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Publication numberUS3167305 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 26, 1965
Filing dateJul 24, 1961
Priority dateJul 26, 1960
Publication numberUS 3167305 A, US 3167305A, US-A-3167305, US3167305 A, US3167305A
InventorsBackx Raymond Carolus, Vlam Josephus Henricus De
Original AssigneeLever Brothers Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Homogenizing method and apparatus
US 3167305 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 26, 1965 R. C. BACKX ETAL HOMOGENIZING METHOD AND APPARATUS Filed July 24, 1961 INVENTORS RAYMOND CAROLUS BACKX UOSEPHUS HENRICUS deVLAM rm, Jaw 9,1011% ATTORNEYS United States- Patent 3,167,305 HOMOGENIZING METHOD AND APPARATUS Raymond Carolus Backx, Merksem, and Josephus Henricus de Vlam, s-Gravenwezel, Belgium, assignors to Lever Brothers Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Maine Filed July 24, 1961, Ser. No. 126,041 Claims priority, application Great Britain, July 26, 1960,

13 Claims. (Cl. 259-4) 'This invention relates to homogenizing devices and methods, and, more particularly, to devices and methods for homogenizing margarine.

During the production'of margarine, white specks sometimes appear. These are white or lighter colored spots or stripes which are sometimes visible on a plane of cutting when margarine is cut. The white specks are particles of margarine which have not been colored at all, or have been colored to a lesser degree than the surrounding margarine. They particularly occur in compositions comprising coconut oil or palm kernel oil. They appear to have the same composition as the surrounding margarine and are presumed to differ from. the surrounding margarine only in their state of crystallization. These white specks can be eliminated by suitably homogenizing the margarine, forexample, by passing it through wire screens, but if during this homogenization the margarine is worked too much, then the margarine becomes undesirably soft.

TheTpresent invention is concerned with providing an improved homogenizing device and method for eliminat- 7 ing, or substantially eliminating, the white specks in margarine.

7, According to the present invention there is provided a homogenizing device comprising an outer conduit, a central member, a perforated screen disposed inside the outer conduit and surrounding the central member, there being a passagebetween the outer member and the perforated screenand also a passage between the perforated screen and the central member, these passages being blocked alternately by spaced apart abutments, the arrangement being such that material to be homogenized, when passing through the device, follows a smoothly changing,

"zig-zagf" path which passes from one side of the perfor'ated 'screen to j perforated screen and the central member.

Advantageously, the central member commences with a cone-like shape adjacent an inlet port of the device and terminates with a cone-like shaped adjacent an outlet port ofthe device.

The cross-section of the path through the device is preferably an annulus, the mean diameter of this annulus increasing and decreasing alternately as the path passes consecutive abutments. This increasing and decreasing diameter is preferably arranged so that the material flows uniformly along'the path. The area'of the cross sec- 3,1673% Patented Jan. 26, 1965 ICC tion of the path can be substantially constant throughout the length of the path.

The perforations of the perforated screen in a first zone delimited by the inlet port and a first abutment that the path passes can be larger than the perforations of the perforated screen in a second zone delimited by the first abutment and the next abutment. The perforations of the remainder of the perforated screen are preferably larger than the perforations of the first zone. The total area of the perforations in the first zone and the total area of the perforations in each zone delimited by two consecutive abutments can each be larger than the area of the'inlet port. The total area of the perforations in the first zone is preferably larger than thetotal area of those in the second zone but smaller than the total area of those in each subsequent zone delimited by two consecutive abutments.

Advantageously, some of the perforations may form slots to knead the margarine passing therethrough.

The invention also prov-ides a method of homogenizing margarineby passing the margarine through a homogenizing device as specified above.

An embodiment of the invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawing containing a single figure which shows a longitudinal section of a homogenizing device according to the invention.

A cylindrical tube 1, constituting an outer conduit, has flanges 2 and 3 secured to its ends, as, for example, by welding, and these flanges are bolted to flanges 4 and 5 of an inlet conduit G and an outlet conduit 7, respectively. A perforated cylindrical tube or screen 8 is disposed coaxlally within the tube 1 with. one end accommodated in a central bore of the flange 3 and with its other end in a recessed central bore of a spacing ring 9 which is accommodated in a central'bore of the flange 2. The unit consisting of the cylinder 8 and the spacing ring 9 is confined in the axial direction by the flanges 4 and 5.

Arranged in the annular passage between the tube 1 and vthescreen 8 are two annular bathe plates or partitions 10 and 11 dividing the passage into three substantially equal compartments. The side faces 10a and 11a of these baflle plates are curved as shown. These baflle plates and the ring'9 constitute abutments between the outer conduit 1 and the screen 8. Inside the screen 8 is a central member which comprisessolid parts 18, 16, 15, and .17 connected together by discs 12, 13, and '14. The part 17 is conical, and the parts 15 and 16 are. solids of revolution of which the generating curve closely approximates a parabola. 'Thepart 18 is the same as a half of either .of the parts 15 or 16, and also may be considered somewhat conical .in shape. The discs 12, 13, and 14 contact the screen 8 to form abutments or partitions blocking the passage between the screen 8 and the central member. The abutments 14, 11, 13, 10, 12, and 9 are equally spaced apart along the axis of the device and, as shown, block alternately the passage between the screen 8 and the central member and the passage between the outer conduit land the screen 8. i

. The perforations in the zone of the screen 8 between the flange 3 and the abutment 14 are larger than the-perforations in the zone delimited by the abutments 14 and 11 but smaller than the perforations in each of the re maihing zones between the abutments 11,13, 10, 12, and

9. By way of example'o" 'y-g-tli'c perforationsinthe zone T flow of fluid substancethrot gh the conduitmember so between the flange 3 and the abutment 14 canconsist or; that it is st lbstantially annular .atrany cross-section there'- round holes 19 each having a'diameter of 1 .5 millimeters; p of; the mean diameter of the substantially annular crossflthe perforations in the. zone between abutments 14and 11 V sectionalternately,increasing and decreasing at successive ing zones can be constituted by axial 8103:..21 having acan consist of round holes each having a diameter-of :5 positions within the 'conduit, and meansfor deflecting the 1 millimeter; and-the perforationsvinj each of therem'ain "fluid substance to flowinacontinually changing direction 7 V V back and forth through "the "screen "member without abrupt directional, changes,

length of millimeters and a'vvidth'joffs' j i l 'Sf- The holes 19 and' 20 serve to sieve themar'garine whil e '7 4; A 'devicezforJh mOgeniZinga fluid substance vcomthe slots 21serve to knead the margarine; I The'exact '1 prising an outericonduitja perforated inner conduit havsizesof the perforationsgare not; of paramount im p'onringfanflinlet ,for receivinga tlowingifluid substance-and tance; but are adapted to the requir ements'ofthe co} an outlet for discharging the fluid substance, the mner operating' apparatus (notshownywith'which the h'omog conduit being positionedcoaxi'ally withinthe outer con- 'enizin'g device operatesand to theproduct to be treated. duit, a central member positioned coaiiiall y withinthe I The number; of perforations in each of the zones is ,15; inner conduit'andblcicking theiinner conduitiat predetersuch that the total area of the'perforations' inzea ch zone minedlocatibns, and'aplilrali'ty of bafiie plates disposed is larger than theatres. of an inlet port 22 forniedby the between theinner andouter conduits each jatavlocationentrance tot the screen 8; Also, the totalarea of the perbetwe'enla different pair of adjacent predetermined locaforations inthe zon efbetween the flange "3';and"theabutf"; tions; the centralfmember and the baffle plates shaped to ment 14 is larger-than the total area; o f vtheiperforations in; 29 cause the fiowingtluidsubstance :td pass-back and forth the zonebetween the abutments 14 and ;:11,but smaller, thr u h ep r cgnd it t91l w ngerathW e than the total area of, the perforations in each of the zones direction smoothly changes between the other abutments; .By rway ofexampleonly, 5'. A

there maybe twenty-three rows each O If'IiW flJ ty holes-1% member has'conically sliaped 'eigid's afid'at least one'fcentwenty-seven rows each of twenty-four holes "zfl and ten '25} flp qi j l fid i'- b i QIW fiQ iQ Whifl 1 slots21 'in ieach of the other z'ones, i j jgencrating cur -1staparabola "In-use, margarine to be homogenized isied into; they 7 (lei/.1

in, the perhomogenizing device through the-,inletconduit sand .the' 1 'foratdjiiiner" conduit is, formed vvitliopeiiing's'substantial inletport' 22'.;,;' The"abutments 14,"11;113, 0, 1'2, and,9;., 11y, ula' hape to: si vi g e fl s bstance-a cause the. margarine-totfollowa zig-zag'path which changes openings substantially slotted in shape for knead ng' the smoothlyin direction and passes from onelside. of-the midauesg n screen 8 to the other between consecutiveabutments', as A"dk fm .li g fii gf ii 31119931155:

indicated bythe arrows; TThe; crosst-sectionofthe. path is a i pt S I ggi fl b i p'rfbfat d i RO inv'sid'elflle ihi y an ann lus, a ast jp z s,t e *fi tl 7 diameter of this, annulus'*"alternately'increases] amide a and atthe abutments 11, 10, and9.f A t the same time,.

and 'perforatedftuhes, ens; brine, ends. of

* h' ifv a t a t a a the fother endas' anoutlet for the device; at least one partitiondisposed betweenthe first; and perforated L tubes creases, the'mean diameter; being a maximum-acme abu ments 14, 13; and 12 anda minimumat-theiinlet port V the cross-sectional' area of the pathtremains substantially dividing the closed space .ir'itotfir' st and second sfectiohs constant. 7 The margarine then leaves-the homogenizing c? a i sent hgi leta951-Q iFletr Q u IY; device through an outlet port 231-andpasses intothe out- -wl fil ls .dISPQ Qd; I id 6 PQ 1 fbllovizing claims twhichare' set fortlt asfollowsflto define] jtbe r for. receiving afluidxsubstancq a screen m'embeflC-O ,ing the fluid-substance to gfloijv'in a 'continually changing i ber'for receiving substance, a screenineniber co .tained within the conduitmember; meansfor shaping. the

. that it issubstantial1vof,thesafn tarea at ro'ss-se t I tion thereof, and-means fqr'deflectingthe fluid substance 1 'to flo w inia' continually changing. direction backtand ;forth' g "through the :fs creen rrieinbergwithoiirtabrupt ber for'receivingsa fluid ubstance, {a screen me ber c tained'jwitl imtheicondm let conduit-7., The smoothly changing zig-zag'EilQw ofith li t m lly.. t i q ii '1 'mar'garine 1'through'the,difierent apertures jsievesiandf nd e o s spe w; 'fi lm m r d s specks therein and Vthearrangement and shape of thevcene,

of the margarine throug-ltthe'hontogenizing device;

modifications shouldbe;deemed'to be encompassed by lthe I t t ,7 e A v and thezfirst partition 'and between esecondpar the,linvention'.'=' I 'We claim: -wg t 1. A- homogenizingdevice" cqmpr-isi'n'gia condu p aim infwiiieh" j or ed be form d 5 312 fi tained within theconduitmember; andtm eans fori'tlefi itaistgmmagw circular openout abrupt directional changes. 3 f

directionbackandzforth throughithescree'n membe with 1 a n L f Qan'dfthe tptakareadeiined; by the openings ofvthe zfirst dia eter are' gr eater (tha thetotal; area defined by the openings offthe secen meter. V: v Y a m? i iwh qt .7 g -third-length thereof with A homogenizing device 'compr directional 3i A ihomio'genizing ice. comprising a oondultj mem mtmbergm a r .s p h device recited in claim 4 inffwllichithe central" l yhe with leavin Er c b e th ced tnbe serving as aninlet'tdr the device and? 'pps 'dwg ally wi h n: he l filjfoiateitubet between the" iSPQsed coaxial-H,

' aid the outletare each greater than he cross-sectional a .i a it i r w fl "sub ta l sh ila open s o firs m r a on c'ond-gfdiameter smaller thanflthe first diameter, t

, rectional changes.

13. A device for homogenizing a fluid substance, comprising a first conduit for receiving the fluid substance, a perforated conduit positioned within the first conduit, a central member positioned within the perforated conduit and blocking the perforated conduit at predetermined locations, and a plurality of baflies disposed between the first and perforated conduits each at a location between a diiferent pair of adjacent predetermined locations, the

5 central member and the bafiies being formed with surfaces having substantially no abrupt discontinuities thus to cause the flowing fluid substance to pass back and forth through the perforated conduit following a path Whose direction smoothly changes.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,652,234 Feldman Sept. 15, 1953 2,740,616 Walden Apr. 3, 1956 2,747,844 Slayter May 29, 1956 2,777,467 Powell et a1 Jan. 15, 1957

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2652234 *Feb 27, 1951Sep 15, 1953Feldmann BernardHomogenizer
US2740616 *Nov 3, 1952Apr 3, 1956Willie W WaldenMixer
US2747844 *Dec 22, 1954May 29, 1956Slayter Rudolf SDevice for mixing fluids
US2777467 *Jun 9, 1954Jan 15, 1957Tapp GleasonFluid mixing device
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US3404869 *Jul 18, 1966Oct 8, 1968Dow Chemical CoInterfacial surface generator
US3743250 *May 12, 1972Jul 3, 1973E FitzhughFluid blending device to impart spiral axial flow with no moving parts
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US4135829 *Aug 24, 1977Jan 23, 1979International Telephone And Telegraph CorporationHomogenizer
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US5597236 *Mar 24, 1995Jan 28, 1997Chemineer, Inc.High/low viscosity static mixer and method
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U.S. Classification366/338, 138/42, 426/591, 426/519, 366/340, 426/650
International ClassificationB01F5/06, B01F5/00, A23D7/02
Cooperative ClassificationB01F5/0682, B01F5/0659, B01F2005/0008, A23D7/02, B01F5/0689
European ClassificationB01F5/06B3H, B01F5/06F4B2, B01F5/06F, A23D7/02