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Publication numberUS3165152 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 12, 1965
Filing dateAug 11, 1960
Priority dateAug 11, 1960
Publication numberUS 3165152 A, US 3165152A, US-A-3165152, US3165152 A, US3165152A
InventorsMack M Jones
Original AssigneeInt Harvester Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Counter flow heat exchanger
US 3165152 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 12, 1965 M. M. JONES COUNTER FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 11, 1960 Jan. 12, 1965 M. M. JONES 3,165,152

COUNTER FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER Filed Aug. 11, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 A TTOH/VE) United States Patent 3,165,152 CGUNTER FLGW HEAT EXCHANGER Mach M. .l'ones, Western Springs, Eli, assignur to international Harvester Coinpany, (Zhieago, ill a corporation of New Iiersey Filed Aug. 11, was, Ser. No. 48,963 Zhainrs. (i'l'i. ld' ltfl This invention relates to a counter flow heat exchanger. More in particular this invention relates to a stationary counter flow heat exchanger having the advantages of low cost construction, compactness and providing flow of the heat exchanging fluids parallel and in the opposite direction to each other thereby improving efliciency over exchangers of the type where the heat exchanging fluids flow in directions normal to each other.

Heat exchangers are employed in many applications for utilizing heat in fluids which otherwise would be wasted. For example heated compressed air entering the fuel combustor of a turbine engine materially improves the efliciency of the engine as compared with unheated compressed air. The hot exhaust gas of a turbine engine possesses considerable heat which by means of a heat exchanger recovers at least a portion of the heat for use in heating the compressed air prior to delivery to the fuel combustor. Known types of heat exchangers used with turbine engines are expensive md also the space requirements are disproportionate resulting from low effiency. Of course heat exchangers are used for many other purposes such as space heaters, intercoolers for turbo-chargers and cooling devices for internal combustion engines.

An important object of the present invention is to provide a stationary heat exchanger wherein the heat exchanging fluids flow parallel to each other but in opposite directions.

Another important object of the invention is to provide a stationary heat exchanger of compact construction and yet function at high efficiency.

Still another important object of the invention is to provide a stationary heat exchanger according to the preceding objects having a rugged but low cost construction.

These and other desirable and important objects encompassed by the invention will be more readily understood by the ensuing description of preferred embodiments, the appended claims and the annexed drawings wherein:

FiGURE l is a perspective View, partly broken away illustrating the general arrangement of the heat exchanger of this invention.

FIGURE 2 is a longitudinal view partly in section and partly broken away taken on line 22 of FIGURE 1 illustrating the passages in the heat exchanger for the heat exchanging fluids and indicating the fluid flow therethrough.

FIGURE 3 is a transverse sectional View partly broken away taken on line 33 of FIGURE 2 showing the detailed construction of the inlet manifold for the heat transferring fluid.

FIGURE 4 is a perspective transverse sectional view partly broken away taken on line 44- of FIGURE 2 illustrating the detailed construction of the outlet collector chamber for the heat receiving fluid.

FIGURE 5 is a transverse sectional view partly broken away taken on line 55 of FIGURE 2 illustrating the detailed construction of the principal heat exchanging section of the exchanger of this invention.

FIGURE 6 is a transverse sectional view partly broken away taken on line 66 of FIGURE 2 showing the detailed construction of the outlet collector chamber for the heat transferring fluid.

p FW FIGURE 7 is a perspective view partly broken away illustrating a modified form of the inlet manifolds and outlet collector chambers. FIGURE 8 is a transverse sectional view partly broken away taken on line 8-3 of FIGURE 7 showing the details of construction of the inlet manifold for the heat transferring fluid in relation to the outlet collector chamber for the heat receiving fluid.

FIGURE 9 is an enlarged perspective view of the modification of FIGURE 7 partly in section and partly broken away illustrating the fluid passages for heat receiving fluid passing through the outlet collector chamber for the heat transferring fluid prior to entering the principal section of the exchanger and the fluid passages for heat transferring fluid through the outlet collector chamber for the heat receiving fluid prior to entering the principal section of the exchanger, in other words the views of the connection of the principal section of the exchanger with the front and rear headers for showing the fluid conducting passages therethrough in modified form.

With continued reference to the drawings the numeral N indicates the general arrangement of a heat exchanger of this invention. The numerals 11 and 12 indicate front and rear headers respectively and the numeral 13 indicates the core or principal heat exchanging section. The front header 11 is comprised of a heat transferring fluid intake manifold indicated generally at 14 and a heat receiving fluid collector chamber indicated at 15.. Similarly the rear header i2 is comprised of a heat receiving fluid intake manifold 16 and heat transferring fluid collector chamber 1'7. The headers 11 and 12 are constructed symmetrically and since the exchanger lltl is reversible in respect to fluid flowing therethrough the term collector chamber is used interchangeably for convenience for elements 15 and 17.

The core 13 is comprised of a square or rectangular casing 18 having a matrix indicated at 19 therein. The matrix 19 is comprised of a series of fiat plates 20 spaced apart by alternate layers of corrugated elements 21 wherein the corrugations are disposed in a longitudinal direction as best shown in FIGURES l, 2 and 5. It will be noted here that the bottom plate designated at 20' is positioned in abutting relation with the bottom side of the casing 18 for a purpose to be described later herein. For the present suflice it to say that the plate 20' terurinates at 22 where the core 13 junctions with the forward end of the header 12 as best seen in FIGURE 2. Similarly the plate 26" abuts the top side of casing 18 and terminates at the rightward end of the core 13 as shown in FIGURE 2.

. The plates 20, 2t? and 2%" as well as the corrugated elements 21 should be constructed of good heat conducting material such as one of the various metals or alloys thereof, copper or steel for examples.

Referring to FIGURE 5 it will be seen that the uppermost extremity of the top corruguated element 21 is welded to the underside of plate 20" as at 23. This weld 23 extends throughout the longitudinal length of the core 13 to form not only an integral structure but also to form a fluid seal between the plate 2%" and the corrugated element 231. Similarly the bottom extremities of the corrugated elements 21 are welded to a plate 20 in position with respect to each other as shown in FIGURE 5. Thus a series of parallel passages 24 and 25 are formed. The passages 24, also marked with a dot indicate flow of heat receiving fluid from the rear to front (FIGURE 1) while the passages 25, also marked indicate flow of heat transferring fluid from front to rear. The welds 23 prevent leakage of fluid between passages 24 and 25 and at the same time forms a completely integrated matrix of rugged construction within the housing 18. The

means for conducting heat transferring: fluid into the passages 25 will now be described.

The front and rear headers 11 and 12 are constructed symmetrically except as hereinafter described. Therefore for simplicity only the front header M will be described in detail it being assumed that the rear header 12 is constructed in like manner except as otherwise stated.

The front header ill comprises a heat receiving fluid discharge collector chamber 15 and a heat transferring fluid manifold 14. The rearward end portion of the chamber 15 is integrally connected to the core 13 as may be evident from FIGURES l and 2. The forward end of the chamber 15 is integrally connected to the manifold 14. At this point from FEGURE 1 it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the front header 11 is the high temperature end portion of the heat exchanger lit while the rear header 12 is the low temperature end portion.

The front chamber 15 is comprised of a housing 26 of larger or expanded dimensions with respect to the casing 18 of core 13. The housing 26 includes a transverse wall 27 which connects with the casing 18. For convenience the housing 26 and casing 13 may be formed from a single piece of sheet metal as indicated in FIGURE 2 or alternately from multiple parts joined together as by welding to form a unitary structure. Referring to FEGURE 2 in particular it will be seen that beginning at the transverse plane formed by the wall 27 the corrugated elements 21 and associated plates 2t) and 2t) are bent in a vertical direction so as to flare upward and downwardly as shown. Thus, with respect to the longitudinal vertical plane of FIGURE 2 the corrugated elements 21 are no longer in parallel relation but in a transverse plane such as plane 4-4 of FIGURE 2 (FIGURE 4) the elements 21 remain in parallel relation. This arrangement forms a series of longitudinal openings 28 which begin at the transverse plane formed by the wall 27 and terminate at the rear wall 29 of the manifold 14. From FIGURES 2 and 4 it will be readily apparent that heat receiving fluid moving in a forward direction in passages 24 in the core 13 (FIGURE now passes into collector chamber 15 through openings 2% Where the heat receiving fluid is collected and discharged from the heat exchanger 1% through conduit 3% leading through the housing as as shown in FIGURE 1.

Referring to FIGURE 4 it will become apparent that the bottom extremities of the corrugated elements 21 are welded to the plates 20 and 20 as shown in fluid sealing relation. Thus the passages 25 conducting the heat transferring. fluid are not in fluid communication with the opening 23 and discharge conduit 3% of the collector chamber 15. The heat transferring fluid passages 25 lead into and communicate with the manifold 14 as shown in FIG- URES 1, 2 and 3.

At this point it will be noted that the flat plate 20" (FIGURE 2) terminates at the plane formed by the transverse walls 27 and therefore does not extend into the chamber 15 of the front header Ill. The reason for so terminating the plate 2%" is because there are no corrugated elements immediately above it and the corrugated elements immediately below it would be separated from plate 20" and thus plate 243' would serve no function in the chamber 15. Plates 2th and 20 extend into the chamber 15 in order to form the bottoms of the triangular passages 25 as best shown in FIGURES l and 4. For similar reasons relating to passages 24 the plate 20' terminates at 22 (FIGURE 2).

I The heat transferring fluid intake manifold 14 is a compartment formed by four ide walls 31, 32, 33 and 34 (FIGURES 1 R33) integrally connected to the rear wall 29 of the manifold 14. The rear wall 29 in turn is integrally connected to the forward end of the casing 26 as well as the forward ends of the corrugated elements 21, plates 29 and 20'. However, the wall 29 closes all passages 2d of the corrugated elements 21. Removably secured to the forward ends of the side walls 31 to 34, such as by bolts, a cover plate or plate 35. The cover plate 35 is removable so that if cleanin of the fluid passages becomes ne ry they are readily accessible. One of the side w such as is provided with a fluid conduit as lca. Q from the source of heat transferring fluid into the manifold M as best shown in FIGURE 1.

The rear header E2 i constructed in the same manner as that for the front header it. above described except the connection of the passages 2d and 25 of the core 13 are Thus the passages 25 lead to the openings 28' FAGURE 2) and the heat transferring fluid is collected in the chamber l7 and discharged through the conduit 3% while the heat r e g fluid enters conduit 36 into the manifold lo and once into fluid passages 2 in operation, receiving fluid, such as cold air, from a source enters the manifold 15. From the manifold 16 cold air enters 24 of the corrugated elements at the rearward ends thereof. The cold air is not in communication openings of the chamber 1'? because the forward wall of manifold 16 precludes entry of cold air from the manifold 36 to passages 25. The cold air moves forwardly in passages 24 through the core 13 until chamber i5 is reached at which point the air passes into openings 28 of the chamber 15 and thence discharged through the conduit as as indicated by arrows.

lileanvvhile heat transferring fluid such as hot exhaust gas from an internal com ustion engine enters the inanifold 14 through the conduit From the manifold M the hot gas enters passages and flows rearwardly through core 13. Since the wall 29 of the manifold prevents communication between manifold 14 and passages 24- the hot gas is precluded from entering the openings 25% and thus does not contaminate the air in chamber l5. Now as the hot gas in passages 25 moving rearwardly reach chamber 17 the gas passes from the passages 25 into the openings 23 and thence collected and discharged through conduit 39.

From. the above it will be seen that the flow of heat transferring fluid is in a rearward direction while the flow of heat receiving fluid is in a forward or opposite direction. Further it will be noted that during the entire length between the manifolds 31 i and In the two fluids in triangular passages 24 and 25' are separated from each other only by the thin walls of the corrugated elements 21 and thin plates Ell, 2517 and 2%. Thus the heat from the hot gas in passages 25 is effectively and efiiciently transferred to the air in passages 24.

in the modification of construction shown in FIGURES 7 to 9 a means is illustrated for eliminating the necessity of the housing for the collector chambers being of dimensions greater than the core 13. In FEGURE 9 it will be seen that the plates 2-6 are not bent as shown in PEG- URE 2 but are flat and parallel to each other. However to form the collector chambers a portion of the length, corresponding to the length of each collector chamber, of the corrugated elements 21 are flattened into a shape having a trapezoidal cross-section as best seen in FIG- URE 9. Thus the space created between the surfaces of the corrugated elements 21' parallel to the plates 29 provides transverse openings corresponding to openings 28 and 28- of FIGURE 2-. Thus for example heat receiving fluid from passages 24 entering the portion of the exchanger corresponding to the collector chamber 15 is immediately directed transversely as shown by the arrows in FIGURE 9, into a plenum 37 communicatively connected therewith and thence discharged through conduit 3%) from the plenum 37.

Having thus described preferred embodiments of the invention it can now be seen that the objects of the invention have been fully achieved and it must be understood that changes and modifications may be made which do not depart from the spirit of the invention nor from the scope thereof as defined in the appended claims.

I claim:

1. A stationary heat exchanger for transferring heat from a high temperature source of heat transferring fluid flow to a low temperature source of heat receiving fluid flow comprising a core having one end connected to a front header and the other end connected to a rear header, a first collector chamber having heat receiving fluid outlet means disposed in said front header adjacent one end of said core and a second collector chamber having heat transferring fluid outlet means disposed in said rear header adjacent the other end of said core, said core having a casing of rectangular cross-section and a matrix, said matrix comprising a plurality of superposed corrugated elements positioned in longitudinal direction and a longitudinally disposed plate positioned contiguous to and between each of said corrugated elements in sealed relation defining a plurality of first and second fluid passages in parallel superposed and adjacent transverse alternate relation, said first fluid passages being in sealed relation with respect to said second fluid passages, said first header defining a first mainfold having heat transferring fluid inlet means connected to the forward end of said first collector chamber, said first fluid passages of said matrix extending forwardly through said first collector chamber and communicatively connected to said first manifold, said first collector chamber having a plurality of openings in communication with said second fluid passages and said heat receiving fluid outlet means, said second header defining a second manifold having heat receiving fluid in let means connected to the rearward end of said second collector chamber, said second fluid passages of said matrix extending rearwardly through said second collector chamber and communicatively connected to said second manifold, said second collector chamber having a plurality of second openings in communication with said first fiuid passages, and said heat transferring fluid outlet 'means whereby heat transferring fluid enters said first manifold and flows in one direction through said first passages into said second collector chamber and heat transferring fluid outlet means While said heat receiving fluid enters said second manifold and flows in the opposite direction through said second passages into said first collector chamber and said heat receiving fluid outlet means thereby transferring heat from said heat transferring fluid to said heat receiving fluid during flow through said matrix.

2. A stationary heat exchanger for transferring heat from a high temperature source of heat transferring fluid flow to a low temperature source of heat receiving fluid flow comprising a core having one end connected to a front header and the other end connected to a rear header, a first collector chamber having heat receiving fluid outlet means disposed in said front header adjacent one end of said core and a second collector chamber having heat transferring fluid outlet means disposed in said rear header adjacent the other end of said core, said core having a casing with a matrix disposed therein, said matrix comprising a plurality of superposed corrugated elements positioned in longitudinal direction and a longitudinally disposed flat plate positioned contiguous to and between each of said corrugated elements in sealed relation defining a plurality of first and second fluid passages in parallel superposed and adjacent transverse alternate relation, said first fluid passages being in sealed relation with respect to said second fluid passages, said first header defining a first manifold having heat transferring fluid inlet means connected to the forward end of said first collector chamber, said first fluid passages of said matrix extending forwardly through said first collector chamber and communicatively connected to said first manifold, said first collector chamber having a plurality of first openings in communication with said second fluid passages and said heat receiving fluid outlet means, said second header defining a second manifold having heat receiving fluid inlet means connected to the rearward end of said second collector chamber, said second fluid passages of said ma trix extending rearwardly through said second collector chamber and communicatively connected to said second manifold, said second collector chamber having a plurality of openings in communication with said first fluid passages and said heat transferring fluid outlet means whereby heat transferring fluid enters said first manifold and flows in one direction through said first passages into said second collector chamber and heat transferring fluid outlet means while said heat receiving fluid enters said second manifold and flows in the opposite direction through said second passages into said first collector chamber and said heat receiving fluid outlet means thereby transferring heat from said heat transferring fluid to said heat receiving fluid during flow through said matrix.

3. A stationary heat exchanger for transferring heat from a high temperature source of heat transferring fluid flow to a low tempearture source of heat receiving fluid flow comprising a core having one end connected to a front header and the other end connected to a rear header, a first collector chamber having heat receiving fluid outlet means disposed in said first header adjacent one end of said core and a second collector chamber having heat transferring fluid outlet means disposed in said rear header adjacent the other end of said core, said core having a casing with a matrix disposed therein, said matrix comprising a plurality of superposed corrugated elements positioned in longitudinal direction and a longitudinally disposed flat plate positioned'contiguous to and between each of said corrugated elements in sealed relation defining a plurality of first and second fluid passages in parallel superposed and adjacent transverse alternate relation, said first fluid passages being in sealed relation with respect to said second fluid passages, said first header defining a first manifold having heat transferring fluid inlet means connected to the forward end of said first collector chamber, said first fluid passages of said matrix being communicatively connected to said first manifold, said first collector chamber having a plurality of first openings communicating said second fluid passages with said heat receiving fluid outlet means, said second header defining a second manifold having heat receiving fluid inlet means connected to the rearward end of said second collector chamber, said second fluid passages of said matrix being communicatively connected to said second manifold, said second collector chamber having a plurality of second openings communicating said first passages with said heat transferring fluid outlet means whereby heat transferring fluid enters said first manifold and flows in one direction through said first passages into said second collec tor chamber and heat transferring fluid outlet means While said heat receiving fluid enters said second mani fold and flows in the opposite direction through said second passages into said first collector chamber and said heat receiving fluid outlet means thereby transferring heat from said heat transferring fluid to said heat receiving fluid during flow through said matrix.

4. A stationary heat exchanger for transferring heat from a high temperature source of heat transferring fluid flow to a low temperature source of heat receiving fluid flow comprising a core having its forward end connected to a first collector chamber and the rearward end connected to a second collector chamber, said first collector chamber having heat receiving fluid outlet means and said second collector chamber having heat transferring fluid outlet means, said core having a casing with a matrix disposed therein, said matrix comprising a plurality of corrugated elements having said corrugations positioned in longitudinal direction in superposed contiguous relation, said corrugated elements being in sealed relation with respect to each other defining a plurality of first and second longitudinally extending passages, in superposed and adjacent transverse alternate relation, a first manifold having heat transferring fluid inlet means connected to the forward end of said first collector chamber, said first fluid passages being communicatively connected to said first manifold, said first collector chamber having a plurality of first openings communicating said second fluid passages with said heat receiving 1 uid outlet means, a second manifold having heat receiving fluid inlet means connected to the rearward end of said second collector chamher, said second fluid passages being connnunicatively connected to said second manifold, said second collector chamber having a plurality of second openings communicatively connecting said first passages with said heat transferring fluid outlet means whereby heat transferring fluid enters said first manifold and flows rearwardly through said first passages into said second collector chamber and said heat transferring fluid outlet means While said heat receiving fluid enters said second manifold and flows forwardly through said second passages into said first collector chamber and said heat receiving fluid outlet means thereby transferring heat from said heat transferring fluid to said heat receiving fluid during flow through said matrix.

5. A stationary heat exchanger for transferring heat from a high temperature source of heat transferring fluid flow to a low temperature source of heat receiving fluid flow comprising a core having its forward end connected to a first collector chamber and its rearward end connected to a second collector chamber, said first collector chamber having heat receiving fluid outlet means and said second collector chamber having heat transferring fluid outlet means, said core having a casing with a matrix disposed therein, said matrix comprising a plurality of first and second fluid passages alternately disposed in contigin ous longitudinal extending superposed and adjacent transverse relation With respect to each other, said first fluid passages being in sealed relation with respect to said secend fiuid passages, a first manifold having heat transferring fiuid inlet means connected to the forward end of said first collector chamber, said first fluid passages being conimunicatively connected to said first manifold, said first collector chamber having a pluraiity or first openings communicating said second fluid passages with said heat receiving fluid outiet means, a second manifold having heat receiving fluid iniet means connected to the rearward end of said second collector chamber, said second fluid passages being commonicatively connected to said second manifold, said second collector chamber having a pinrality of second openings coinrnunicatively connecting said first passage With said heat transferring fluid outlet means whereby heat transferring fluid enters said first manifold and flows rearwardiy through said first passages into said second collector chamber and said heat transterring fluid outlet means while said heat receiving fluid enters said second manii'oid and flows forwardly through said second passages into said first collector chamber and said heat receiving fluid outlet means thereby transferring Bat from said heat transferring fluid to said heat receiving fluid during flow through said matrix.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification165/166, 165/DIG.393
International ClassificationF28D9/00
Cooperative ClassificationF28D9/0068, F28D9/0006, Y10S165/393
European ClassificationF28D9/00B, F28D9/00K2