US 3166181 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 19, 1965 H. v. RUTKUS ETAL 3,166,181
TRANSFER DEVICE Filed July 19, 1962 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Jan. 19, 1 965 H. v. RUTKUS ETAL TRANSFER DEVICE 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed July 19, 1962 Jan. 19, 1965 H. v. RUTKUS ETAL 3,
TRANSFER DEVICE Filed July 19, 1962 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Jan. 19, 1965 H. v. RUTKUS ETAL 3,166,181
TRANSFER DEVICE Filed July 19, 1962 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Jan. 19, 1965 H. v. RUTKUS ETAL 3,166,181
TRANSFER DEVICE Filed July 19, 1962 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 United States Patent 3,166,181 TRANSFER DEVICE Harold V. Rutlrus, Fullerton, Calilh, and Thomas P. Van Iten, Menasira, and Mallard H. Prick, Neeuah, Wis, assignors to Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Neeuah, Wis, a corporation of Delaware Filed July 19, 1962, Ser. No. 211,662 7 Claims. ((Zl. 198-102) The invention relates to paperrnaking machines and, more particularly, to mechanisms for transferring articles, such as stacks of paper, from one conveyor to another.
The package of facial tissue has in recent years become a product of substantially universal acceptance with consequent great commercial importance. The package comprises relatively lightweight creped paper sheets, preferably folded in two plies and arranged in a stack. Each two-ply composite sheet is folded back on itself, such folding being from each edge toward the center to form the commonly known C-folded sheet, or each two-ply sheet is folded back on itself along a longitudinal center line with a fold of each upper tissue underlying a fold of the tissue just below in the stack to provide interfolding. The tissues as arranged in a stack are packaged in a paperboard dispensing carton, and, in the case of interfolded tissues, the dispensing action of each tissue from the top of the stack through a slot in the top of the carton brings the next lower tissue into dispensing position extending partially through the slot.
The tissue stacks may be folded by a variety of different apparatus, such as by inter-folding apparatus shown in Sabee Patent 2,631,846, or by folding apparatus shown in Teall Patent 2,642,279, for example. The Sabee apparatus operates to fold the webs transversely of the webs in such a Way to provide separate interfolded stacks of sheets, and the Teall apparatus functions to fold the Webs longitudinally of the webs to produce a continuous length of interfolded webs. It is contemplated that, with the present invention, stacks of tissues are carried by a conveyor, such as a belt, in a series of stacks following each other on the conveyor, and if an apparatus such as the Sabee apparatus is utilized, the stacks may be placed manually, if desired, onto the conveyor. In the case of apparatus of the type shown in the Teall patent, the continuous length of folded tissues may be sliced into relatively short lengths to produce the stacks, and these may be moved automatically and directly from the slicing mechanism used onto the conveyor in tandem arrangement.
Cartoning of the stacks of tissues is conventionally done by automatic cartoning machinery including a series of buckets, which are movable in a linear path and are 'open at the top and ends, for receiving and transporting the tissue stacks. The cartoning apparatus automatically removes the stacks from the buckets, places the stacks within cartons, and seals the cartons.
It is an object of the present invention to provide improved apparatus for transferirng the tissue stacks from a conveyor, such as a movable belt, into the buckets for such a cartoning apparatus. More particularly, it is-an object of the invention to drive the buckets and to drive the belt in timed relationship with 'each' other and to provide mechanism for transferring the tissue stacks off the belt and into the buckets, with the transferring mechanism being driven in timed relationship with both the belt and buckets. It is contemplated that preferably the belt and buckets shall move in paths at angles with respect to each other and that the transferring mechanism shall extend diagonally between the belt and buckets.
More particularly, it is an object of the invention to provide an improved transferring mechanism for this purpose, including a plurality of paddles effective on each of the tissue stacks to be transferred, for moving the stacks off of the belt and over a table and finally into the buckets. It is contemplated that the paddles shall be so driven as to have a component'of velocity substantially equal to that of the belt and a component of velocity substantially equal to the velocity of the buckets, so that insertion of the tissue stacks into the buckets may be made without-impediment. It is contemplated that automatic means shall be provided in connection with the transferring mechanism for moving the paddles out of effective position on the stacks as they pass over the moving buckets to prevent interference with the buckets.
The invention consists of the novel constructions, arrangements and devices to be hereinafter described and claimed for carrying out the above stated objects, and such other objects, as Will be apparent from the following description of a preferred form of the invention, illustrated with reference to the accompanying drawings,
FIG 1 is a plan view of article transferring apparatus incorporating the teachings of the invention and including a movable article supply belt, article receiving buckets traveling in a direction at right angles to the direction of travel of the belt, and a transfer unit for removing the articles from the belt and transferring them into the buckets;
P16. 2 is a perspective view of the buckets and supporting tracks for the buckets;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a stack of interfolded facial tissues which may constitute the article to be transferred into the buckets;
FIG. 4 is a plan view of the transfer unit for transferring the articles from the belt into the buckets;
FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of the transfer unit;
FIG. 6 is a sectional view taken on line 6-6 of FIG. 4;
FIG. 7 is a sectional view on an enlarged scale taken on line 77 of FIG. 5;
FIGS. 8 and 9 are sectional views taken on lines 8-8 and 9-9 ofFIG. 4;:
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary plan view on an enlarged scale of certain mechanism of the transfer unit taken on line 1tl10 of FIG. 5; v
FIGS. 11 and 12 are elevational views taken from lines l111 and 1212 of FIG. 10;-
FIG. 13 is a sectional view taken on line 1313 of FIG. 10;
FIG. 14 is a sectional view taken on line.1 i14 of FIG. 10; and FIG. 15 is a View of the illustrated parts moved to different positions. 7
Like charactersof reference designate like parts in the several views. 1
Referring now to the drawings and to FIG. 1 particularly, the apparatus may be seen to comprise a movable belt Ill for carrying a series of paper articles 11, a plu-" rality of buckets 12 for receiving the articles 11, a'transfor table 13 on which the paper articles 11 are slid from the beltlil to the buckets 12,-and a mechanical transfer unit 14 for so moving the paper articles 11.
Each of the paper articles 11 may constitute a stack of folded paper tissues 15 in the form of a'rectangular parallelepiped (see FIG. 3), and each of the stacks 15 may, for example, be about 10 inches long, 4 inches wide and from 2 to 4 inches high. The tissuestacks 11 may be folded from individual tissues by any'suitable mechanism (not shown), and the tissue stacks maybe i placed on the belt 1%) in tandem relationship either manually or automatically as above discussed in connec- Patented Jan. 19, Iss5v similar to FIG. 14, but with certain I The table 13 has its end edges 40 and I in close proximity to and on the same levels as the belt type, which in turn is a shaft 59. v
3 A pair of endless. chains160 and 61 extend over the the stacks. The transfer mechanism 14 is operative to place the tissue stacks 11 in the buckets 12, and the buckets are so arranged to carry the tissue stacks 11 to a cartoner apparatus 16 of any suitable type which is operative to I remove the stacks 11 from the buckets 12 and place the tissue stacks 11 in suitable cartons for distribution to users. The belt '10 is preferably one of flexible material having a relatively smooth face and is mounted on a plurality of spaced pulleys, including the illustrated pulley 17.
The pulley 17 is driven from a motor 13 so as to move.
pair of connecting links 28 of a pair of chains 29 and 30 that carry the buckets 12. The chains 29 and30 are of a conventional typeand comprise the usual pins 31 7 connected together by means of links, including the links 28. A pair of tracks 32 and 33 for each chain 20 and 30' are provided on which the pins 231 may slide for supporting the chains and thereby the buckets 12 carried by the chains. The tracks 32 and 33 for each chain are suitably fixed with respect to each other and may constitute the upper and lower fianges of an, I beam'34.
The chains 29 and 30 are suitably supported by sprockets and guide wheels, including the sprockets 35 and 35.
The sprockets 35 and 36 are mounted on a shaft 37 which is suitably driven from the motor 18, such "as through the gear box and a shaft 33 connected to the gear box. The sprockets 35 and 36 are so driven from the gear box 20 that. they move the buckets 12 in the direction shown by the arrow 39. e
41 respectively 10 and the base portions of the buckets 1 2, and the edges 40 and 410i the table may be suitably chamfered so as to allow a ready movement of the paper articles 11.
from the belt 10 onto the table 13 and from thence into another pair of flanges 65 and 66 are mounted on each side of the frame 47 for guiding the wheels 62 as the chains 60 and 61 travel with rotation of the sprockets 48, 4"), 50 and 51.
.A plurality of cross bars' 67 are provided between the chains 00 and 61, being connected to the chains by means of angles 63 through which pins 69 of the chains extend. A lug 70 having a pair of-spaced bifurcations 71 and 72 is fixed to each of the bars 67. 'Itwill be observed that each lug 70protrudes downwardly from the lower passes of the chains 60 and 61 (see FIG. 12). A shaft 73 extends through the bifurcations 71 and 72, and brackets 74 and 75 are rotatably disposed on the shaft 73. The bracket 74 includes a pair of journals 76 and 7'7 for rotatably mounting the bracket with respect to the shaft 73. The journals 76 and 77 are respectively provided in arm portions 78 and 79 of the bracket which are connected by means of a connecting portion extending the buckets 12. The ends 42 of the buckets 12 are preferably tapered backwardly at less than right angles with respect to the base portions 25 'of the buckets as illustratedin FIG. 2 for facilitating entry of the paper articles 11 intothe buckets from the table 13. The side edges 43 and 44 of the table 13 extend at some'angle, such as 30 degrees, with respect to. the center line of the} belt 10, and since the chains 29 and 36 are illustrated to extend at right-angles to the belt10, the table edges 43 and 44 exend at the complement of this angle, such as degrees, with respect to the chains. Thepaper stacks 11 travel a center line 46, as will be hereinafter made apparent, which is parallel with the table edges 43 and 44, the paper stacks having their edges respectivelyremaining-parallel with the center line 45' of thebelt 1'3 and thechains 29 and 30 as the stacks pass over the table 13 so '12.
and sprockets 48, 49, Strand :51 rotatably supported by that the paper stacks '11 maymove into the buckets.
Y Thetransfer unit 14 comprises a supporting meansof pins 93 of the. chains.
parailel with the shaft 73. The bracket 74 also includes an actuating arm portion 81 for purposes to be described. A pusher plate or paddle 82 effective on the stacks of tissue 11, as will be hereinafter described, is fixed to the connecting portion 80. As will be observed, the journals 76 and'77 are on the outer sides of the bifurcations 71 and 72, respectively.
p The bracket includes a pair of journals S3 and 84 respectively provided in arm portions 85 and 86 which are connected by meansof a connecting portion 87. A
' side plate or paddle 80 which is adapted to be effective 30.
on the tissue stacks 11 along with the plate 82 is fixed to the arm portion 85. bracket 75 extends around the bifurcation 72 and the arm portion 79, so that the journals. 83 and 84 are on opposite sides of these parts.
Each of the brackets 74 isactuated by means of a cam follower S0, and each of the brackets 75 is actuated by means of a cam follower 00. Pairs of cam followers 89 and 90 are carried by bars 91 extending between the chains 60 and 61. The bars 91 are connected to the chains by means of lugs 92 held fixed to the chains by A bracket 94 having bifurcations 95 and 96 is fixed to eachof the bars 91, and. a shaft 97 extends through the bifurcations 95 and 96.
Each cam follower 89 has journals 98 and 99, formed on connected arm portions 100 and 101, these journals and arm portions being located on opposite sides of a bifurcation 95. A roller 102 is mounted on the. arm
portion 100, and a link 103 is connected between the. end of the arm portion 100 and the arm portion 81 of vided between each end of the link 103 andthe connected the frame. The sprockets 43 and 39 are fixed to a shaft 52 that is rotatably disposed in bearings 53 and 5'4 fixed on the frame 47. The sprockets 50 and 51 are fixed on sprockets48 and 51 and the. sprockets149 and '50 respectively. A'p'lurality of guide wheels 62 are'rotatably mount- 7 ed on the chains, and a' pair. of flanges 63 and 64 and part. Each connection 104 may be of any suitable type allowing motion in all directions of .the link 103 with respect to the connected part and may, for example, com
prise a ball 105 and a spherical socket 106 receiving the ball. h h
Each cam follower 90 comprises a pair of journals 107 and108 for the shaft 97 in spaced connected parts 109 and 110 which are on opposite sides of a bifurcation 96' .andcomprises also oppositely extending arms 111 and 112.. A roller 113 is carried by the arm 111, and a link 114 is provided between the end oithe arm 112 and the bracket arm'portion 85 lying just underneath the end of the arm 112. Universal .joint connections 115, similar to the connections 104 are provided between the link 114 and'the arm 112 and arm portion 85; A cam track or guide 116 (see FIG. .9) is provided for receiving the rollers 113'carn'ed by the cam fol- 1 lowers 90 for moving. the brackets 75 and the side pad dles 88 carried by the brackets 75. The cam track1-16 is formed by means of an outer elongated endless roller.
It will be observed that each h 118 are each made up of a plurality of suitable pieces which are fixed together and are fixed with respect to the machine frame 47. The cam track 116 may be divided into paddleextending portions, in which the side paddles 88 extend outwardly, downwardly or upwardly, when traversing across the machine, and paddle retracting portions in which the paddles 88 are rotated to be retracted from such positions. The cam track 116 more specifically has parts A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and J.
The cain track parts which are closest to the horizontal central plane 119 of the transfer mechanism, if the parts are those that extend longitudinally. of the mechanism, or are the closest to the shafts 52 and 55, if the cam track parts are those that extend around these shafts, are parts of the cam track Which cause the side paddles 88 to be in their extended positions; and these parts of the cam track 116 which are remote from the center plane 119 or from the shafts 52 and 55 conversely are those that cause the side paddles to be retracted. The cam guide parts A and E are located relatively adjacent to the center plane 119 and thus are paddle extending parts, and the part G is relatively remote from the center plane 119 and thus is a paddle retracting part. The parts C and H are remote from the shafts 52 and 55 and thus are paddle retracting parts. The parts B and F are transistion parts that connect paddle extending parts with paddle retracting parts of the cam track, and the parts D and I are transistion parts that connect paddle retracting cam guide parts with paddle extending cam track parts.
' A earn track 120 is provided for the rollers 102 disposed on the cam followers 89 which are effective for moving the brackets 74 and back paddles 82. The cam track 126 is formed by inner and outer roller guides 121 and 122, and the rollers 102 travel between these guides 121 and 122. The guides 121 and 122 are each made up of a plurality of parts which are fixed with respect to the frame 47, and the'track 120 is formed by a plurality of parts K, L, M, N, P and Q. The track 120 controls the back paddles 82 through the levers 89, and the parts of the track 120 that are relatively adjacent to the center plane 119 or to the shafts 52 or 55 cause the back paddles 81 to be in their fully extended positions, and the parts of the track 120 that are remote from either of the shafts 52 or 55 or from the center plane 119 cause the back paddles 81 to be retracted. The parts K, P and Q are relatively remote parts and thus cause the back paddles 81 to be retracted, and the part M is relatively adjacent to the center plane 119 and causes the paddles 81 to be extended. The parts'L and N are transition parts of the cam track connecting relatively adjacent and relatively remote cam track parts.
In operation, the motor 18 drives the sprocket 35 and 36 through the shafts 21 and 38 and the gear box 20. The chains 29 and 30 are thereby driven, causing the buckets 12 to move along with the chains, with the pins 31 of the chains moving in sliding contact with the tracks 32 and 33 for providing upper and lower moving passes of the chains and of the buckets 12. The upper pass of the buckets 12 move toward the cartoner apparatus 16, as indicated by the arrow 39 and the apparatus 16 functions, as has been previously mentioned, to move paper stacks 11 out of the buckets 12 and to carton the paper stacks.
The motor 18 also drives the belt 11 this drive being through the shafts 21 and 22 and the gear box 20, so as to move the belt and any paper stacks 11 on the belt in the direction indicated by the arrow 19. The paper stacks 11 are provided on the belt 10 byany suitable mechanism, not shown, so that the stacks 11 are disposed in alignment and in end toend relationship with a slight the stacks.
The motor 18 also drives the transfer'unit 14 through the shaft 59 and the gearing 58;-and the transfer unit so operates, as will be hereinafter described in greater detail, as to position its back paddles 82 between adja-- cent paper stacks 11 on the belt 10 andto position its side paddles 88 adjacent the sides of the stacks 11 remote from the transfer table 13 and to move the stacks 11 acrossthe transfer table 13 and into the buckets 12 as the buckets 12 andbelt 10 continue their movements, so that a continuous transfer of stacks 11 is made from the belt 10 into the buckets.
The buckets 12, the belt 111 and the transfer unit 14, being driven from the single motor 18, are synchronized; so that the belt, the buckets and the paddles 82 and 88 all have predetermined speeds with respect to each other. More specifically, and by way of example, the paper stacks 11 may travel along with the belt 10 at a rate of 180 per minute with spacing of 10.82,inches between the clips, center to center. The pusher paddles 82 also, therefore, travel at the rate of 180 per minute; and the center to center spacing between the stacks 11 on the belt 10 is the cosine of the angle (which may be 30 degrees) of the center line 46 with respect to the center line 45 multiplied by the spacing of the paddles '82, so that the paddles 82 are spaced 12 /2 inches apart. As will be recalled, the center line 45 is the center line of the belt 10, and the center line 46 is the center line of the stacks 11 as they travel across the table 13 which is parallel with the directions of travel of the chains 69 and 61 and of the direction of travel of the paddles 82 and 88. Since a bucket 12 receives each of the paper stacks 11 transferred from the belt 10 across the table 13, the buckets 12 in the example just given move also at the rate of 180 per minute; and
the spacing between the buckets 12, center to center is 6% inches, which is the sine of the anglebetween the center lines 46 and 45 multiplied by the spacing of the pusher paddles 82.
v The sprockets 50 and 51 of the transfer mechanism 14 are fixed to the shaft 55 and are thus driven from the motor 18 through the shaft 59 and the gearing 58 in timedv relationship with respect to the pulley 17 for the belt 16 and with respect to the sprockets 35 and 36 for driving the buckets 12. The chains '60 and 61-are driven by the sprockets 50 and 51 and travel about the sprockets 48 and 49, with the rollers 62. traveling between the flanges 63 and 64 and the flanges 65 and 66 so as to support the upper and lower reaches of the chains 60 and 61.
The paddles 82 and 88, as previously described, are swingably mounted with respect to the bifurcated lugs 70 which in turn are supported by the bars 67 connected between the chains 60 and 61, and the paddles 82 and 88 thus move along with the chains 64} and 61. The cam tracks 116 and 120 are operative to cause the paddles to be in operative position as they travel over the beltltl'so as to move the paper stacks 11 off of the belt onto and across the table 13 toward the buckets 12; The cam tracks remain efiective to cause the paddles 82 and 88 to push the paper stacks 11 into the buckets 12 and are also efiectvie to retract the paddles 82 and 88 so that-they pass over the bucket sides 24 without interference. The cam track 120 is effective to control the back paddles 82 as has been previously mentioned, and as one ly toward the center plane119 so as to give a corresponding movement 'to the connected cam follower 89 in the clockwise direction as shown in FIG; 14. The link 1% associated with the lever 89 is thus moved upwardly'as seen in FIG. 14, andthrough' its universal connection 104 with a bracket 74, it causes counterclockwise rotation of the bracket 74 downwardly with'the lower edge of the paddle 82 carried by the bracket adjacent to and paral* lel with the surface of the belt 10; e
The roller 1 13 carried by the lever 90, which is effective through a link 114 and universal connections 115 on the bracket disposed on the same shaft 73 as the bracket same component of speed as said second flexible member in the direction of movement of said second flexible member.
3. In apparatus for conveying articles having adjoining plane sides, an article feeding conveyor movable in a predetermined path, an article receiving conveyor movable in a path which intersects and is at angles to the path of means for driving said transferring mechanism in timed relationship with said two conveyors so that thetransferring mechanism has substantially the same component of speed as said feeding conveyor in the direction of movement of said feeding conveyor and has substantially the same component of speed as said receiving conveyor in the direction of movement of said receiving conveyor, said transferring mechanism including means for engaging the two adjoining sides of each of said articles so as to thereby push the articles simultaneously sidewardly and endwardly from said feeding conveyor to said receiving conveyor along said diagonal path without rotating the articles as they are so moved, a
4. In conveying apparatus, an article feeding conveyor movable in a predetermined path and comprising an endless flexible member supported by a plurality of rolls, an article receiving conveyor movable in a path which intersects and is at angles to the path of said feeding conveyor, said receiving conveyor comprising a plurality of article receiving receptacles fixed on a second flexible endless member which is supported by a plu- 1,
rality of rolls, each of said receptacles having upstanding side portions for holding the articles from movement longitudinally of said second flexible member, transferring mechanism for moving the articles from said feeding conveyor diagonally to said receiving conveyor and into said receptacles and including a third endless flexible member carrying paddles which move in a path intersecting and at the same level as the path of said upstanding side portions of said receptacles, and means for moving said paddles upwardly with respect to said receptacles so that said paddles clear said upstanding side portions of said receptacles as the paddles pass over the receptacles.
5. In apparatus for conveying articles which have the form of rectangular'parallelepipeds, an endless article feeding belt supported by a plurality of rolls for moving a series of the articles in a predetermined path, an article receiving conveyor comprising an endless flexible member supported by a plurality of rolls and carrying a series of article receiving receptacles fastened to the flexible member for moving the receptacles in a predetermined path which intersects andis at angles to the path of said belt, each of said receptacles comprising a pair of upstanding side portions for preventing movement of said articles longitudinally of said flexible member, transferring mechanism for moving the articles from said belt into said receptacles and including a second endless flexible member supported by a plurality of rolls and having two series of outwardly extending article engaging abutments fastened to it, one of said series of abutments engaging side faces of said articles and the other series of abutments engaging end faces of the articles so as to move the articles diagonally with respect to said belt and said first named flexible member without rotation of the articles to move them from said belt into said receptacles, and means for driving said transferring mechanism in timed relationship with said belt and said first named flexible member so that said second flexible member has substantially the same component of speed as said belt in the direction of movement of the belt and has substantially the same component of speed as :said first named flexible member in the direction of movement of said first named flexible member. 7
6. In conveying apparatus for stacks of paper sheets, an endless belt supported by a plurality of rolls for supporting a series of the stacks of paper sheets and for moving the stacks in a predetermined path, a receiving conveyor for the stacks of sheets comprising an endless flexible member carrying aseries of receptacles for receiving said stacks and extending in a path which intersects and is at angles to the path of said belt, each of said receptacles having upstanding side portions for preventing movement of the stacks out of the receptacles, transfering mechanism including a table extending between said belt and said receptacles and including a second flexible endless member supported by a plurality of rolls and carrying pairs of paddles for respectively engaging two adjacent sides of each of said'stacks so as to move the stacks diagonally with respect to said belt and said receiving conveyor by moving each of said stacks simultaneously lengthwise and crosswise so that the stacks travel across said table and into said receptacles, said paddles traveling at levels which are substantially the same as that of the side portions of said receptacles, and cam and follower mechanism effective on said paddles for moving each of said paddles upwardly with respect to said receptacles as the paddles approach said receptacles so that the paddles clear the receptacle side portions as they pass over the receptacles.
7. In conveying apparatus for stacks of paper-sheets which are relatively long compared to their width, an
endless belt supported by a plurality of rolls for supporting a series of the stacks and moving the stacks longitudinally of the stacks in a predetermined path, a paper stack receiving conveyor which moves in a path that intersects and is at angles to the path of said belt, said receiving conveyer comprising an endless flexible member supported by a plurality of rolls and carrying a series of receptacles for receiving the stacks each of which has upstanding side portions extending transversely of the flexible member for preventing movement of the stacks out of the receptacles, transferring mechanism including a second endless flexible member supported by a plurality of rolls and carrying pairs of paddles for respectively engaging the adjoining sides and ends of said stacksand movable in paths which intersect with the path of said upstanding side portions of said receptacles, a table extending between said belt and said receiving conveyor and'beneath said second flexible member and said paddles across which the paddles are effective to move the stacks of paper sheets off of said belt and into said receptacles, cam and follower mechanism effective on said paddles for moving each of said paddles upwardly out of its path of movement intersecting with the path of movement of said receptacle side portions so that the paddles clear the receptacles as they pass thereover, and means for driving said second endless flexible meme her in timed relationship with said belt and said first named flexible member so that said paddles and thereby the paper stacks being propelled by the paddles move with substantially the same component ofspeed as said belt in the direction of movement of the belt and with Crosland Mar. 20, 1945 Smith Apr. 29, 1952