmitted through the closed mercury switch itl to the windings of the motor 65 and the solenoid i5 of the flow regulating valve 2l?.
The wheel of the auxiliary blower unit 32 is thereupon rotated almost instantaneously by said motor o5 and ambient air is indrawn through the air intake louvers 33 by said wheel and is discharged therefrom at a defined rate through the discharge casing 35 and into and through the air tube 36 whereby the damper 7l is forced into the opened position if employed. From tube 36 the air from said auxiliary blower enters the` blast tube itl wherein it is combined with the discharge air from the primary blower unit 1l and wherefrom the combined discharge of the primary and auxiliary blower units is forced, at a defined rate, into said combustion space toy support therein the lo i combustion. of the high rate of oil for'the high llame condition.
The solenoid winding le ot the ow regulating valve 17,
energized simultaneously with the motorv 55, causes the y stem d@ of said valve 17 to be snapped to its actuated position and the closure disc Sti thereof covers the normally opened oriice du while the closure disc 51 is removed from its normal position of closing over orifice The liow of oil through the normally opened upper passageway of the regulating valve 17 and to the nozzle 2li is stopped and concurrently oil immediately issues from the calibrated nozzle 2t?, said nozzle 2o having an orifice designed for the'high rate of oil ilow therethrough with the passage to said orices being through the normally closed, lower passageway of said valve'l? and via conduit section i9 and the fully opened valves F and 23.1
The burner apparatus under the stated circumstances' would be operating under the high flame condition and would continue thereunder until the cut-out setting of mercury switch itl was reached.
Upon switch dll being actuated to its olf position by a boiler steam pressure 'of lO psi., the burner apparatus would again resume its operation under'the low llame condition, the motor and the solenoid l5 of the regulator 17 being deenergized by the actuation of said switch.
v Then, depending upon whether or not the apparatus was being used for comfort heating or an industrial process, the dispersal of heat generated in comparison with the size of the combustion space, and numerous other factors, the burner apparatus would either continue to raise the pressure of steam in the boiler under the low flame condition at a greatly decelerated rate until the 1-5 p.s.i. cutout point of the mercury switch 39 was reached and whereat the burner would be completely shut down and so remain until said switch 39 again reached its cut-in point of 14 psi., due to lessening of steam pressures in the boiler, or, if the load on the boiler were such that the steam pressures thereof diminished when the burner Operated under the low llame, upon said pressure diminishing slowly from the 10 p.s.i. cut-out point to the 9 psi. cut-in point of mercury switch lo said burner apparatus would again revert to the high ame condition.
Under the last stated circumstances the burner would remain in operation continuously and the boiler steam pressure would vary only by a dierential of one pound, or, between 9 and 10 psi.
The oil tiow cut-off means i7@ and 17u51, interposed in the oil discharge conduit sections T18 and ll@ respectively, apart from preventing drip of oil from the nozzles 2l and Ztl when the pressure imposing means of the fuel unit had ceased actuation, would also prevent leakage from an associated nozzle when the other of said nozzles was delivering oil under pressure therefrom.
Results from burner operation wherein only one nozzle is employed, as in FIG. 3, would be the same as described for the operation of the burner embodied in FIG. l, requiring only that means as already detailed or similar, must be used to provide the two rates of oil llow through the nozzle o8.
Continuous operation of the apparatus over long periods without a complete shut-down would result in substantial savings of fuel, and in processing, wherein temperature ranges might have to be held within very narrow limits, the benetits of operation as described would be exceptional. Other economies would result through prevention of wear and tear on equipment, it beingwell known that constant stopping, recycling and restarting will cause same to have a comparatively short life. y v
The selection of a combustion space or iirebox relative to a boiler of a given horsepower, andthe size, shape and placement of the llames to be used therewith demands the most expert and critical judgment and it is in these respects that the application of knowledge and experience can gain the economies and other advantages possible. Without l l Y such application all of these benefits can be easily reduced in scope or lost entirely.
Although the system of controls used in the embodiments is minimal to expedite description, numerous adl juncts may be incorporated therewith to enhance the performance of the apparatus.
Among such adjuncts would be an air switch or the like that would automatically ascertain that the high rate of air was being supplied for the high flame condition before the solenoid winding lo of the flow regulating valve could Vbe energized to provide the high rate of oil to the combustion space. Y
Time delay means, used with many solenoid operated devices, could also be incorporated with said flow regulating valve 17 to allow sutiicient time for the high rate of air to be supplied to said combustion space before said valve i7 could be actuated to allow the high rate of oil to be delivered therethrough.
Other elements, numerous in number, directed either to safer or better operation, could be used with the disclosure as a matter of choice.
- Realizing that the embodiments herein diagrammatically illustrated are susceptible of many other applications and Ithat modifications may be made in the arrangement and structure of the elements without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, I do not wish to be limited except by the scope of the appended claims.
l. A high rate, low rate heating system having in combination: burner means, fuel pumping and pressure regulating means, excess fuel bypass means associated with said pressure regulating means, a tlow directing valve, fuel conduit means extending from the output side of said pumping means to intake port means of said valve, a normally opened and a normally closed passageway through said valve, automatically actuable means to close said normally opened passageway and to simultaneously open said normally closed passageway, said burner means including a first fuel conduit extending from the exit port of said normally opened passageway of said valve, a lirst calibrated nozzle at the terminus of said first fuel conduit, a second fuel conduit extending from the exit port of said normally closed passageway of said Valve, a second calibrated nozzle at the terminus of said second fuel conduit, an air blast tube leading to said nozzles to deliver combustion air to VtheV fuel emitted thereby, a primary blower having means for the intake of ambient air and air rate regulation means and with air discharge means connected to said blast tube, an auxiliary blower having means for the intake of ambient air and air rate regulation means and with air discharge means connected to said blast tube, a first constant speed electric motor for actuating said pumping means and said primary blower, a second constant speed electric motor for actuating said auxiliary blower, tirst automatic control means individual to said rst electric motor, and second automatic control means common to said second electric motor andthe automatically actuable means associated with said passageway/s; and, responsive to a requirement for a low rate, low flame heating condition, said irst automatic control means being adapted to cause the energization of said first electric motor and the actuation thereby of said primary blower and said pumping means to cause a delined, low rate of fuel to issue from said first calibrated nozzle and with said primary blower discharging a defined, low rate of air through said blast tube to support said low rate of fuel in combustion; and, responsive to a requirement for a high rate, high ame heating condition, said second automatic control means being adapted to cause the energization of said second electric motor and said automatically actuable means to thereby open said normally closed passageway and to simultaneously close said normally opened passageway of said Valve and to cause a defined, high rate of fuel to issue from said second calibrated nozzle, and with the actuated auxiliary blower discharging a defined rate of air into said blast tube to augment the delined rate of air discharged by said primary blower, the combined air discharge rates of said primary and auxiliary blowers issuing from said blast tube as a defined, high rate of air to support said high rate of fuel in combustion.
2. A system according to claim l, including normally closed air valve means between the discharge means of said auxiliary blower and said air blast tube, said air valve means preventing escape of discharge air from said primary blower when a requirement is made for the low llame condition, said air valve means opening when a requirement is made for the high liame condition.
3. A system according to claim l, in which the resistance to llow of said bypass means and the resistance to ilow through said first calibrated nozzle determines in proportionate ratio the rate of fuel delivery for the low name condition, and resistance to flow of said bypass means and the resistance to flow through said second calibrated nozzle determines in proportionate ratio the rate of fuel delivery for the high llame condition.
i4 A system according to claim l, having control means whereby said system makes cach start-up after a complete shut-down under the low llame condition.
5. A system according to claim l, having fuel liow cut-oli means for said first calibrated nozzle and said second calibrated nozzle whereby fuel may not be discharged from said iirst nozzle or from said second nozzle unless said cut-off means have been actuated to allow the iiow of fuel therethrough.
6. A high rate, low rate heating system having in combination: burner means, fuel pumping and pressure regulating means, excess fuel bypass means associated with said pressure regulatinfy means, a flow directing valve, fuel conduit means extending from the output side of said pumping means to intake port means of said valve, a normally opened passageway through said valve extending to a discharge port thereof, a normally closed passageway through said valve extending to a discharge port thereof, automatically actuable means to close said normally' opened passageway and to simultaneously open said normally closed passageway, said burner means including fuel conduit means extending from said discharge ports to a place of destination whereat fuel may be emitted for combustion, automatic metering means associated with last said conduit means whereby either a regulated, defined low rate or a regulated, det'ined high rate of fuel may be emitted at said place of destination, calibrated nozzle means associated with last said conduit means at said place of destination, an air blast tube leading to said nozzle means to deliver combustion air to the fuel emitted thereby, a primary blower having means for the intake of ambient air and air rate regulation means and with air discharge means connected to said blast tube, an auxiliary blower having means for the intake of ambient air and air rate regulation means and with air discharge means connected to said blast tube, a rst electric motor for actuating said pumping means and said primary blower, a second electric motor for actuating said auxiliary blower, a first automatic control means individual to said first electric motor, a second automatic control means common to said second electric motor and said automatically octuable means; and, responsive to a requirement for a low rate, low darne heating condition. said first automatic control means being adapted to cause the energization of said first electric motor and the actuation thereby of said primary blower and said pumping means to cause a defined, low rate of fuel to issue from said calibrated nozzle means and with said primary blower discharging a defined, low rate of air through said blast tube to support said low rate of fuel in combustion for the low flame heating condition, and, responsive to a requirement for a high rate, high flame heating condition, said second automatic control means being adapted to cause the energization o said second electric motor and nation.
the actuation of the automatically actuable means associated with the passageways of said valve to thereby cause the opening of said normally closed passageway and the closing of said normally opened passageway thereof and. to cause a defined high rate of fuel to issue from said calibrated nozzle means, and with the actuated auxiliary blower discharging a defined rate of air into said blast tube to augment the defined rate of air discharged by said primary blower, the combined air discharge rates of said primary and auxiliary blowers issuing from said blast tube at said place of destination as a defined, high rate of air to support said defined, high rate of fuel in combustion.
7. A system according to claim 6, including normally closed air valve means between the discharge means of said auxiliary blower and said air blast tube, said air valve means preventing escape of discharge air from said primary blower when a requirement is made for the low flame condition, said air valve means opening when a requirement is made for the high ame condition.
8. A system according to claim 6, having control means whereby said system makes each start-up after a complete shut-down under the low flame condition.
9. A system according to claim 6,-having fuel flow cut-olf means w ereby fuel may not be discharged from said nozzle means unless said cut-off means have been actuated to allow the liow of fuelptherethrough.
l0. A system according to claim 6 in which said nozzle means comprise a single calibrated nozzle.
1l. A igh rate, low rate heating system having in combination: burner means, a fuel supply source, fuel conduit means extending from said source to a place of destination whereat fuel may be emitted for combustion, fuel pressurizing means associated with said conduit means for effecting pressure on fuel therein, automatic metering means associated with said conduit means whereby a regulated low rate or a regulated high rate of fuel may be emitted at said place of destination, automatic valve means associated with said conduit means to allowA either said regulated low rate or said regulated high rate of fuel to flow to a point of emission at said place of destination, an air blast tube associated with said burner .means and leading to said place of destination, a primary blower having means for the intake of ambient air and the rate regulationthereof and with air discharge means connected to said blast tube, an auxiliary blower having means for the intake of ambient air andthe rate regulation thereofand with air discharge means connected to said blast tube, a iirst automatic control means common to said primary blower and said fuel pressurizing means, a second automatic control means commento said auxiliary blower and said automatic valve means; and,vre'
sponsive to a requirement for a low rate, low arne heating condition, said lirst automatic control means being adapted to cause the actuation of said primary blower and said fuel pressurizing means whereby said regulated low rate of fuel is supplied to a point of emission at said place of destination and a defined, low rate of air is discharged through said-blast tube to support said low rate of fuel in combustion at said place of destination, and, re-
sponsive to a requirement for a high rate, high flaj'me heat- Vrate of air into said blast tube to augment the defined 'rate of air discharged by said primary blower, the combined-air discharge rates of said primary and auxiliary blowers forming adefined, high rate' of air to support said high rate of 12. A system according to claim ll, including normally `means to cause a metered l'ow rate of fuel tobe emitted fuel in combustion at said` place of desti- 1 closed air valve means between the discharge means of .said auxiliary blower andV said air blast tube, said air Valve means preventing escape of discharge air from said primary blower when a requirement is madefor the low flame condition, said air Valve means opening when a requirement is made for the high llame condition.
13. A system according. to claim 11, having control means whereby said system makes each start-up after a complete shut-down under the low flame condition.
14. A system according to claim 11 having fuel flow cut-off means whereby fuel may not be emitted at said place of destination until said cut-off means have been actuated to allow the flow of fuel therethrough.
15. A high rate, low rate heating system having in combination: burner means, a fuel supply source, fuel con duit means extending from said source to a place-of destination whereat fuel may be emitted for combustion, fuel pressurizing means associated with said conduit means for effecting pressure on fuel therein, automatic metering means associated with said conduit means whereby a metered low rate or a metered high rate of fuel may be emitted at said place of destination, a flow direct ing valve associated with said conduit means, a normally opened and a normally closed passageway through said valve, automatically actuable means associated with said valve to close said normally opened passageway and simultaneously to open said normally closed passageway whereby said metered low rate or said metered vhigh rate of fuel may pass to a point of emission at said place of estination,` an air blast tube associated with` said burner means and leading to said place of destination, blower means having therewith means for the intake of ambient air and air discharge means connected to'said blast tube,y manually adjustable metering means associated with said blower means for providing a metered low rate or a metered high rate of air to said blast tube, automatic regulating means associated with said blower means whereby said metered low rate or said metered high rate of air is delivered to said blast tube and therethrough to said place of destination, a first automatic control means common to said fuel pressurizing means and said blower means, and a second automatic control means common to said automaticallyactuable means associated with said valve and to said automatic regulating means associated with said blower means; and, responsive to a requirement for the low rate, low liame heating condition, said first V' automatic control means being adapted to cause the actuation of said fuel `pressurizing means and said blower at a pointof emission at said place of destination and to cause-a metered low rate of air to be supplied to said blast tube and therethrough to saidy place of destination to support the combustion of said metered low rate of fuel; and, responsive to a requirement for the high rate, Vhigh ramek heating condition, said second automatic control means being adapted to cause the-actuation ofthe automatically actuable'rneans associated with'r'said valve and said automatic regulating means associated with said blower means to thereby stop the emission of said' metered low rate of fuel and to cause a metered high rate of fuel to be emitted at a point of emission at said place ofdestination and to cause a metered high rate of air to be supplied to said blast tube and therethrough to said place of destination to support the` combustion of said' high rate of fuel. ,f 16. A'system according'to claim l5, having control means whereby said system makes each start-up after a i complete shut-down under the low flame condition.v
17.;A system' according Ytovclaim l5 having fuel. flow cut-off means whereby fuelifrnay not be emittedV at l` said place ofdestina'tion unless said'cut-oif means have been actuated'tojallow the flow of fuel therethrough during periods requiring combustion of said fuel. y Y 18. Arv high rate, low rate heating system having'in com`V bination: burner means,l a fuel supply source, fuel conduit means extending from said source to a place of destination whereat fuel may beemitted for combustion, fuel pressurizing means associated with said conduit vmeans for effecting pressure on fuel therein, automatic metering means associated with said conduit means whereby a metered llow rate or a metered high rate of fuel may be emitted at said place of destination, an electrically operative flow directing valve associatedV with said conduit means, a normally opened and a normally closed passage- Way through said valve, electrically actuated means to close said normally opened passageway and simultaneously to open said normally closed passageway whereby either said metered low rate or said metered high rate of fuel may pass through said valve to a point of emission at said place of destination, blower means having therewith means for the intake of ambient air and air discharge means leading to said place of destination, manually adjustable metering means associated with said blower means for providing a metered low rate Vor a metered high rate of air through said air discharge means, regulating means associated with said blower means whereby either said metered low rate or said metered high rate of air is discharged through said air discharge means to said place of destination, a first automatic control means common to said fuel pressurizing means and said blower means, land a second automatic control means common to the electrically actuated means of said valve and the regulating means associated with said blower means; and, responsive to a requirement for the low rate, low name heating condition, said iirst automatic control means being adapted to cause the actuation of said fuel pressurizing means and 'said blower means whereby a metered low rate of fuelV in tlowthrough said ow directing valve is emitted at a point of emission at said place of destination and whereby a metered low rate of air is discharged through said discharge means associated with said blower means to said place of destination to support said metered low rate of fuel in combustion; and, responsive to a requirement for the high rate, high ame heating condition, said second automatic control means being adapted to cause the actuation of said electrically actuated means of said valve and the actuation of said regulating means associated with said blower means whereby a metered high rate of fuel in iiow through said flow directing valve is emitted at said place of destination and whereby a metered high lrate of air is discharged through said discharge means associated with said blower means to said place of destination to support said metered high rate of fuel in combustion.
19. A system according to claim 18, having control means whereby said system makes each start-up after a complete shut-down under the low flame condition.
20. A system according to claim 1S, having fuel flow cut-off means whereby fuel may not be emitted at said place of destination unless said cut-off means have been actuated to allow the ow of fuel therethrough for combustion.
Reerences Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,530,075 Ewing Mar. 17, 1925 1,620,111 Lewis Mar. 8, 1927 l,637,820 Hawkins Aug. 2, 1927 2,315,412 Galumbeck Mar. 30, 1943 2,429,739 Arnhyn Oct. 28, 1947I 2,838,242 Paterson June 10, 1958 2,988,279 Irwin June 13, i961
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|U.S. Classification||236/14, 431/285, 431/60, 431/265, 431/62, 431/90|